Chapter 4 The Revolutionary Era Section Notes Video
Chapter 4 The Revolutionary Era Section Notes Video The Road to Revolution Declaring Independence The Revolutionary War Begins An American Victory Maps History Close-up The Battle of Yorktown
Quick Facts Tensions between Britain and America, 17651775 The Second Continental Congress, 1775 Key Documents That Influenced the Declaration of Independence Strengths and Weaknesses of the Continental and British Armies Visual Summary: The Revolutionary Era The Revolutionary Era Routes of the Alarm Riders Battles of the American Revolution, 17751778
Battles of the American Revolution, 17781781 Images Boycotting British Goods Battle of Lexington Attack on Bunkers Hill, with th e Burning of Charleston The Patriotick Barber The Road to Revolution Main Idea A series of increasingly restrictive laws angered many American colonists, leading to rebellion against Britain.
Reading Focus Why did Great Britain pass new laws in America? How did the colonists respond to the new laws? How did their response lead to even stricter measures? Why did the First Continental Congress meet? What was the significance of the battles at Lexington and Concord? Britain Passes New Laws Grenville and the Sugar Act French and Indian War left Britain with large debt. British army of 10,000 was left in the colonies. England said the army was to protect the colonists, but the colonists thought the soldiers were there to intimidate them.
Prime Minister Grenville wanted colonists to pay for British troops through the Sugar Act, which taxed sugar and molasses imported from the French and Spanish West Indies. Northern merchants felt this would hurt rum trade. Other colonists resented taxation without representation in Parliament. Britain Passes New Laws The Stamp Act brings protests Parliament passed the Stamp Act as another way to bring in money from the colonies. Required a government tax stamp on certain documents: contracts and licenses, newspapers, almanacs, printed sermons, and playing cards
Colonists protested openly. Stamp Act Congress organized by the Massachusetts Assembly to send a petition to the king and Parliament Sons of Liberty, made up of unskilled workers, artisans, small farmers, merchants, and lawyers, organized boycott of British goods and put pressure on merchants who did not join the boycott. Stamp Act repealed after British merchants saw sales drop because of the boycotts Britain Passes New Laws Townshend Acts Taxed lead, paint, paper, glass, and tea that were imported from Britain
Brought back writs of assistance, which were written orders that allowed customs officers the right to search colonial homes for smuggled goods The Colonists Respond The Boston Massacre Boston merchants joined with merchants in Philadelphia and New York, along with some southern merchants and planters, in nonimportation agreements Most of the Townshend Acts were repealed in March 1770, except for tea tax. In Boston, where tensions were already high, colonists began throwing snowballs at a British sentry guarding the customs house. After British solders arrived to help, they fired into the
crowd, killing five. Samuel Adams introduced the idea of Committees of Correspondence to spread the news of British injustices from colony to colony. Became basis of a political network to unify the colonies The Colonists Respond Colonial boycotts left a British tea company with millions of pounds of unsold tea. The Tea Act (1773) enabled the company to sell tea
directly to colonists. Many colonists did not buy the tea. In December 1773 about 70 colonists boarded British ships loaded with the tea and dumped it into Boston Harbor. Parliament passed the Coercive Acts to punish the rebellious colonists. They were known by
the colonists as the Intolerable Acts. Closed the port of Boston Gave the royal governor more control over Massachusetts Imposed more rules for quartering soldiers The Quebec Act expanded the province of Quebec southward to the Ohio river and west
to the Mississippi. The Roman Catholic Church would be legal. French Catholics were guaranteed their rights. American colonists thought the act limited their chances to live on the western frontier. The First Continental Congress September 1774
Brought colonists together as Americans All delegates agreed that Parliament was exerting too much control. It issued a Declaration of Rights protesting Great Britains actions. Agreed not to import or use British goods Agreed to stop exports to Britain Formed a force of minutemen, colonial soldiers who would be ready to resist a British attack with short notice The Battles of Lexington and Concord Minutemen in Massachusetts were drilling on their village commons and stockpiling gunpowder and weapons.
British General Gage knew colonial militias were preparing for a conflict. In April 1775 King George III ordered Gage to arrest colonial leaders, especially Samuel Adams and John Hancock, and to capture the colonists gunpowder. Colonists gunpowder was stockpiled in Concord, a town west of Boston. On the night of April 17, 1775, 700 British troops left Boston for Concord. The Battles of Lexington and Concord Secret system of alarm riders was in place to warn of any unusual activity of British troops. Paul Revere and William Dawes set off for Lexington to warn Adams and Hancock.
