AFTER THE PUNIC WARS LEGACY OF THE PUNIC WARS Rome began transition from Republic to Empire Empire is defined as A large political unit in which the elites are distinctive from their subject people

Macedonia joined Hannibal, bringing North Africa, Iberia, and Greece under Roman Rule Rise of Octavian marked end of the Republic ACCIDENTAL EMPIRE Conquest of Carthage and Greece byproduct of Punic Wars, not a goal Further expansion similarly

unplanned: Power in Greece brought Rome into conflicts with the successor Kingdoms (Alexander) Continued threat from Gaul IMPACT Empire required Garrisons to solidify rule Legionnaire service

extended to meet manpower requirements New government systems required to exploit new lands FUTURE WARS Number of wars dramatically decreased Politicians worried about a loss

of military virtue Conquests became less common but larger Took longer to pacify Garrisons tied down available forces Politicians blocked rivals SOCIAL CHANGES

New conquests not public land, but slaves still poured in This increased the gap between rich and poor, spiraling many into homelessness Huge estates resulted in slave revolts Most famously Sparticus

Increased benefits of Roman citizenship caused civil wars with allies MARIAN REFORMS Marius was a Roman politician and realized Rome needed more manpower He eliminated land

requirements to join and supplied men with arms Created a standing army Standardized equipment and training Offered retirement benefits TACTICAL CHANGES Cohort became the basic unit This combined a maniple

of hastate, principes, and triari 10 Cohorts became a legion 450-500 men in each cohort Includes Cavalry Still used checkerboard

but smaller gaps to create a more continuous front THE CHANGING ROMAN ARMY Poor began serving disproportionately Commanders began rewarding men

Increasing loyalty = Private Armies Distinction of troops by age and wealth disappeared RISE OF MILITARY DYNASTIES As citizenship and slave revolts

ended, Political Civil Wars started This was an attempt for politicians to gain power and glory Made possible by increasing loyal/private armies These first major conflicts involved Marius and his rival Sulla

Sulla would march on Rome multiple times The most famous civil war being that of the First Triumvirate with Julius Caesar HAIL CAESAR LANDS PRIOR TO CAESARS RISE

JULIUS CAESAR Patrician Served in Army and Senate Ran for Consul Formed an alliance, First Triumvirate, to rule Rome FIRST TRIUMVIRATE Julius Caesar

Skilled Politician Crassus Richest Man in Rome Pompey the Great Military Might CAESAR TO GAUL

Caesar uses his influence to become Governor of Gaul Caesar was in debt and wanted to extort Gauls wealth He raised four legions from Southern Gaul Gaul was divided and made for an easy target PROCESS OF CONQUEST

Slowly conquered Gallic lands Crossed the Rhine to punish Germanic tribes Crossed into Britain with minor success Gaulic leader Vercingetorix started a revolt Added other tribes to his army Had initial success pursuing guerilla warfare Vercingetorix retreated to Alesia

for the winter Caesar pursued and laid siege to the city HTTPS:// WWW.YOUTUBE .COM/WATCH?V =UT9GDMYWFJ 0 CAESARS CIVIL

WARS END OF THE TRIUMVIRATE Caesars daughter (Pompeys wife) died in child birth Crassus died battle the Parthians Pompey broke alliance with

Caesar Pompey named as sole consul and broke alliance with Caesar *Legend had it he was forced to drink molten metal CAESARS DILEMMA Fearful of Caesar, the senate ordered him to disband his army

Caesar said he would, if Pompey did as well Senate threatened to declare a traitor Previously tried to charge him with corruption (and war crimes) but vetoed by Mark Antony Caesar could A)Enter Rome without and Army and be arrested B)Keep his army CROSS THE RUBICON Caesar crosses the Rubicon river and says The Die is Cast an act of war

He has with him one legion Pompey retreated from Rome, showing weakness Caesar trapped Pompeys allied army, who joined him (4 legions now) Pompey went to Greece, Caesar to Iberia

Defeated Pompeys allies, 7 Legions surrendered POMPEYS DECISION JC was now pursuing him into Greece Pompey 3 options Allie with Parthia (Persia) Invade Italy Fight Caesar Decided to Fight JC Defeated Caesar at the Battle of Dyrrhachium JC moved into Thessaly to link with additional armies

Pompey pursued and met at Pharsalus BATTLE OF PHARSALUS Caesar Pompey 22,000 Legionaries 40,000 Legionaries 8,000 Allies 4,200 Allies

1,800 Calvary 6,500 Calvary INITIAL DEPLOYMENT Pompey 3 lines, ten deep Massed Calvary on the left Wanted to wait Caesars charge, use Calvary as hammer and anvil Caesar

3 lines, 6 deep Calvary and a fourth line on the right to counter Pompeys superior Calvary Ordered Third line not to charge until ordered INITIAL DEPLOYMENT BATTLE The front two lines of Caesars Army engaged Pompeys infantry Pompeys Cavalry attacked JCs cavalry but hidden 4th line

emerged, and stabbed Cavalry with javelins and routes Pompeys cavalry Caesar ordered his third line to attack, breaking Pompeys now exposed left wing Pompey flees to Egypt, his army destroyed Caesar lose 230, Pompey 15,000 HTTPS:// WWW.YOUTUBE.COM /WATCH?V=QFLOAU

NQQXA POMPEY AND EGYPT Pompey was trying to get money and men to continue the fight Caesar was relentless and he was not able to gather a force Eventually went to Egypt, as

Pharaoh Ptolemy XIIIs father owed Pompey Pharaoh Ptolemy was at war with his sister Cleopatra PHARAOH PTOLEMY XIIIS CHOICE If he excepted Pompey, he becomes a master and Caesar an enemy If he sends him away, Pompey and Caesar both blame Egypt If he kills Pompey, friend of Caesar and Pompey not a threat

THE CHOICE IS WRONG Caesar is furious that they killed Pompey He wants to pardon Pompey, to show benevolence In addition, he is charmed by Cleopatra and

overthrows the Pharaoh They have a son THE REAL CLEOPATRA CAESAR CONSOLIDATES POWER Pompeys allies continued the fight Forced JC to deal with mutinous legions

This included heavy fighting in North Africa and Iberia Partially because Caesar already pardoned them once JC MASTER OF ROME Named Dictator for Life Gave land to his legions Reformed the debt of many Romans

Rewarded families for having many children Rebuilt Carthage and Corinth Created a new Calendar Mobilized Huge army to attack Parthia and Dacians STABBED 23 TIMES Senators claimed to be saving the Republic

Miscalculated the peoples love Caesar Would eventually lead to the end of the of the Republic SAVING THE REPUBLIC Roman Republic (509 BCE 27

BCE) Roman Empire (27 BCE - ??????) Roman Empire Roman Republic (509 BCE (201 27 BCE - ????) BCE) CIVIL WAR THRU ACTIUM Mark Antony and Caesars

heir Octavian begin chase down and defeat the assassins They form the Second Triumvirate Ends as well as the first Mark Antony and Cleopatra face off against Octavius This is known as the Battle of


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