Psychological Disorders and Their Treatment

Psychological Disorders and Their Treatment

Treatment for Psychological Disorders What Are the Therapies for Psychological Disorders? The two broad categories of therapy: Psychotherapy: psychological methods that include a personal relationship between a trained therapist and a client Biomedical therapies: the treatment of psychological disorders by altering brain

functioning with physical or chemical interventions What Are the Therapies for Psychological Disorders? The two broad categories of therapy: Psychotherapy: psychological methods including a personal relationship between a trained therapist and a client Biomedical therapies: altering brain functioning

with physical or chemical interventions What Are the Therapies for Psychological Disorders? Three mental health professions: Psychiatry Social work

Psychology Two specialty areas in psychology: Clinical psychology Counseling psychology Psychodynamic Therapies A group of psychotherapies based on the work of

Sigmund Freud that say that psychological disorders stem from unconscious forces Important psychodynamic terms: Free association: therapy technique in which clients say whatever comes to mind Resistance: anything client does to interfere with free chain of thought or therapeutic progress Transference: client transfers feelings for significant

others early in life to therapist (countertransference) Behavior Therapies Psychotherapies that apply learning principles to the elimination of unwanted behaviors. Counterconditioning is based on classical conditioning.

Counterconditioning: involves conditioning new responses to stimuli that trigger unwanted behaviors Counterconditioning: Three Techniques Systematic desensitization: used to treat phobias in which client is gradually exposed to feared object, while remaining relaxed

Response prevention: used to treat obsessive-compulsive disorder; client is exposed to situation that triggers the compulsive behavior but is not permitted to engage in the ritual Aversive conditioning: a classically conditioned aversive response is conditioned to occur in response to a stimulus Aversive Conditioning for Alcoholism Aversive Conditioning for Alcoholism

Aversive Conditioning for Alcoholism Humanistic Therapies Focus on Feelings and Personal Growth Goal: To help people get in touch with their feelings, their true selves their purpose in life Humanistic Therapies Focus on Feelings and Personal Growth

Humanistic therapies: help people get in touch with their feelings, with their true selves, and with their purpose in life Client-centered therapy: Carl Rogers Therapists should be facilitators of personal growth providing supportive environmentclients discover their true selves. Gestalt therapy: Fritz Perls Therapists help people become aware of their true

feelings or some other important aspect of the self. Cognitive Therapies: Focus on Altering Dysfunctional Thought Patterns Cognitive therapies seek to identify and then modify faulty cognitive processes. Rational-emotive behavior therapy (REBT): Albert Ellis

Mental distress is caused by the irrational thinking people have about those events. Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT): Aaron Beck Depressed people have negative views of themselves, the world, and their future, and they misinterpret everyday events to support these negative views. Cognitive Therapy Cognitive Therapy teaches people new, more

adaptive ways of thinking and acting based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions Cognitive Therapy The Cognitive Revolution

Cognitive Therapy Cognitive-Behavior Therapy a popular integrated therapy that combines cognitive therapy (changing self-defeating thinking) with behavior therapy (changing behavior) Cognitive Therapy A cognitive

Lost job perspective on psychological disorders Internal beliefs: Im worthless. Its hopeless. Depression Lost job

Internal beliefs: My boss is a jerk. I deserve something better. No depression Child, Group & Family Therapy Child therapies Common approach usedplay therapy Therapist provides children with toys and drawing

materials Assumption is that whatever is troubling them will be expressed in play Child, Group & Family Therapy Group therapies Simultaneous treatment of several clients under the guidance of a therapist Variation of group therapy is the self-help group:

Several people regularly meeting and discussing their problems with one another without the guidance of a therapist Child, Group & Family Therapy Family and couples therapies Family therapiesdesigned to constructively modify the dysfunctional relationships among family members

Couples therapydesigned to help couples improve the quality of their relationship Who Does Therapy? Where do people turn for help? Who Does Therapy?

Therapists and Their Training Type Clinical Description Ph.D. In psy6chology or Psy.D. Clinical or A two-year Master of Social Work plus postgraduate supervision psychiatric About half have earned the National Association of Social Workers Social worker designation of clinical social worker.

