International Cooperation USA QuickTime and a decompressor are
International Cooperation USA QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Facilitator: Patrick Schmidt Germany QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. 70% of failures are directly due to soft factors.
How do people understand one another when they dont share a common cultural experience? Americans and Germans? Similarities Anglo-Saxon background monochronic direct and honest being on time competitive and practical The Trap of Similarity
Wal-Marts billion euro fiasco in Germany arrogance and ignorance managers culturally nave, simple-minded driven by time is money didnt create enough economies of scale The unconscious projection of values is the source of cultural mishaps. The Cardinal Rule Understanding oneself and ones own culture
Who understands others as well as oneself will be granted success in a thousand encounters. 3000 year-old Chinese proverb Culture hides more than it reveals and strangely enough what it hides, it hides most effectively from its own participants. Years of study have convinced me that the real job is not to understand foreign culture but to understand our own. Edward Hall Plan
Culture Communication Meetings - Presenting - Negotiating Intercultural Competence Theories of Intercultural Communication* How do people understand one another when they dont share a common cultural experience ? Positivist Relativist Constructivist Assumption
Reality is absolute and discoverable Reality is framed by an observers perspective, formed within systems. Reality emerges from transaction between observer and observed. Implication
Discover what is real and unreal in a culture. Assumes finished artifacts, non-movement. Culture is a set of roles and rules within a social system. Awareness of other perspective Culture is socially constructed. Conscious of own boundary-setting.
Application Adaptation is knowledge of cultural history. Enactment of dos & donts Learn about cultures through contrast analysis. Informed role play Adaptation is dynamic, other
perspective-taking (empathy). Mutual penetration * Derived from Milton J. Bennett, [email protected] net Culture ? Culture ? Life style of a people, I.e. the learned and shared patterns of beliefs, behaviors and values of a group of interacting people. (Bennett) ulture is the collective programming of the mind. (Hofstede) lture is the water we live in. It surrounds us and defines us.
hinese definition) We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable rights, that among these are life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness. The Declaration of Independence, 1776 Think about your own culture How did socialization take place in your own life? Try to recall some of the behaviors and values you were taught early in life. How do they affect you now?
Culture is to us what water is to a fish. Culture is like an iceberg observable Not observable Observable Manners Clothes Food Newspapers, books Monuments Rituals, festivals
Not observable History Friendship Time and space Negotiation style Communication style Solutions to problems a. b. 12 88
9 91 Singapore 33 67 Greece 42 58
Venezuela 66 34 5 95 France 32 68
Germany 16 84 South Korea 74 26 Holland Great Britain
USA Intercultural communications Everything is relative no right or wrong solutions Success abroad Understanding the inner logic of a culture The Four Secrets of Effective Global Managers 1. They know that they dont know
Assume difference until similarity is proven, not the other way around. 2. They emphasize description Observe what is actually said and done rather than interpreting or evaluating. 3. They practice role reversal (empathy) Attempt to understand an international situation through the eyes of others. 4. They treat explanations as guesses, not as certainty. Check with colleagues from home and abroad if guesses are plausible. Definition of a theory mental viewing of how something might be not meant to be exact
German (Ger) Serious American (Am) Easy-going 1 Ger stereotype 3 Ger exception
2 Am exception 4 Amr stereotype Hofstedes Dimensions Individualism / collectivism Respect toward hierarchy Desire for structure Masculinity / femininity
Collectivism we society group identity important: harmony relations over tasks extended family Individualism me society self-identity important: pro-active tasks over relations success of individual Individualism
Collectivism GRE JAP FRA PORT GER CAN SLO
