Mechanical pressure measurement devices are large and cumbersome. Not suited for automated control loops typical in industry. Mechanical devices: U-tube Manometer Bourdon tube Diaphragm and Bellows element
U-tube Manometer Measures difference in pressure between two points in a pipe. Typical in laboratories. Bourdon Type
Flexible element used as sensor. Pressure changes cause change in element position. Element connected to pointer to reference pressure. Diaphragm and Bellows Element Similar concept to Bourdon type.
Widely used because they require less space and can be made from materials that resist corrosion. Electrical Have become more common with increased reliance on computerized control systems.
Strain Gauge Measures deflection of elastic diaphragm due to pressure difference across diaphragm. Widely used in industry. Used for small pressure ranges. Measurements tend to drift. Capacitive Sensor
Measures changes in capacitance of electrically charged electrodes from movement of metal diaphragm due to pressure difference across diaphragm. Capacitive Sensor, cont. Can be operated in balanced or unbalanced mode.
Balanced always has capacitance of zero. Measures pressure indirectly by measuring drift in capacitor arms. Unbalanced measures ratio between output voltage and excitation voltage. Widely used in industry. Large rangeability.
Wire is oscillated at resonant frequency by oscillator circuit. Pressure changes cause change in wire tension which changes oscillatory frequency. Generates digital signal. Very precise, used for low differential pressure measurements.
Sensitive to temperature variation and has non-linear output Piezoelectric Measures the charge developed across quartz crystal due to change
in pressure. Charge decays rapidly making unsuitable for static pressure measurements. Sensors are very rugged. Pressure can be applied longitudinally or transversally. Used to measure dynamic pressure
changes associated with explosions and pulsations . Magnetic Measures induced current caused by movement of magnetic components from pressure changes. Used in applications where high resolution in small range is desired due to very high output signals.
Sensitive to stray magnetic fields and temperature changes. Optical Detects effects of minute motions due to process pressure changes through partial blocking of an LED.
Immune to temperature effects. Excellent stability and long-duration capability. Various types of pressure gauges Questions?
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