Principles of conversation Agreement and Politeness Agreement Principle When we are happy for someone to take the lead in a conversation, we do not wish to impose our ego or our point of view, tacit agreement is the norm normally signalled by murmurs of assent , short grunts or, at the level of kinesics, by nods of approval
(feedback). The Agreement Principle does not necessarily mean that the listener agrees with what the first Speaker says, it merely signals that the respondent is supporting the first speaker. Politeness Principle Robin Lakoff (1973) Language and Womans Place pointed out three maxims that are conventionally followed. Together they make up the politeness
principle: 1 Dont impose, 2 Give options 3 Make your receiver feel good. These maxims can explain why many utterances carry no information but have the function of facilitating social interaction Beyond the maxims
1. 2. 3. 4. Close the door Theres a draft Would you close the door Would you be so kind as to close the door?
According to the Maxims 1. would be sufficient, but politeness phenomena are also at work in communication. Face Linguistic politeness involves the concept of face. Face is your public self-image. it is the emotional and social sense of self that every person has and expects everyone else to recognize.
(George Yule, The Study of Language, 1985, 1996) Positive and negative face Every participant in the social process has the need to be appreciated by others (positive face). This includes the need of social inclusion, i.e . belonging to a group the need not to be interfered with (negative face)
People in general cooperate in maintaining face in interaction: i.e. they strife for stability Face Threatening Acts (FTAs) Speech that represents a threat to another persons face is called a face-threatening act; Refusing a request or reproaching someone can threaten the others face. Acts threatening positive face:
S does not care about Hs feelings or wants Expression of disapproval, criticism, disagreement Acts threatening negative face: S interferes with Hs freedom of action Orders, requests, suggestions, remindings Face-Saving Acts These are meant to reduce potential threats to the other persons face.
Used to show that no  face threat is intended or desired, and that S in general recognizes Hs face wants and himself wants them to be achieved. Such redressive action takes one of two forms, depending on which aspect of face (negative or positive) is being stressed (Brown and Levinson 1978: 70). Saving negative face Many face saving acts in everyday conversation
preserve the other persons negative face, because the speaker signals the wish not to impose on the other person; e.g. Im sorry to bother you, if I could just trouble you for a second, If I could just steal a minute of your time... Saving Positive Face A face-saving act that emphasises a persons positive face will show solidarity and draw
attention to a shared goal or view: e.g., I couldnt agree with you more. Lets do this. you and I have the same problem. Is B being positively or negatively polite? (B thinks that the dress is ugly) A: So, what do you think of my new dress? B: Well, its risqu, thats for sure.
Face and social factors Brown / Levinson (1978) model established a relationship between the intensity (weight) of the threat to face and the deployment of linguistically realized politeness strategies. The weight is the sum of 3 social parameters: the rate of imposition (borrowing a pen vs borrowing a car) the social distance (brother vs. neighbour) the power the addressee has over the speaker (friend vs. boss) Excuse me, Sir, would it be all right if I close the window? Mind me closing the window?
Face and social factors Using a direct speech act to make someone do something implies that you are acting as though you have more social power than the other person. Indirect speech acts reduce the amount of imposition/threat Explain the misunderstanding in the following
dialogue using the notions of face and indirect speech acts A: Are you going to do anything with those old chairs? B: No, you can have them A: Oh, no, thats not what I meant Positive and negative face saving acts combined Promote drunken Blogging: PUHLEES buy the
GTL a beer [Request for donation] Positive politeness: claim common attitudes (lightheartedness + willingness to accept the joke) Negative politeness: a beer to downsize the request
The Role of Hospital Transparency The Problem Four issues with transparency Data limitations -- relates to data sources and appropriate use of statistics Some tasks are harder to accomplish than others, some patients are sicker than others -- risk adjustment...
* What is the title of this map? 2. What 2 Historical Circumstances led the humans to first migrate into the Americas? TTQA Migrated from the cold climate to the warm climate Followed the food source of animals across the...
Behavioral vs. Cognitive Views of Learning These traditions in learning theory have existed for decades. They give different answers to the fundamental question, "What is learned" when learning takes place?
Lean Six Sigma Education Sue Kozlowski MSA, MT(ASCP)SBB DLM CSSBB(ASQ) Presentation sponsored by: The Team and Workplace Excellence Forum Lean Six Sigma "Begin with the end in mind." --Stephen Covey What are the outcome measures for your Lean / Six...
BC Science Probe 9. Section 4.3. Pages 117-121. Pregnancy. So females produce eggs and males produce sperm… but how does the rest happen? Fertilization. During sexual intercourse, millions of sperm are released into the vagina. Most will die on the...
DKPCOFGS copyright cmassengale * * Hierarchy-Taxonomic Groups Domain Kingdom Phylum (Division - used for plants) Class Order Family Genus Species BROADEST TAXON Most Specific copyright cmassengale * Dumb King Phillip Came Over For Gooseberry Soup! copyright cmassengale * copyright cmassengale...
Atrial fibrillation/flutter . Bradycardiacaused by advanced arteriovenous block or sinus node dysfunction . Bradycardia-tachycardia syndrome (sick sinus syndrome) ... If reflex syncope; okay to order echo to ensure no structural abnormalities if EKG is abnormal.
The two schools of realism and nominalism debating on the existence of the universals. Abelard argued for a "moderate realism." Peter Abelard Abelard, Peter, in French, Pierre Abailard or Abélard (1079-1144), French theologian whose writings, particularly Theologia Christiana, constitute ...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!