SING NETH GB KOR 0 ITA PL 20 40
USA 60 80 100 Less Hierarchy Inequalities not OK Privileges/status not OK Boss democratic Flat hierarchy Staff gives advice
More Hierarchy Inequalities OK Privileges/status OK Boss paternalistic Strong hierarchy Staff follows orders More Hierarchy Less Hierarchy USA NETH ITA JAP
SPA GER GRE GB POR SWE 0 20 40
60 FRA PL SIN SLO 80 100 Less Structure More Structure
Uncertainty O.K. Willing to take risks Non-orderly situations Hope for success Rational generalists There must be order Many rules Consensus Desire for security Experts und knowledge More structure Less structure
SIN 0 SWE 20 GB NETH CAN USA 40
GER ITA KOR SLO PL SPA FRA JAP POR GRE 60 80
100 Should a manager have precise answers to subordinates questions? Should a manager have precise answers to subordinates questions? 66% Yes: 23% 28% 18% 17% NETH USA DEN GB
38% CH 44% 46% 78% 53% BEL GER FRA ITA JAP Five years after the merger 8%
USA 77% France Understanding new behavior D = detect I
= interpret E = evaluate American meetings An informal, relaxed attitude Confident, positive approach Brainstorming
Come to the point quickly Active participation Give credit for others achievements (piggyback) Joint Problem Solving engineering point of view brain-storming Americans: cowboy mind Germans: over analyze less communication later
more communication later Americans: many questions Germans: impersonal decision is binding decision is a guideline leader is mediator leader is decision-maker Working on Projects PROJECT
IDEA Germans tend to. Americans tend to think Americans tend to. Germans tend to think ...collect information
Why are they doing this? chat informally about an idea Why arent they doing anything? They are cold and unfriendly. begin with small talk
They are wasting time. present detailed plans How can they discuss the details at this stage? begin with brainstorming They are not prepared for the meeting.
express criticism openly They dont like each other. be enthusiastic about all the ideas They are not sincere. work individually on the tasks assigned to them
They dont communicate or work as a team. hold frequent meetings; change tasks as circumstances change They are too many meetings; we cant get our work done. PROJECT get down to MEETINGS business
PROJECT PROCESS believe clearly defined milestones guarantee success believe continuous contact guarantees coordination Cognitive Styles of Germans and Americans Interaction with reality, extracting, organizing and applying knowledge BASIC OUTLOOK
Germans Americans tend to be more cautious, conceptual tend to be more optimistic, pragmatic OPENING QUESTION Do we really need? Can we have?
ACQUIRING KNOWLEDGE Structured way of knowing Hypothesis, testing way of knowing Want solid theories, coherence Speculate with probabilities, risk taking Deductive: acting on the basis of ones thorough understanding of the situation Inductive: understanding a situation through experimentation
Declarative thinking: focusing on description and explanation of situation Procedural thinking: focusing on how to get things done Gather information from experts, logical analysis of ideas Active experimentation: learn from peers, brainstorming, think out of the box Importance of background information Importance of measurement data, and facts (historical context, Zeitgeist:, sociology) (how tall, how much, statistics, etc.)
APPLYING KNOWLEDGE Development of strategic analysis Ability to get things done Systematic planning Decisions are binding Trial and error, learn by doing, can do Decisions are guidelines Femininity Good working atmosphere
Care for others Harmony Solidarity Modesty People over materialism Masculinity Performance Polarization Assertive Competitive Displaying success Materialism over people Masculinity
Femininity USA NETH SPA SWE 0 FRA POR 20
KOR CAN SIN SLO PL GB GER ITA JAP GRE
40 60 80 100 Culture is communication Edward Hall Halls Definition
Culture determines the style of communication: indirect or direct Direct (low context) Explicit Context not important Thinking-focused Result-oriented Masculine Indirect (high context) Implicit Context important Feeling-focused Relationship-oriented
Feminine Direct NETH GER CH 0 20 Indirect PL
ITA GB FRA USA 40 SPA JAP 60 80 100
German directness British indirectness Jrgen wird an die Decke springen. Jrgen might tend to disagree. Kommen wir gleich zur Sache. I was wondering if could talk. Du sagst nur Bldsinn. I am not quite with you on that.
