Proving Your Answers: How to construct an argument

Proving Your Answers: How to construct an argument

Prove Your Answers: How to construct an argument English 112 November 29, 2012 Logos & Arguments: The building block of a research composition 4 basic components to argumentation Wadsworth 186) Claim: A precise statement about your topic, usually an answer to your research question, in other words, the thesis statement. Reasons: Statements [or explanations] that demonstrate why your claim is valid. Each claim requires several reasons. Evidence: information that demonstrate that each reason you

provide is valid. Evidence supports your reasons, which support your claim. Usually this is information from your research (whether secondary or primary). Often multiple pieces of evidence is needed to verify each reason. Warrant: The assumptions that the audience must accept in order to believe your reasons and evidence or an explanation that points out exactly how the audience should understand the evidence and its relationship to the reason. Argumentation: A Visual Representation Claim: Muncie needs to put more police officers on the streets to enforce drunk-driving laws.

Reason 1: Drunk driving is widespread in the city. Evidence: My survey of Muncie citizens show that 4 out of 5 drinkers have driven drunk in the past. Warrant: Evidence: 98% of those drunk drivers said they were not caught

Warrant: Claim: Muncie needs to put more police officers on the streets to enforce drunk-driving laws. Reason 2: The consequences are appalling. Evidence: Recent stories of injury and death related to drunk driving here in the city of Muncie Warrant: Evidence:

Accident statistics for the state of Indiana suggest that these accidents occur 50% more often in Muncie than in other similarly sized cities. Warrant: Claim: Muncie needs to put more police officers on the streets to enforce drunk-driving laws. Reason 3: A visible police force and rigorous enforcement the best measures to reduce drunk driving. Evidence: Economist Stephen Levitt, in his book Freakonomics, points out various studies that show a positive

connection between the public seeing police officers on the streets and a reduction of crime on those streets. Warrant: Evidence: The same source also shows that crime is reduced significantly when laws are rigorously enforced not only because it discourages more crime but keeps criminals off the streets. Warrant: Argumentation: A Visual Representation Other Persuasive Appeals Ethos: appeals based on, the credibility and authority of an individual (Wadsworth 183).

Evidence from expert testimony or testimony on based on a social, cultural, or official position someone holds. Personal ethos: You, as the author of a researched argument, also need to develop your own ethos as a credible and authoritative researcher and writer (183). Attribute tags: introduce the source [] as well as its qualifications, before quoting or paraphrasing [or summarizing] it in an argument (184).

Other Persuasive Appeals Pathos: appeals that evoke or engage the emotions or interests of the audience in a way that is favorable to getting them to agree with your claim. Personal testimony based on experiences Evocative language: emotion expressed in your use of language; word and stylistic choices that convey the tone or mood of your composition

Reference to Audiences Personal Interests: indicating what the audience may stand to gain or lose, or what they have already gained or lost. Evidence that is particularly surprising, shocking, or upsetting can even evoke or engage emotion.

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