# Science Review SLT & iLEAP Kim Holmes Zane

Science Review SLT & iLEAP Kim Holmes Zane designed an experiment to find out if gardenia plants grow better in wet soil or in well-drained soil. He planted six small gardenia plants in pots with no drainage holes and six other small gardenia plants in pots with drainage holes. He gave all the plants the same amount of water each day. He observed the plants weekly to see if their leaves stayed green and healthy. He also measured the heights of the plants each week. What are the dependent variables in this experiment?

A. wet soil and dry soil B. type of plant and amount of water C. drainage holes and no drainage holes D. leaf health and plant height 1. SI 5 Mandy has been asked to demonstrate how to measure the volume of a liquid. Which tool and which unit of metric measure should she use? A. She should use a ruler and measure the volume in centimeters. B. She should use a balance and measure the volume in grams. C. She should use a graduated cylinder and measure the volume in milliliters.

D. She should use a test tube and measure the volume in milliliters squared. 2. SI 6 Brandy has gathered information on sources of air pollution in her town. Her data is shown below. Which statement best interprets Brandy's data? A. Agriculture causes more air pollution than transportation and consumer products combined. B. Industry and transportation cause over three-quarters of the air pollution in the town.

C. If people began to car pool or ride bikes to school, air pollution would decrease by 27 percent. D. City leaders should ask homeowners to use less energy for heating, since this will make the biggest impact on reducing air pollution in town. 3. SI 11 Students wanted to find out if trees grow at the same rate each year. To gather data, students measured the width, in millimeters, of tree rings on a cross section of a fallen tree trunk. Each ring represented one year of tree growth. This graph shows the students' data.

Which statement best explains the data? A. The width of the tree rings varies from year to year because trees become dormant in the winter months. B. The tree ring widths were roughly the same from year to year because trees are not affected by environmental conditions. C. Trees do not grow at the same rate each year because varying environmental conditions affect their growth. D. Trees grow at the same rate each year because their growth only depends on the 4. SI 12 availability of sunlight. Honeybees are important pollinators for many crops, as shown in the chart below.

But recently, the number of honeybees has declined drastically due to an issue called colony collapse disorder. The honeybees have been leaving their hives and dying without any logical explanation. If the honeybee population continues to decline, what will most likely happen? A. Almond production will decrease drastically B. The value of the apple crop will increase. C. Cultivated blueberries will become less expensive. D. Cotton will no longer be available to make clothes. 5. SI 16

Mrs. Riley is creating a slide presentation to explain how air pollution and water pollution are similar and how they are different. Which graphic organizer should she use to show the information? 6. SI 19 Ants and acacia trees have a mutualistic relationship, which means that both organisms benefit from the relationship. The ants live inside the thorns of the trees and eat the nectar. The ants bite and sting any animals that come near the trees and also clear weeds from around the trees' bases. To study how this relationship affects the growth of acacia trees, scientists gathered data on the growth of two acacia trees, one tree that had ants and one tree that did not

have ants. The data is shown below. Which statement best explains this data? A. The acacia tree with ants grew more from April to June than from June to August. B. The acacia tree with no ants did not grow from June to August. C. The acacia tree with ants grew significantly taller than the acacia tree with no ants. D. The acacia tree with ants grew significantly slower than the acacia tree with no ants. 7. SI 22

Students have been asked to place a glass beaker filled with water on a hot plate and measure the water's temperature as it heats. When the water temperature reaches 100 degrees Celsius, the students will remove the beaker from the hot plate. What safety precaution is not necessary during this part of the students' lab? A. Students should wear safety goggles while heating the glass beaker. B. Students should use beaker tongs to remove the beaker from the hot plate. C. Students should tie back long hair and secure loose clothing. D. Students should wash their hands before handling

the 8. SI 23 beaker. Cellulose is a carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls in most plants. Cellulose is made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. What other elements are often found in plants? A. nitrogen and phosphorous B. chlorine and helium C. helium and nitrogen D. phosphorous and chlorine 9. PS 1

