Chapter 3 Organization of the Body Applied Learning

Chapter 3 Organization of the Body Applied Learning

Chapter 3 Organization of the Body Applied Learning Objectives Use the terminology associated with cell structure and function Learn about: body hierarchy cell organization and physiology cell life cycle the chemical environment

tissue organization tissue form and function Understand the cellular basis of aging and pathology Chapter 3 Organization of the Body EMC Publishing, LLC Introduction The bodys levels of organization, or hierarchies, are a series of ordered groupings within a system. Each category in a hierarchy relies on the properties of the levels below it.

Chapter 3 Organization of the Body EMC Publishing, LLC Hierarchy of Human Structure Humans are multicellular, meaning they are composed of many cells. The cells of most multicellular organisms cooperate with one another to carry out specific jobs. Cells compose tissues, tissues form organs, organs are combined into organ systems, the organ systems

make up the organism. Chapter 3 Organization of the Body EMC Publishing, LLC Hierarchy of Human Structure Chapter 3 Organization of the Body EMC Publishing, LLC

The Human Physiological Environment A suitable physiological environment around the bodys cells is required for the bodys levels of organization to maintain homeostasis. The physiological environment includes internal conditions that optimize cell function and body organization. Water is an essential component of both the internal and external environments of cells. Chapter 3 Organization of the Body

EMC Publishing, LLC The Human Physiological Environment This watery, or aqueous, environment must have precise conditions that ensure homeostasis. These conditions are determined by:

pH ions chemical reactions the transport of molecules between internal and external environments Chapter 3 Organization of the Body EMC Publishing, LLC Ions

Ions are electrically charged particles that disperse in water. Some ions are minerals, which are nutrients needed by the body in small amounts. Ions called metals are any of several elements that can form shiny solids that conduct heat and electricity. All ions are water soluble and are therefore easily lost by the body whenever fluids are eliminated. Chapter 3 Organization of the Body

EMC Publishing, LLC Ions Chapter 3 Organization of the Body EMC Publishing, LLC Enzymatic Reactions and Energy Enzymes facilitate most of the chemical reactions that permit cells, tissues, organs, and organ systems to

carry out their jobs. Most chemical reactions involve some form of energy transfer. Energy is usually defined as the capacity for doing work. This can be measured as the ability to do work (potential energy), or the conversion of this ability into some type of action (kinetic energy). Chapter 3 Organization of the Body EMC Publishing, LLC

Enzymatic Reactions and Energy Enzymes promote the exergonic reactions needed to obtain cell energy. In addition, they carry out endergonic reactions that build body structures and are used in cell work. Enzymes do this by modifying molecules in patterns that release or store energy. Chapter 3 Organization of the Body EMC Publishing, LLC

Enzymatic Reactions and Energy Enzymes have an active site, which provides the attachment area and energy needed to modify a molecule. Each active site fits a particular molecule in the way a lock fits a specific key. Substrate is the name given to a chemical that an enzyme modifies in the active site. The substrate in turn is converted into the enzyme product.

Chapter 3 Organization of the Body EMC Publishing, LLC Enzymatic Reactions Chapter 3 Organization of the Body EMC Publishing, LLC Molecular Transport

A cells internal environment is separated from the external environment by a membrane. A selectively permeable membrane allows certain molecules to pass through it, in what is called molecular transport. There are five methods: diffusion

passive transport active transport osmosis bulk active transport Chapter 3 Organization of the Body EMC Publishing, LLC Discussion Question How well can you describe each type of molecular transport? Describe each type in small groups and

then present your best descriptions to the rest of the class. Chapter 3 Organization of the Body EMC Publishing, LLC Cell Structure All cells have three components: Cell membrane Cytoplasm Genome

Chapter 3 Organization of the Body EMC Publishing, LLC Cell Structure Chapter 3 Organization of the Body EMC Publishing, LLC Cell Function

Cellular activities include metabolism, genetics, and the cell cycle. Metabolism: The sum of all chemical reactions in the body that maintain homeostasis Genetics: The study of heredity and the ways genetic information is converted into cell and body characteristics Cell Cycle: The events a cell goes through to carry out daily functions and the steps it takes to reproduce Chapter 3 Organization of the Body

EMC Publishing, LLC Tissues The human body is composed of four types of tissue. Chapter 3 Organization of the Body EMC Publishing, LLC Organs and Systems Organ systems of the human body include:

cardiovascular digestive

integumentary lymphatic muscular skeletal endocrine reproductive respiratory urinary Chapter 3 Organization of the Body EMC Publishing, LLC

Wellness and Illness over the Life Span Cell pathology is the basis of understanding dysfunction of the bodys hierarchy. Almost all gross diseases are due to dysfunction of one or more tissues in an organ system. Cellular aging is due to accumulated molecular decay. Chapter 3 Organization of the Body EMC Publishing, LLC

Summary Each level of complexity is dependent on the proper functioning of the levels below them. Components of each level must work in unison to maintain the overall homeostasis of the body. T h e H u m a n O r g a n is m

O rg a n S y s te m s O rg a n s T is s u e s C e l ls M o le c u le s Chapter 3 Organization of the Body EMC Publishing, LLC

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