Writing: An Academic Cornerstone Writing: An Academic Cornerstone
Writing: An Academic Cornerstone Writing: An Academic Cornerstone Text Learning After-Readin g Exercises Writing: An Academic Cornerstone 1 To Dr. Sommers, head of the Expository Writing Program at Harvard University, and to many of the students, writing is the academic cornerstone of college. All Harvard freshmen take a semester of exp
ository writing , a seminar emphasizing close reading, revision, and research, laying the foundation for future Harvard courses. 2 In addition to its central academic role, Sommers says that writing provides a vital means of support, T helping students see that they are active Writing: An Academic Cornerstone 3 Sommers came to Harvard in 1987 as associate director of the Expository Writing Program. In 1993, she became director, pushing Americas oldest college writing program into its third century.
4 Freshmen choose from dozens of classes with titles like The Culture of Consumption, Mapping the Mind, and Love in the Western World, which are designed to give them an intellectual occasion for writing. T Writing: An Academic Cornerstone 5 Sommers seized her own occasion in 1996, when she got a grant to study under graduate writing. She received additional support from the Harvard presidents office, and, in the fall of 1997, invited all freshmen to participate in a Web-based survey. Sommers hoped for a 10 percent response r ate
, and was astonished when one quarter of the class --- 422 students --- logged on to share their writing expectations. T Writing: An Academic Cornerstone 6 For the next four years, her team of researchers focused on 65 students, meeting with them each semester and analyzing every paper they wrote. Last June, that group graduated from college and left Sommers with over 500 pounds of essays, poetry and prose. 7 Sommers launched her study wondering what role writing plays
in undergraduate education , but quickly realized that the role changes yearly, as students undertake increasingly intensive writing projects. T Writing: An Academic 8 Freshman writing is often characterized by Cornerstone generalizations and either/or thinking, Somm ers says, but by the senior year, there is a co mplicated, complex argument sustained thro ughout. Students first learn to imitate what t hey learn, and then they go beyond imitation, beyond the questions of the course, to ask qu estions of their own.
9 In Sommers experience, those questions can launch an a stonishing process of self-discovery , as students pursue research of their own ch oosing and undertake assignments that help to shape their passions and show themT what 1 2 Text
3 1987 1993 4 Text 5 1996 1997 422
Text 6 65 6 500 7 Text 8
9 Text academic adj. connected with education, esp. at colle ge or university level e.g.She loved the university because of its academic atmosphere. Exercise
The academic books are put on the top of the bookshelf. n. e.g . academy the Academy of Arts the Academy of Music Text
cornerstone [C] 1)a stone set at one of the bottom corners of building, often put in place at a special ceremony 2)sth. that is extremely important because everything else depends on it e.g . Trust and commitment are the corner stones of any marriage. Exercise
Writing is the academic cornerstone of college. Text seminar n. a class at a university or college for a s mall group of students and a teacher to study or discuss a particular subject e. Publishers and writers from 13 cou ntries attended the seminar. g. Exercis e This is a Shakespeare
seminar. Text All Harvard freshmen take a semester of expository writing, freshman, sophomore, junior senior. Text emphasize vt. to say something in a strong way e.g This point was emphasized in the mi
nisters speech. . Exercise The significance of safety was emphasized at the beginning of the meeting. n. emphasis e.g. Today we will put our emphasis on r eading. Text revision n. 1)[C,U] the process of changing sth, especial
ly a piece of writing, in order to improve i t by correcting it or including new inform ation or ideas 2) [U]BrE the work of studying lessons, note s etc again in order to learn them e.g It is said that the revision of the book has been carried out. . Exercise I always do some careful revision before the exams. Text
revision v. e.g . revise Shell have to revise her points b efore the exam. Text lay the foundation for to provide the conditions that will make
it possible for sth. to be successful e.g.A lot of reading laid the foundation for his research. Exercis e Good planning after the war laid the foundations for the nations economic miracle. Text in addition to besides, furthermore e.g .
He has a big house in the city in additio n to a villa in the countryside. Exercis e Todays classes include maths, Chine se in addition to English. v. adj. add additional
Text helping students see that they are active participants, that they can do the work. Text vital adj. 1)extremely important and necessary fo r sth. to succeed or exist 2)full of energy in a way that is exciting and attractive Such measures are vital to national se
e.g curity. . Exercise The actress played a vital role in the play. n. vitality e.g The process of restructuring has inject ed some much needed vitality into the . company. Text participant n. [C]
someone who is taking part in an activity o r event + in e.g Would the participants in the next race come forward? . Exercis e How many participants are there in the English speech contest? v. participate[+ in] e.g Do you want to participate in the Engli sh speech contest? .
Text n. participation associate adj. someone who has some of the same right s or responsibilities as a member etc. v. +with to make a connection in your mind betwe en one thing or person and another never associated you with this pl e.g. Ive ace. Exercis
e n. I always associate the new year with the marvelous fireworks. Text association dozens of [informal] a lot of [ ] e.g Ive met him dozens of times. . Exercise
Ive been on the beach for dozens of times. dozens and dozens of Text consumption n. 1)the amount of energy, oil, electricity, etc. that is used [ ] 2)the act of eating or drinking e.g The consumption of the oil has been rising in recent years. .