This chart compares plant and animal cells. Which statement identifies an error in the chart? A. An animal cell does not have a nucleus, but a plant cell does. B. A plant cell does not contain cytoplasm, but an animal cell does. C. A plant cell does not have a cell wall, but an animal cell does. D. An animal cell does not have chloroplasts, but a plant cell does. 10. LS 2

Elliott observed the cells of a freshwater plant called Elodea by using a microscope, as shown in this picture. Then, he added a drop of extremely salty water to his Elodea slide. What did he most likely see when he looked at the Elodea cells under the microscope again? A. The cells looked like they had swelled because water entered them. B. The cells looked like they had shriveled up because water left them. C. The cells had not changed because the cell wall kept the salt water from entering them. D. The cells had not changed because placing a fresh water plant in salt water does not affect it.

11. LS 3 Look at the turtle and chicken life cycles below. Which of the following correctly compares these two cycles? 1. The adult chicken and the adult turtle both lay eggs. 2. The juvenile hatchling and the juvenile chick both have to mature over time to become adults. 3. The juvenile hatchling and the juvenile chick both go through metamorphosis to become adults.

A. B. C. D. 1 Only 3 Only 2 and 3

1 and 2 12. LS 6 Mitchell is running a marathon. Toward the end of the race, the muscles in his legs begin to cramp and ache. His coach tells him that his muscles are still using energy but that his muscle cells are not getting enough oxygen. This is an example of which type of respiration? A. aerobic because the muscle cells can break down sugars to release energy only when there is oxygen present B. anaerobic because the muscle cells are making energy in an environment where there is not enough oxygen

C. anaerobic because the muscle cells are using oxygen to break down sugars and release carbon dioxide D. aerobic because there is little to no oxygen present in the muscle cells as they break down sugars to make energy 13. LS 8 After school, Joe ate an apple. Which statement best describes how two body systems interacted in this scenario? A. Joe's muscular system transported the apple throughout his body, and his digestive system released energy from the apple. B. Joe's digestive system released energy from the apple, and his circulatory system transported the

nutrients throughout his body. C. Joe's circulatory system transported the apple throughout his body, and his skeletal system released energy from the apple. D. Joe's skeletal system released energy from the apple, and his respiratory system transported the nutrients throughout his body. 14. LS 10 As humans age and become elderly, what characteristics usually appear? A. They have a surge of hormones that causes their bodies to mature. B. Their brains become larger, and they can adapt to new things quickly.

C. Their bodies heal more slowly than they did when they were younger. D. They have stronger bones, and their joints become more flexible. 15. LS 11 Mrs. Bhasin, the school guidance counselor, asked students to brainstorm factors that can affect the quality and length of human life. Students listed the following ideas. Which idea is not correct?

A. B. C. D. Statement 1 Statement 2 Statement 3 Statement 4 16, LS 12

Amado has diabetes. His body does not produce enough insulin, a hormone that controls the amount of sugar in his blood. To help control his disease, he has to follow a strict diet and monitor his blood sugar levels daily. What is true about Amado's disease? A. It is a communicable disease that can be treated with antibiotics. B. It is a noncommunicable disease that can be avoided through vaccinations. C. It is a communicable disease that can infect other people who come in contact with his blood. D. It is a noncommunicable disease that cannot be spread to others directly. 17. LS 13

If this flatworm is cut into two pieces, each piece will grow into a new worm. The result will be two genetically identical planarian offspring. What type of reproduction is described in this example? A. asexual because two offspring were produced B. sexual because two offspring were produced C. sexual because there is only one parent

D. asexual because there is only one parent 18. LS 14 A dolphin is injured when it becomes trapped in a fishing net. Over the course of many weeks, the cuts on its body begin to heal. What process allows the dolphin's body to heal? A. meiosis because the cells that were damaged by the fishing net need to be replaced by new cells that are genetically different B. mitosis because body cells need to reproduce to create cells that are identical to those that were lost due to the injury

C. meiosis because creating four cells from a single sex cell will speed the healing process D. mitosis because cells that are genetically different will be better able to heal the injury 19. LS 15 A guinea pig has black, rough fur. These are both dominant forms of the traits for fur color and fur texture. With only this information, are we able to determine the guinea pig's genotype for these traits? A. Yes because it must have all dominant alleles for the two traits. B. No because we need to know its phenotype before we can determine its genotype.