After warning the leaders, they headed to Concord. Samuel Prescott, another alarm rider, met them on the road. Then the British surrounded them and tried to arrest all of them. Prescott escaped to warn the minutemen at Concord. Dawes also escaped. Revere was captured. When they heard the militia guns, the soldiers let Revere go, but without his horse. The Battles of Lexington and Concord About 700 armed British soldiers reached Lexington to face 70 minutemen. British captain ordered
them to leave, then the militia was charged. Minutemen fled, eight Americans were killed. The British went on to Concord where hundreds of minutemen awaited. After gunfire was exchanged, the British retreated toward Boston. Along the way, the militia fired at the British from under cover. At the end of the day,
British casualties far outnumbered colonial casualties. Declaring Independence Main Idea The French and Indian War established British dominance in North America but put a strain on the relationship with the colonists. Reading Focus How did France develop an empire in North America? Why did Spain and England clash in North America? What were major events in the French and Indian War? What were the effects of the French and Indian War on all those involved?
The Second Continental Congress Takes Action Formed the Continental Army Appointed George Washington commander in chief Issued a Continental (national) currency Wrote A Declaration of the Causes and Necessity of Taking Up Arms Proposed reconciliation with King George III in the Olive Branch Petition King George III declared colonies to be in rebellion Parliament passed law banning colonial trade outside the British Empire. More Violence in Boston
The siege of Boston After the battles at Lexington and Concord, British troops withdrew back into Boston. Several thousand British troops occupied the town. The Americans had a larger army of about 15,000 militia from all over New England. More Violence in Boston First major battle of the Revolutionary War, the Battle of Bunker Hill on June 17, 1775 British General Gage was planning to occupy the hills overlooking Boston when his reinforcements arrived. Colonial force quickly built a fort on Breeds Hill. Some 2,500 British troops stormed the hill twice. The colonists were short of ammunition; they waited
until the enemy was a few yards away, then fired with deadly aim. On the third British attempt, the colonists ran out of gunpowder. They retreated to nearby Bunker Hill. The British won, but the defense at the Battle of Bunker Hill encouraged the colonists resistance. More Violence in Boston George Washington Commanded the Continental Army in Boston after the Battle of Bunker Hill. By March 1776, he was ready to recapture Boston.
Forced the British to evacuate the city British sailed for Halifax, Nova Scotia, along with about 1,100 Loyalists; colonists sided with the king and Britain. Other battles Winter 17751776, Benedict Arnold led an unsuccessful attack on the city of Quebec. February 1776, Scottish Loyalists attacked a colonial force at Moores Creek, North Carolina.
Well-armed colonists were waiting, and their victory ended British control in North Carolina. In June, British ships attacked a fort near Charleston, South Carolina, but the forts commander held them off. The Declaration of Independence More colonists supporting independence Were angry at the kings reaction to the Olive Branch Petition They learned that the British were recruiting Native Americans and African Americans to fight against them.
They heard that the king was hiring mercenary soldiers from the German state of Hesse. When the Continental Congress met again, it opened seaports to foreign trade except with Britain. Revolutionary ideology The colonists still thought of themselves as British. They believed they were entitled to all the rights that British citizens had claimed over the years. John Lockes idea of natural rights was part of their revolutionary ideology. The Declaration of Independence A matter of Common Sense
Early in 1776 Thomas Paine published a pamphlet called Common Sense. Condemned monarchy and particularly the rule of George III Called for an American declaration of independence, not just a protest against taxes The pamphlet sold more than 100,000 copies. It was one of the first American bestsellers. The Declaration of Independence Virginia calls for independence In May 1776 the Virginia Convention of Delegates issued the Virginia Declaration of Rights, the first official call for American independence. Influenced the Declaration of Independence, the Bill of
Rights, and many state constitutions Richard Henry Lee of Virginia then presented three resolutions to the Continental Congress. The colonies should be independent. Americans needed to form foreign alliances for support. The colonies needed to form a plan for unification. The Declaration of Independence Writing the Declaration The Continental Congress organized a committee to write a draft of a declaration of independence. John Adams, Robert Livingston, Roger Sherman, Thomas Jefferson, and Benjamin Franklin. Jefferson was chosen to write the draft.
