Chapter 20 Reptiles 20-1 Introduction This chapter will

Chapter 20 Reptiles 20-1 Introduction  This chapter will

Chapter 20 Reptiles 20-1 Introduction This chapter will describe the characteristics of reptiles Four orders of reptiles will be compared You will learn proper methods for handing and feeding reptiles as well as their housing and equipment needs 20-2 Characteristics

OVERVIEW Cold-blooded vertebrates Possess lungs Bony skeleton Horny plates Have a heart Reptiles date back carboniferous period 20-3

Characteristics PHYSICAL FEATURES Three body types Turtles and tortoises form scutes Snakes cannot close their eyelids Tongues of reptiles vary considerably Either oviparous or ovoviviparous 20-4 Characteristics HIBERNATION Temperate zones Systems barely function Hibernation for breeding

Stimulates ovulation and production of sperm Between 39 and 50F Varies with species 20-5 Turtles, Tortoises, and Terrapins FAMILIES

Chelidae Pelomedusidae Kinosternidae, mud turtle Chelydridae, snapping turtle Platysternidae, big-headed turtle Emydidae, largest family Cont. 20-6 Turtles, Tortoises, and Terrapins FAMILIES Terrapins, Genus Malaclemys Trionychidae, soft shelled

Testudinidae Terrestrial Dermochelyidae Leatherback sea turtle Cont. 20-7 Turtles, Tortoises, and Terrapins FAMILIES Cheloniidae, hard-shell sea turtle Dermatemyidae

Central American river turtle Carettochelyidae Papua New Guinea plateless river turtle 20-8 Snakes, Pythons, and Boas FAMILIES

Leptotyphlopidae, thread snake Typhlopidae, blind snake Anomalepidae, dawn blind snake Acrochordidae, wart snake Aniliidae, coral pipe snake Cont. 20-9 Snakes, Pythons, and Boas FAMILIES

Uropeltidae, shieldtail snake Xenopeltidae, sunbeam snake Boidae, python Colubridae, water snake Elapidae and Viperiae, venomous 20-10 Iguanas and Lizards FAMILIES

Gekkonidae, gecko Pygopodidae, snake lizard Xantusiidae, night lizard Dibamidae, blind lizard Iguanidae, more than 650 species Cont. 20-11 Iguanas and Lizards FAMILIES

Agamidae, water lizard Cordylidae, 50 species Teiidae, whiptails Lacertidae, true lizards Scincidae, skinks Cont. 20-12 Iguanas and Lizards FAMILIES

Anguidae, eight genus groups Xenosauridae, crocodile lizard Varanidae, monitor lizard Chamaeleonidae, true chameleon Helodermatidae, beaded lizard Lanthanotidae, Borean earless lizard 20-13 Crocodiles, Alligators, and Gharials

OVERVIEW Alligatoridae Alligators and caimans Crocodylidae Crocodiles Gavialidae False and true gharial

20-14 Housing and Equipment GENERAL GUIDELINES Habitats Terrestrial Semiaquatic Aquatic Arboreal Terrarium, a vivarium, or an aquarium

20-15 Housing and Equipment ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT SAFETY GUIDELINES UL approved Heat lamp placement Water heaters Switch box

Appropriate fuses or circuit breakers Ground Fault Interrupters (GFIs) 20-16 Feeding TURTLES Feed every day Aquatic turtle food Commercial pellets Raw/live food Land turtle food

Herbivores Omnivores 20-17 Feeding SNAKES Small snakes Small fish Insects Medium snakes

Baby mice and rats Big snakes Full-grown mice 20-18 Feeding LIZARDS

Crickets Mealworms Earthworms Larger lizards Ground meat Dog or cat food 20-19 Handling OVERVIEW

Turtles can be easily handled Snakes may bite in self-defense Transport a snake in a cloth bag Temperament of lizards vary Wear gloves Dont grab tail 20-20

Diseases and Ailments OVERVIEW Bacterial diseases Shedding External parasites Internal parasites Vitamin D deficiencies 20-21

Reproduction TURTLES Male climbs onto the carapace Are oviparous When young hatch On their own Inherit instincts for survival Difficult to tell the sex of young turtles 20-22 Reproduction

SNAKES Oviparous, ovoviviparous, or viviparous Little difference between males and females Popping juvenile snakes Probing adult snakes Oviduct 20-23 Reproduction

LIZARDS AND IGUANAS Most species are oviparous Sharp egg tooth on the end of their snout Definite differences in males and females No mothering instincts Left to fend for themselves 20-24 Reproduction

CROCODILIANS Usually mate in the water Lay hard-shelled eggs Deposited in nests Females guard nest Dig top of nest open May gather young in their mouths 20-25

Summary Reptiles are cold-blooded vertebrates that possess lungs and breathe atmospheric air To be successful at raising reptiles in captivity, it is important to duplicate the animals original habitat as closely as possible Reptiles are ectotherms; they are unable to generate their own body heat and take on the temperature of their environment Cont. 20-26 Summary If the animal appears healthy, if it is eating, and if it does not appear to have any parasites, chances are good the animal will survive for a

long time in captivity 20-27

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