C. No because it could be a carrier for the recessive alleles in one or both of the traits. D. Yes because we know that it has black fur and a rough coat. 20. LS 17 Some people have dimples on their cheeks when they smile. Having dimples is a dominant trait (D), and not having dimples is a recessive trait (d). This Punnett square shows a cross between two parents that are heterozygous for having dimples.

What is the likelihood that these parents will have a child with no dimples? A. 25 percent B. 50 percent C. 75 percent D. 100 percent 21. LS 19 Farmers crossed disease-resistant wheat plants with

wheat plants that grow quickly and produce large amounts of grain. The resulting wheat plants are less likely to be damaged by disease, and they produce higher crop yields. Which term best describes this process? A. cloning B. natural selection C. adaptation D. selective breeding 22. LS 22 Use the picture and the dichotomous key below to answer the question. What type of rodent is

shown in this picture? A. kangaroo rat B. house mouse C. eastern chipmunk D. brown rat 23. LS 23 This food web includes animals and plants that are found in a mountain ecosystem. Which of the following correctly describes how energy is transferred in this food web?

A. from coyote to snowshoe hare to bark and twigs B. from grass to mule deer to mountain lion C. from seeds to vole to mule deer D. from marmot to grass to elk 24. LS 24 Which of the following best describes the grassland biome? A. hilly land that is covered with deciduous trees and shrubs and that can be found in Europe

B. extremely dry land that has little yearly rainfall and poor soil quality and that is found in northern Africa C. frozen areas that have short growing seasons and that are found in the Arctic Circle D. animal grazing areas that have few trees and that are found in the Great Plains of North America 25. LS 25 In the tundra, poor soil makes it hard for plants such as mosses and grasses to grow. The plants that do survive are eaten by arctic hares and lemmings. The hares and lemmings

are eaten by arctic foxes and snowy owls. Which statement best describes a level of organization within the tundra ecosystem? A. The arctic hares represent a population. B. The snowy owls represent a community. C. The interaction between the plants and the poor soil represents a community. D. The mosses, grasses, and lemmings all together represent a single population. 26. LS 26 As a bird eats the fruit off of a plant, it gets the energy that it needs to survive. The bird then disperses the plant's seeds. Which statement correctly

describes the relationship between the bird and the plant? A. It is parasitic because they both benefit. B. It is mutualistic because they both benefit. C. It is parasitic because the bird benefits and the plant is harmed. D. It is mutualistic because the bird benefits and the plant is harmed. 27. LS 27 The honey possum is a mouse-sized animal that lives in Australia. It has a pointed snout and a long tongue that it uses to eat nectar and pollen. It has to live in an area with many different types of flowers

to survive. It is nocturnal, so it sleeps during the day in rock cracks or hollowed out trees. Based on this information, which statement best describes the honey possum's niche? A. an animal that sleeps in rock cracks or hollow trees B. a nocturnal animal that eats nectar and pollen C. a small animal that lives in an area with many flowering plants D. an animal that has a pointed snout and a long tongue 28. LS 28 When a turtle feels threatened, it can withdraw into its protective shell, lunge at and bite an attacker with its sharp beak, or squirt water at its

attacker. Some turtles make a hissing sound to scare away other animals. Which of these are structural adaptations? A. having a protective shell and sharp beak B. withdrawing into a shell and squirting water C. lunging and biting with a sharp beak D. squirting water and making a hissing sound 29. LS 30 In the 1800s, ships that were sailing from Europe to North America introduced European green crabs to the area around Cape Cod. These crabs compete with native crab species and eat up to 40 clams or small oysters each day. How did the