On July 2, 1776, Congress approved final document and voted to declare independence. On July 4, they approved the entire document. Reactions to Independence Colonists living on the western frontier not a part of the political quarrels A fight for independence would expose them to Indian attack since fighting would draw men away
from the defense of the frontier. Many frontier settlers did not support the fight for independence. A quarter of the colonists remained loyal to Great Britain and the king; Patriots called them Loyalists. Loyalists were strong in southern colonies. Loyalist sympathies
were strong among people who had been government officials or belonged to the Anglican Church. Patriots harassed Loyalists. Loyalists fought with the British. Others left the country for other British lands. Some simply lived quietly and avoided
politics. After the American Revolution ended, perhaps 100,000 Loyalists left the United States, mainly to settle in Canada. The Revolutionary War Begins The Main Idea While the colonies and the British began with different strengths and weaknesses, the Revolutionary War demonstrated Washingtons great leadership. Reading Focus
What groups of people played a part in the Revolutionary War? What major revolutionary battles took place in the North? In what ways was the Battle of Saratoga a British setback? How did Washingtons leadership at Valley Forge influence the course of the Revolutionary War? The People behind the American Revolution Continental Army British Army Strengths Strong military leadership Fighting on home territory Alliance with France
Strengths Well-trained military Ample resources Alliances with Loyalists Weaknesses Small, untrained military Shortages of resources Weak central government Weaknesses Fighting in unfamiliar territory Fighting far from home
The People behind the American Revolution Womens Roles African American Roles Active in boycotts and other protests Cared for wounded in their homes Raised money to supply the army with food and clothing At home, women knit wool stockings and made bandages for the troops. Some melted down their pewter
pots and pitchers to make bullets. As in all wars, women kept their homes, farms, and shops running while the men were at war. Free and enslaved fought on both sides of the war. Some offers of freedom in exchange for military service came from both sides. Continental Armys need for soldiers overcame prejudice. New England regiments had the most African Americans. African American soldiers
generally received the same pay, clothing, and rations as whites. Most had menial duties, were kept at low ranks, and were not encouraged to re-enlist. The People behind the American Revolution The Role of Native Americans Four of the Six Nations of the Iroquois League helped the British. Oneidas and Tuscaroras sided with the Americans. On the frontiers, Loyalists and Native Americans sometimes fought together. In the mountains of Virginia and the Carolinas, the Cherokees attacked some settlements.
Patriot militias fought back fiercely and tried to force the Cherokees to move west. Revolutionary Battles in the North After his defeat in Boston, Howe returned to New York in August 1776 with a force of more than 300 ships and approximately 30,000 British soldiers. Rebels were offered a pardon if they would give in and promise loyalty. Washington refused. Howe captured Long Island and took many Americans prisoner. In the fall, Howes army forced Washington to retreat from Manhattan to New Jersey.
In European warfare, armies did not fight in the winter. Howes men were in Princeton while the Hessians were in Trenton. Washington did not follow European warfare. On Christmas night 1776 he and his men crossed the Delaware River to Trenton and took the Hessians, capturing weapons and ammunition. They drove the British out of Princeton. Revolutionary Battles in the North Spring 1777Britains plan was to cut New England off from the rest of the colonies. Howe attacked Philadelphia with an army of 15,000. In September he met Washington and his army of 11,000 in
southeastern Pennsylvania. The British won the Battle of Brandywine Creek, but the Americans escaped without serious casualties. Howe captured Philadelphia, where he and his troops settled comfortably for the winter. The Continental Congress fled the city. Washington and his exhausted troops settled into quarters at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, for the winter of 17771778. A British Setback at Saratoga Burgoynes army recaptured Fort Ticonderoga on July 5, 1777, a serious loss for the Americans. In early August, British attacked Fort Stanwix in one of the bloodiest battles of the war. An American force arrived to hold the fort.
Burgoynes force was now short of supplies. In early October, Burgoyne and his 5,000 men were at Saratoga, New York, surrounded by an American force of 17,000 under General Gates. After trying to break through Continental lines, he surrendered on October 17, 1777. The Battle of Saratoga is considered the turning point of the Revolutionary War. Washingtons Leadership at Valley Forge The winter of 17771778 at Valley Forge was the low point of the Revolution for the Continental Army. Bitter winter weather with inadequate housing Food was scarce. Soldiers in worn, ragged uniforms
Many of the men became ill, and hundreds died. The winter at Valley Forge was a tough test of Washingtons leadership. Washingtons Leadership His firm character and common sense helped hold the troops together. He always managed to keep a national army in the field. His men admired him. Washingtons Leadership at Valley Forge Money Problems
Congress did not have the power to tax people. Congress and the states printed paper money with little to back it up. As a result, it was worthless, and prices soared. This situation is known as inflation. Some farmers and merchants chose to trade with the British, who had gold and silver coin. Resulted in the food shortages at Valley Forge
Help Several European officers joined the American cause. Baron von Steuben of the Prussian army drilled Washingtons troops at Valley Forge. Marquis de Lafayette was an aide to Washington. An American Victory Main Idea A strengthened Continental Army, along with European allies, helped the colonists achieve a victory at Yorktown.
