Courtesy Laura Garchar Courtesy Ball State University Courtesy

Courtesy Laura Garchar Courtesy Ball State University Courtesy

Courtesy Laura Garchar Courtesy Ball State University Courtesy NREL Courtesy Elisabet Metcalfe Courtesy TAS Energy Courtesy Schlumberger Courtesy ENEL Green Power North America Courtesy Bill Goloski Geothermal Direct Use Technology & Marketplace | Canonsburg, PA | August 17, 2015 Introduction and Background Arlene Anderson, Technology Manager Geothermal Technologies Office Direct Use Status in Industry and Government Geothermal Industry GEA 2015 Update to include DU for the 1st time

GEA Karl Gawell quoting Klamath Falls, OR Chief Engineer that District Heating with Geothermal has >3X the VALUE when used for heat v. electricity 434 Facilities in U.S. or about 555 MW Thermal GRC (Steve Ponder Exec Director, Maria Richards Incoming President are in attendance today) Paul Brophy GRC President Presented at March DU Workshop in CO. Jan/Feb 2015 GRC Bulletin, Paul wrote about improving geothermal position in the renewable marketplace Partnerships DOE National Labs (NETL, NREL, ORNL) DOE Office of Basic Energy Sciences Up to $1.15 Million for Small Businesses OPEN TODAY City of Pittsburgh 21st Century Infrastructure U.S. DOE Geothermal Technologies Office Considering Deep Direct Use Initiative GTO is seeking to enable the widespread utilization of lower temperature geothermal resources that are shallower than most conventional hydrothermal resources, but deeper than geothermal heat pumps (GHPs) and other traditional direct-use systems. These reservoirs are being referred to as Deep Direct Use (DDU) resources, and it is believed that applications

of this nature could bring valuable returns on geothermal investment in the near-term. Deep Direct Use applications lend themselves to large scale, commercially viable systems that optimize the value stream of lower temperature resources through a cascade of uses, from electricity generation to direct heating and cooling, industrial and commercial applications, and agricultural uses. Information & Data Background Direct-use is the oldest, most versatile and most prevalent form of geothermal energy. Techno-economic analysis conducted over decades provides support for geothermal direct use and district heating from geothermal resources, however technical, cost and institutional barriers to implementation remain. A 1980 study on geothermal resources in the Eastern U.S. (John Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory) references a paper by J.E. Tillman published in the journal Science which notes that: "a geothermal resource that consists of hot water at moderate temperatures (below 125C) underlies many areas in the central and eastern United States. Programs funded by the Department of Energy have revealed that this resource is definable and economically competitive with conventional fuels for use in direct heat applications. The resource, therefore, has the potential for reducing our dependence on the imported oil used for space heating. However, front-end costs and risks to explore, drill, test, and evaluate the magnitude of the resource have inhibited development. The question is, therefore, how much federal stimulation will be needed to convince private capital to exploit this widespread low-quality energy source. Geothermal Direct Use Technology & Marketplace Where * What * Why Brian Anderson Where DOE Project: Low Temperature Geothermal Play Fairway Analysis for the Appalachian Basin National Geothermal Data System Jefferson Tester - What DDU systems would utilize a similar temperature range of fluids, but on a much larger scale. Typical geothermal direct-use operations utilize a natural resource -- a flow of geothermal fluid at elevated temperatures Capable of providing heat and cooling (via absorption chillers) to: buildings, commercial and residential applications, industrial processes, greenhouses and aquaculture ponds. Jay Egg - Why 80% of the 33.5 EJ provided heat below 150 Degrees Celsius 2008 Thermal Energy Demand for 0-260C: 33.5 EJ 21.00 % 24.00 55.00 % % Residential Industrial Commercial

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