European green crabs most likely affect the environment near Cape Cod? A. The clam, oyster, and native crab populations decreased. B. A greater variety of shellfish appeared in the area. C. The quality of the water near Cape Cod improved. D. Fishermen were able to harvest more clams than in previous years. 30. LS 31 A volcanic eruption blanketed the side of a mountain with a heavy layer of ash. What will most likely happen due to this change in the environment? A. The animals that had homes on the side of the

mountain will have to move to another area to find food and shelter. B. Birds will flock to the area because berries and fruits will be easy to spot above the ash. C. Decomposers will thrive because they will have plenty of ash to break down. D. Plants will grow taller and stronger because the ash provides a stronger anchor for their roots than regular soil. 31. LS 34 Miriam's class took a field trip to a wetland ecosystem. The students learned how to replant grasses at the edge of the wetland, observed

migrating birds, tested the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, and studied the types of decomposers that live in the muddy soil. During which part of the field trip did the students investigate an abiotic factor? A. when they planted grasses at the edge of the wetland B. when they observed the migrating birds C. when they tested the amount of oxygen in the water D. when they studied the decomposers in the mud 32. SE 36

Hornworms are on a tomato plant. Within days, the worms have eaten most of the plant's leaves and tomatoes. If there are no other tomato plants in the area, what will eventually limit the growth of the hornworm population? A. air quality B. amount of sunlight C. availability of nutrients D. lack of space

33. SE 37 As American settlers moved westward and established homesteads in the 1800s, many tall grass prairies in the Midwest were converted into farmland. What impact did this have on the prairie ecosystem? A. Soil quality improved. B. Water resources became less scarce. C. Animal habitats were gained. D. Native species were lost. 34. SE 39

This flowchart describes how the processes of photosynthesis and respiration relate to the carbon cycle. Which terms correctly complete the flowchart? A. P: uses carbon dioxide from atmosphere, R: uses carbon dioxide from atmosphere B. P: releases carbon dioxide into atmosphere, R: releases carbon dioxide into atmosphere C. P: releases carbon dioxide into atmosphere, R: uses carbon dioxide from atmosphere D. P: uses carbon dioxide from atmosphere, R: releases carbon dioxide into atmosphere 35. SE 42

Which system helps to fight diseases? A. B. C. D. Respiratory system Digestive system Circulatory System Nervous System 36. LS 10

Which of the following would be an example of producer/consumer relationship? A. B. C. D. Venus fly trap and fly Seagrass and turtle Mouse and snake grasshopper and lizard 37. LS 27 Use the dichotomous key to identify the plant shown above.

A. madrone B. mountain mahogany C. oak D. holly 38. LS 23 Joe's voice is deepening, he's grown a slight mustache, and he's gotten noticeably taller. In the human life cycle, Joe is experiencing

A. B. C. D. Adulthood Adolescence Infancy Childhood 39. LS 11 Beth is arranging cards to show the life cycles of different animals. Some cards that she is working with are shown above. Which two cards will Beth use to diagram the life

cycles of reptiles, amphibians, and birds? A. Larvae and adult B. Tadpole and adult C. Egg and larvae D. Adult and egg 40. LS 5 The circulatory system brings blood to the lungs to receive oxygen and to release carbon dioxide. What is the major system that works with the circulatory system to assist with the exchange of gasses? A. the skeletal system B. the endocrine system C. the digestive system D. the respiratory system