Reading Focus What Revolutionary War battles took place in the West and South? Why did France and other European nations assist the Americans? What led to the British surrender at Yorktown? How did the Revolution affect American culture? Revolutionary Battles in the West and South In 1779 the Americans won some important victories in the area north and west of the Ohio River. In 1778 George Rogers Clark led a small force down the Ohio River and captured the British settlements at
Fort Kaskaskia and Cahokia on the Mississippi River in present-day Illinois. In 1779 he and his men captured the fort and its commander at Vincennes in the Battle of Vincennes. Revolutionary Battles in the West and South 1778 British shifted their strategy Because the British believed that Loyalist sympathies were strongest in the South, they planned a campaign there. They discovered that Patriots were as strong and determined in Virginia as in New England. Though many Loyalists lived in the Carolinas and Georgia, they were often reluctant to help. The British also faced frequent surprise raids by small bands of Patriots.
In March 1781 colonial troops met British commander Charles Cornwallis and his army in a battle at Guilford Court House, North Carolina. Cornwallis won, but British losses were so great that he stopped the campaign. Americas European Allies Americans wanted recognition as a sovereign nation from Europe. European nations could also provide the Americans with money and supplies to fight the war. France became Americas strongest ally, but help also came from Spain and the Netherlands. France liked seeing its old enemy losing part of its empire. It also hoped that a British defeat in America would help restore French power in Europe.
Initially France sent gunpowder, artillery, and muskets to the Patriots. In 1776 Benjamin Franklin went to Paris to seek more help from France. Americas European Allies Because of Saratoga victory and Franklins diplomacy, France signed two treaties. One formally recognized the United States as a nation. The other treaty promised military help. In 1780 the French government sent a 6,000-soldier army to help the Americans. They were led by a French general, the Count de Rochambeau. Help from Spain Spain joined the war in 1779 as an ally of France.
Bernardo de Glvez was the Spanish governor of Louisiana. Attacked British forts on the Mississippi and along the Gulf Coast in West Florida, which had once belonged to Spain Defeated the British in Baton Rouge, Natchez, Mobile, and Pensacola Americas European Allies January 1781Washington and Rochambeau received word that Benedict Arnold had become a traitor. Arnold was leading British troops in raids on Patriot warehouses in Virginia. Washington sent Lafayette to stop him. After giving up his Carolina campaign, General Cornwallis moved into Virginia.
Lafayettes forces forced the British to the coast. July 1781Cornwallis took his army to the Yorktown Peninsula in Chesapeake Bay, built a fort, and waited for British ships to take them to Charleston or New York. Victory at Yorktown A siege at Yorktown Washington saw an opportunity to trap Cornwallis. French Admiral de Grasse established a blockade in Chesapeake Bay, preventing British ships from rescuing Cornwalliss men. Lafayette kept Cornwalliss army trapped on the peninsula. Washington and Rochambeau traveled south with a huge French and American army. Cornwallis, with 7,000 troops, faced a combined French and American army of more than 17,000.
The Battle of Yorktown lasted about three weeks. Cornwallis surrendered on October 19, 1781. The war for independence was over. Victory at Yorktown The Americans negotiated a peace treaty with Britain; the Treaty of Paris was signed on September 3, 1783. It declared the Mississippi River the western boundary of the United States. Britain formally recognized the United States as an independent nation. Britain agreed to leave its forts in the West. Spain and France made peace with Britain. In return for its help during the war, Spain regained Florida. The United States promised to pay what Americans owed
British merchants. Loyalists were allowed to claim property losses. Revolution Changes America Womens rights Equality did not include American women. The words in the Declaration of Independence applied only to white males. Married women still could not sign contracts or own property. The law stated that a married womans property belonged to
her husband. African Americans Many African Americans who had fought for the Patriot cause believed they had earned their freedom. In 1780 Pennsylvania passed a law for the gradual abolition of slavery. During the 1780s the New England states also abolished slavery. After the war, both Virginia and Maryland made it easier
to grant freedom to enslaved people. Several southern states also passed laws limiting the slave trade. Revolution Changes America Impact on Religion Before the war, many colonies had official churches that everyone paid taxes to support. New laws endorsed a separation of church and state. For the Roman Catholic
Church, the Revolutionary War led to a certain amount of acceptance. Catholics had often faced prejudice, but the arrival of French Catholic soldiers helped change many peoples attitudes. A New Nation The war left the new nation with some problems. The Revolution had cost a lot of money, and Congress had borrowed from foreign sources and American citizens.
Now the money needed to be repaid. Setting up a central government to deal with debt and other national issues was going to be complicated. The Continental Congress would meet again to discuss economic issues and a new system of government. Click on the window to start video
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