Counselors LPC, Marriage & Family (MFT) Pastoral Abuse Psychiatrist Physicians (M.D.) who specialize in the treatment of psychological disorders. Not all psychiatrists have had extensive training in psychotherapy Can prescribe medications.

Evaluating Therapy Client Perceptions Consumer Reports Study Clinicians Perceptions Outcome Research Spontaneous Remission Regression toward the mean Does Therapy Work? Meta-analysis procedure for statistically combining the

results of many different research studies Number of persons Average untreated person Poor outcome 80% of untreated people have poorer outcomes than average treated person

Average psychotherapy client Good outcome Alternative Therapies Disconnect between Research and Therapy Alternative Therapies Therapeutic touch Eye movement desensitization

Light exposure therapy Commonalities among Therapies A new perspective Trusting, caring relationship Culture and values (therapist-client match) Biomedical Therapies Psychopharmacology study of the effects of drugs on mind and behavior

Lithium chemical that provides an effective drug therapy for the mood swings of bipolar (manicdepressive) disorders Biomedical Therapies The emptying of U.S. mental hospitals State and county mental hospital 700 residents, in thousands 600

Introduction of antipsychotic drugs Rapid decline in the mental hospital population 500 400 300 200 100

0 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 Year Biomedical Therapies Today in the United States, less than one- third the number of people are full-time residents in psychiatric hospitals. Reason for this sharp decreasethe

widespread use of drug therapies in treating psychological disorders This form of therapy is often less expensive than psychological therapies. Use of Drugs in Treating Psychological Disorders Biomedical Therapies

Message is sent across synaptic gap. Vesicles containing neurotransmitters Message is received; excess neurotransmitter molecules are reabsorbed by sending neuron.

Sending neuron Prozac blocks normal reuptake of the neurotransmitter serotonin; excess serotonin in dynapse enhances its mood-lifting effect. Action potential

Synaptic gap Neurotransmitter molecule Receptors Receiving neuron Reuptake Serotonin

Prozac Antipsychotic Drugs Reduce Dopamine Activity Antipsychotic drugs: a group of medications that are effective in treating the delusions, hallucinations, and loose associations of schizophrenia by blocking dopamine receptors & thereby reducing dopamine activity Do not actually cure schizophrenia. They merely help control its severe symptoms.

Classes of Psychoactive Drugs Antipsychotics Thorazine Clozapine Olanzapine, etc. Block dopamine receptor sites Treat Schizophrenia & other psychoses May cause sluggishness & muscle tremors Classes of Psychoactive Drugs

Antianxiety Valium, Librium, Xanax, etc. Tend to be addictive Classes of Psychoactive Drugs Antidepressants Increase availability of epinephrine or serotonin Prozac, Zoloft, Paxil, etc. worlds most widely prescribed drugs Require about a month for full effectiveness

Antidepressant Drugs: Increase Serotonin and Norepinephrine MAO inhibitors (MAOI) inhibit the enzyme involved in breaking down norepinephrine and serotonin are called the monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI). Tricyclics are antidepressant drugs that have milder side effects than MAOI inhibitors Antidepressants that affect only serotonin are

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Biomedical Therapies Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient Psychosurgery surgery that removes or destroys brain

tissue in an effort to change behavior Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) A physiological treatment for severe depression in which a brief electric shock is administered to the brain of an anesthetized patient Although ECT is effective in treating severe depression, no one knows for sure why it works.

Several temporary negative side effects, including confusion, loss of memory, and impaired motor coordination Electroconvulsive Therapy Psychosurgery: Destroys Portions of the Brain Most radical & controversial treatment A seldom-used surgical procedure in which brain

tissue thought to cause the disorder is destroyed. Today, MRI-guided precision psychosurgery is performed only in extreme cases and it focuses on much smaller brain areas than those involved in lobotomies. Lobotomy now-rare psychosurgical procedure once used to calm uncontrollably emotional or violent

patients cut the nerves that connect the frontal lobes to the emotioncontrolling centers of the brain

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