Das kann nicht wahr sein. Hm, thats an interesting idea. Wir werden dies nie unterschreiben. Well have to do our homework. Monochronic One activity at a time Schedules very important Task-oriented Linear Punctual
Polychronic Parallel activities Plans are changed Relationship-oriented Interruptions Punctuality unimportant Monochronic NETH GER CH 0 20
Polychronic ITA PL GB FRA USA 40 60 SPA JAP
80 100 Management conflict between American and German managers Differences perceived Differences regarded as difficulties US perception of D as difference process-oriented
Underlying regularities American low uncertainty avoidance (low UA) vs. German higher uncertainty avoidance (high UA) American higher context communication (hcc) vs. German low context communication (lcc) American relationship orientation (r o) vs. German task orientation (t o) How can these differences in regularities be explained?
US perception of D as difference difficulty yes regularity process-oriented yes specialised, expert yes higher UA, t o
surnaming / using titles yes higher UA direct yes lcc German-speaking, multilingual yes
yes higher UA higher UA D perception of US as difference difficulty regularity unstructured yes
yes low UA informal yes yes higher cc, r o first-name yes
yes low UA, r o humour yes yes low UA, r o English-speaking, monolingual yes
exaggerate optimism yes yes fluid agreements (trial & error) yes yes low UA Lesson to be learned
US-German communication and co-operation might not be as simple as it appears especially for Germans Why do we stereotype? Why do we stereotype? Natural impulse to categorize when reality is too complex to handle. Stereotypes are helpful when:
consciously aware its a group norm descriptive and not evaluative modifiable Cross-cultural perceptions perception of Americans perception of Germans unstructured process-oriented
Emotional Methodical Impulsive Attitudes for better intercultural communications Tolerance for ambiguity Open-mindedness Low goal/task orientation Empathy
Non-judgmental Communicativeness Flexibility Curiosity Sense of humor Motivation Warmth in human relationships Self-reliance
Strong sense of self Perceptiveness Ability to fail Tolerance to differences Differences between German and American presentation styles? American Presentation start with a big bang (hook them) show them how they can profit from the talk
emphasize entertainment aspect jokes, anecdotes conclusion is often enthusiastic, visionary guaranteed to be a success! audience-centered and interactive lots a smiles, speaker wants to be socially accepted Deductive and Inductive Thinking Proof tiv uc e Fact
Proof Proof Background Information ch oa pr Ap Fact an ic er
Am G Fact d In e it v c u ed D
m er an r p p A h c oa Major Point
Presentations styles QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. Focused on listener Focused on content
Enthusiastic, optimistic Start with straight introduction Inductive Factual (sachlich)
Use of personal examples Distant through formality Get to the point Serious (bestimmt auftreten)
Easy-to-remember statements Detailed explanations Communication Exchanging ideas, feelings, symbols, meanings to create commonality Misunderstandings: Interpreting foreign behavior
in terms of our own culture The Cardinal Rule Understanding oneself and ones own culture Communication breaks down people build up barriers us versus them Good, intercultural communication is not just good intentions.
Receivers perception determines the real message, not the one we send. The greatest barrier is culture, not language. Communication Natural and simple Takes places in ones culture 80% 90% of information: non-verbal signals
Why we dont see objectively Perception is selective learned culturally determined consistent inaccurate ONCE IN A A LIFETIME PARIS IN THE THE SPRING
BIRD IN THE THE HAND Reasons for intercultural faux pas Think seldom about communication Non-verbal signals underestimated Perceive things differently Communication Styles QuickTime and aTIFF (Uncompressed) decompressorare needed to see this picture.