Exercise The consumption of alcohol is forbidden on the campus. consume He can consume a lot of foo e.g. d. v. Text intellectual a.
relating to the ability to understand th ings and think intelligently an intellectual person is well-educated and interested in serious ideas and su bjects such as science, literature, etc. This is an intellectual novel e.g . . Exercise The heroine in this film is n. intellectual.
intellect a woman of superior intelle e.g. ct Text which are designed to give them an intellectual occasion for writing. Text under[ ] e.g
. undergraduate underage underdeveloped underground underestimate Text participate v. [+ in] take part in e.g .
Would you like to participate in t he competition? Exercise I have participated dozens of activities organized by the student union. n. participation participant Text
survey n. 1) a set of questions that you ask a large num ber of people in order to find out about thei r opinions or behavior 2) an examination of an area of land in order to make a map of it v. 1)to ask a large number of people questions i n order to find out their attitudes or opinion s 2)to look at or consider someone or somethin g carefully, esp. in order to form an opinion about them 3)to examine and measure an area of land an Text d record the details on a map
survey e.g . The latest survey shows that violenc e on television can have a negative e ffect on children. Exercis 60 e Almost 60% of those surveyed said they supported the Presidents action. Text
astonish v. to surprise someone very much e.g Her reply astonished me. . Exercis e What astonished me most is his complete lack of fear. astonishment astonishing astonished
n. adj. Text log on/in phrasal v. to do the necessary actions on a comp uter system that will allow you to begi n using it log off/out to do the actions that are necessary when you finish using a co mputer system
Text expectation n. [C,U] 1)the belief that something will happen because it is likely or planned 2)[usu. plural] a belief that something good will happen at in the the station future in He arrived time as expe e.g. cted.
Exercis e The film just didnt come up to our v. expectations. expect e.g. The farmers are expecting a good harv est this year. Text Sommers was astonished when one quarter of the class422 students logged on to share their writing expectations.
422 class Text focus on phrasal v. to pay special attention to a particular perso n or thing instead of others e.g . Modern medicine has tended to focus too much on developing highly compli cated surgical techniques.
Exercise The public has focused its attention on a series of recent bombings at present. Text analyze v. to examine or think about something car efully, in order to understand it The cell samples are analyzed by a e.g lab. .
Exercis e A computer analyzes the photographs sent by the satellite. n. analysis a detailed analysis of the weeks e.g. news adj. analytic an analytic approach e.g. Text
launch v. 1)to start something, usually something big o r important 2)to send a weapon or spacecraft into the sky or into space 3)to make a new product , book, etc. 4)to put a boat or ship into the water n. when a new product, book ,etc. is made available or made known Text launch e. g.
The Canadian police plan to laun ch an investigation into the deal. Exercise The company hopes to launch the new drug by next October. Text undertake v. 1)to accept that you are responsible for a piece of work, and start to do it 2)to promise or agree to do something
e.g.Dr. Johnson undertook the task of writi ng a new English dictionary. Exercise He undertook to pay the money back in six months. undertook undertaken Text intensive adj. 1)involving a lot of activity, effort, or caref ul attention in a short period of time
2)involving or needing a lot of energy, kno wledge e.g.There is a one-week intensive co urse in English. Exercise What the nation needs is a knowledge-intensive industry. extensive Text Sommers launched her study wondering what role writing plays in undergraduate education,
Text characterize v. 1)to describe the qualities of someone o r something in a particular way 2) to be typical of a person, place, or thi ng e.g The group was characterized as bei ng well-educated and liberal. . Exercise
Bright colors characterize his paintings. n. character Text generalization 1)[C] a general statement or opinion th at is only partly true because it is bas ed on only a few cases or incomplete knowledge 2)[U] the act of making generalizations e.g .
You have to make a generalizati on about this issue. Exercise Making a generalization about this problem is not easy. v. generalize Text argument n. 1)a situation in which two or more people disagree, often angrily
2)a set of reasons that show that somethi ng is true or untrue, right or wrong, etc . e.g I broke the vase during an argu ment with my husband. . Exercis e We need to provide a convincing argument as to why the system should be changed. Text
argument argue argue (with, about/ over) She is always ready to argue over e.g v. . the smallest issues. He often argues philosophy with Ja mes. argue for argue against
e.g . He argued for immediate actio n. They argued against such a po licy. Text argument argue into(out of)doing st h.
e.g I argue him out of going on such a dangerous journey. . He argued that man was descend ed from apes. Text sustain 1)to make something continue to exist or happen for a period of time 2)to make it possible for someone to stay
strong or hopeful e.g She found it difficult to sustain t he childrens interest. . Exercis e A good breakfast will sustain you all morning. Text pursue v. to continue doing an activity or trying to achieve something over a long period of
time to chase or follow someone or something , in order to catch them, attack them, etc e.g . Kristin pursued her acting caree r with great determination. Exercise Briggs ran across the field with one officer pursuing him. Text
In Sommers experience, those questions can launch an astonishing process of self-discovery, Text After-reading Exercises Translation lay the foundation for lay the table
in addition to in addition active participants regular participants After-reading Exercises Translation a vital means a vital organ dozens of classes/courses
dozens of eggs the Western world the Eastern world After-reading Exercises Translation seize an occasion/opportunity seize the key point receive additional
support pay an additional tax participate in a survey participate in a discussion After-reading Exercises Translation a ten percent response rate a ten percent correct rate
log on log off share their writing expectations share their driving experience After-reading Exercises Translation launch her study launch their
project play a role in play Hamlet by the senior year by the fourth year After-reading Exercises Translation
a complex argument a complex process imitate what they learn write down what they hear a process of selfdiscovery a process of growth
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