41. LS 10 From the graph on biome rainfall totals, one could conclude that A. deserts often have rainfall yearly totals over 30 inches per year B. tundra often have rainfall yearly totals over 50 inches per year C. desert and tundra are similar in the sparse yearly rainfall totals D. temperate deciduous forest and grassland have similar rainfall 42. LS The table shows the average daily water loss in humans at normal temperatures, at high

temperatures, and during rigorous exercise. Which statement best explains these results? A. High temperatures cause breathing rates to increase. B. At normal temperatures, people do not lose water from their skin. C. Rigorous exercise causes sweating to increase. D. During rigorous exercise, kidneys stop functioning. Thousands of bison once roamed the vast plains of the Midwestern United States. They lived in an environment with few trees, hot summers, and cold winters. Today, much of this land is used for farming and few bison remain. Which term describes the Midwestern biome that was once

home to herds of bison? A. Desert B. Tundra C. Grassland D. Taiga The picture shows some plants and animals that live together on an African savannah. Which statement best describes these organisms? A. The organisms have the same niche, but different habitats. B. The organisms have the same habitat, but different niches. C. The organisms all share the same niche and habitat. D. The organisms all have different habitats and niches.

In Africa, the honey bird often helps the honey badger find food by leading it to bee hives. Then the badger tears the hives apart with its strong claws and eats the honey, while the bird eats the bee larvae and pupae. Which type of relationship exists between the honey bird and the honey badger? A. parasitic B. predatory/prey C. producer/consumer D. mutualistic Charles planted four varieties of cherry tomato and recorded the number of tomatoes that each plant

produced during July and August. Charles wants to present his data during his class presentation. Which of the following would best display his data? A. Venn diagram B. circle graph (pie chart) C. concept map D. bar graph

During science class, Chelsea investigated two types of bacteria. Bacteria #1 undergoes aerobic respiration and bacteria #2 undergoes anaerobic respiration. He began making the table shown below to summarize his data. Which terms should Chelsea use in the areas marked with a question mark to correctly complete the table? A. Type 1-water, Type 2-no water B. Type 1-no water, Type 2-water C. Type 1-oxygen, Type 2-no oxygen D. Type 1-no oxygen, Type 2-oxygen The picture shows a shark, a school of fish, and an eel living in the ocean. Which level of

organization does the school of fish represent? A. B. C. D. Community Organism Population Ecosystem

A scientist is analyzing an unknown substance to determine which elements are present. She thinks that the substance might be plant tissue. If she is correct, which elements will most likely be present in the substance? A. Lead and neon B. Aluminum and gold C. Carbon and oxygen D. Mercury and nitrogen The desert tortoise of the Sonoran desert can grow up to 15 inches long. It has a hard shell

that protects it from predators and spends most of its time underground escaping the intense desert heat. Which of the following is a behavioral adaptation of the desert tortoise? A. Remaining underground B. Growing 15 inches long C. Having a hard shell D. Living in the desert

When Ian enters the science laboratory, he puts on his safety glasses, his apron and his gloves. He sees a stirring rod, a powder, and water at his station, so he mixes the powder into the water. When the teacher arrives, he tells the students to turn to page 15 for instructions. Which safety practice did Ian forget to do? A. protect his skin from chemicals B. protect his eyes from chemicals C. handle equipment with care D. wait for directions

Mark wants to build an airtight terrarium to house his small lizard. He puts soil, water, and several plants, including those that the lizard eats, into a glass container. He seals it tightly and places it in his window. Which statement correctly describes a main component of the carbon cycle within this ecosystem? A. respiration occurs as moist soil releases carbon into the air B. plants release carbon dioxide into the air during transpiration C. plants remove carbon dioxide from the air during photosynthesis D. evaporation occurs, which increases the amount of carbon in the air

Joe opened a bottle of perfume in the front of the classroom. Within a few minutes, Mary, who was sitting at the very back of the room, smelled the perfume. This happened because: A. the perfume molecules diffused throughout the room B. the perfume spilled on the table C. the perfume went through a chemical reaction D. the perfume molecules spread across the room through osmosis Human power production negatively impacts the environment in what two ways? A. It destroys land to build roads and contribute to global climate change. B. It gives humans the ability to grow crops

in a wider variety of climates and genetically pollutes native plants. C. It uses nylon fencing to reduce soil erosion and siltation ponds for holding and cleaning polluted water. D. It disputes the carbon cycle and creates air pollution. Which group of organisms

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