Communication styles emphasizing content accentuating content downplay relationships accentuating personal appearing credible being liked being objective
being socially accepted direct in stating direct in expressing more upgraders more downgraders more modal verbs more conditionals more imperative
more questions Credibility Likeability Complicated Over analytical Formal und detailed Objective Wants to be creditable Simple Short and concise Informal Friendly and easy going
Wants to be liked The German Desire for Clarity Jetzt werde ich mit ihr deutsch reden mssen (Klartext) The German adjective deutlich (clear, plain) and the German verb deuten (explain, interpret) have the same linguistic roots to the word Germans use to refer to themselves and their language deutsch. Peach and Coconut Metaphor QuickTime and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
Communicating with Americans Dos Donts Look for common opinions Forget to repeat Focus on the results Tell ethnic jokes Use simple language
Forget the small talk Expect fewer details Expect critical feedback Be less direct Be irritated by interruptions Listen non-verbally and participate Hesitate to ask questions Expect agreement
Be so critical Opening lines for small talk I hear you are going to be transferred to Rome. That sound great! You and Elke have been married for three years now. When will you have children? I like that pair of shoes you have on. Where did you buy them? John, you look like youve gained a few kilos these last few months. Did you see that great Formula 1 race on TV yesterday? Schumacher left all of his competitors in the dust. This weather is fantastic. Its a great day to go hiking, dont you think? Ive heard you come from Zurich. Thats in southern Germany, isnt it? I just got a great offer. If I accept the job in Chicago, Ill make $70,000 a year, plus a annual $25,000 bonus. Who will you vote for in the upcoming election? Have you heard that latest rumor? Beatrice is going out with the boss.
U.S. negotiating style Americans tends to make a small talk at the beginning look more at strengths & weaknesses of others than issues maximize benefits to themselves than best solution for all create a friendly, personable atmosphere The typical U.S. negotiator QuickTime and a decompressor are needed to see this picture. always keeps a poker-face
Milton Bennetts Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity im in M Ethnocentric Stages ep ta nc se
n fe e D n Ac c ial n De io t
a iz e Experience of Difference n io t ta p a Ad tio a
r g te In n Ethnorelative Stages Denial ones culture is the only real one unable to construe cultural difference aggressive ignorance Munich lots of buildings, too many cars, McDonalds
Defensive ones culture is the only good one we are superior they are inferior highly critical of other cultures Americans are superficial and uncultivated Minimization ones culture is viewed as universal obscure deep cultural differences insistently nice We bankers are all the same all over the world. Acceptance
ones culture is viewed as one of many complex systems judgment is not ethnocentric curious about cultural differences I want to learn German so I can understand Hans better. Adaptation internalize more than one complete worldview empathy may intentionally change behavior to communicate better Im beginning to feel like a member of this culture. Integration ones self is expanded to include different worldviews cross-cultural swinger
ability to facilitate contact between cultures I truly enjoy participating fully in both of my cultures. Intercultural competence No longer attached to original cultural group Relativity of values Cross-cultural swinger Multi-lingual Other-culture awareness Question for reflection QuickTime and TIFF
(Uncompressed are needed to see t What are the characteristics of an effective multinational team? Effective multinational teams recognize diversity members selected for task-related abilities mutual respect equal power super ordinate goal external feedback Team Charter (example)
A commitment to: assume difference until similarity is proven emphasize description, not interpreting or judging practice role reversal more use of conditionals to be more open to compliments Advantages of multinational teams expanded horizons less groupthink increased creativity and flexibility Basic German Values 1. Strong sense of group welfare: Sozialmarktwirtschaft
2. Confidence to do the job right due to thorough training 3. Extremely fair towards others; have vision what is right and wrong 4. A serious and factual attitude toward life 5. Excellent listeners 6. Meticulous about deadlines and appointments 7. Perfectionism: very neat and orderly, pay attention to details 8. Precise execution of activities and products; brilliant organizers 9. Hchste Leistung bringen: obsession for high performance with passionate intensity 10. Durchsetzungsvermgen: very thorough and effective in work Basic American Values 1. Very proud of political system and the American way of life 2. High self-confidence; rely on own strength and capability 3. Volunteerism: very engaged in community services
4. Trust in people; relaxed friendliness and spontaneity 5. A can-do optimism: openness to improvement and change 6. Anti-authoritarian attitude: dont bow to a higher authority 7. Equality and the rule of law: every person is equal before the law 8. Individualism: everyone has the right to self-actualize 9. Restlessness and impatience: desire to move up the social ladder 10. Pragmatism: prefer the concrete over aesthetic and conceptual Understanding others Understanding others doesnt consist of only appealing to logic and reason. It consists of an emotional opening to the others Jawaharlal Nehru
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