Slide 1.1 Part 1 Introduction to business information

Slide 1.1 Part 1 Introduction to business information

Slide 1.1 Part 1 Introduction to business information systems Chapter 1 Basic concepts understanding information Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015 Slide 1.2 Learning objectives

After this lecture, you should be able to: distinguish between data, information and knowledge; describe and evaluate information quality in terms of its characteristics; classify decisions by type and organisational level; identify the information needed to support decisions made at different organisational levels; identify some of the tools and techniques used to help make decisions. Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015 Slide 1.3

Management issues From a managerial perspective, this chapter addresses the following areas: The importance of managing information and knowledge as a key organisational asset. The transformation process from data to information of high quality. The process and constraints of decision making. The different kinds of decisions that managers make and how these affect the organisation. Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015

Slide 1.4 What is data? Data are raw facts or observations that are considered to have little or no value until they have been processed and transformed into information. Example definitions: (a) a series of non-random symbols, numbers, values or words; (b) a series of facts obtained by observation or research and recorded; (c) a collection of non-random facts; (d) the record of an event or fact.

Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015 Slide 1.5 What is information? Information: Data that have been processed so that they are meaningful. Example definitions: (a) data that have been processed so that they are meaningful; (b) data that have been processed for a purpose;

(c) data that have been interpreted and understood by the recipient. Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015 Slide 1.6 Figure 1.2 Transforming data into information using a data process Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015 Slide 1.7

Information summary Information: involves transforming data using a defined process; involves placing data in some form of meaningful context; is produced in response to an information need and therefore serves a specific purpose; helps to reduce uncertainty, thereby improving decision behaviour. Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015

Slide 1.8 Activity What types of information processing are involved when a national retailer summarises the national sales formation nationally? Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015 Slide 1.9 Types of information processing Classification: This involves placing data into categories, for example, categorising an expense as either a fixed or

a variable cost. Rearranging/sorting: This involves organising data so that items are grouped together or placed into a particular order. Employee data, for example, might be sorted according to the last name or payroll number. Aggregating: This involves summarising data, for example, by calculating averages, totals or subtotals. Performing calculations: An example might be calculating an employees gross pay by multiplying the number of hours worked by the hourly rate of pay. Selection: This involves choosing or discarding items of data on the basis of a set of selection criteria. A sales organisation, for example, might create a list of potential customers by selecting those with incomes above a certain level.

Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015 Slide 1.10 Activity 1.1 Data v. information From the point of view of a student at university, which of the following might be examples of information? Which might be examples of data? (a) the date; (b) a bank statement; (c) the number 1355.76; (d) a National Insurance number; (e) a balance sheet; (f) a bus timetable;

(g) a car registration plate. Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015 Slide 1.11 Information value Tangible value A value can be measured directly, usually in term of financial value E.g., increase revenue Intangible information A value that is difficult or impossible to quantify E.g., increase customer satisfaction

Tangible value: Value of information Cost of gathering information Intangible value: Improvements in decision behaviour Cost of gathering information. Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015 Slide 1.12 Activity 1.2 Tangible and intangible information When information is used effectively, it can bring about many of the improvements listed below. State

and explain why each of the items listed illustrates a tangible or intangible value of information. (a) improved inventory control; (b) enhanced customer service; (c) increased production; (d) reduced administration costs; (e) greater customer loyalty; (f) enhanced public image. Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015 Slide 1.13 What is the importance of informal information?

Sources of information : Information can be gathered through both formal and informal communication Formal communication: Formal communication involves presenting information in a structured and consistent manner. Informal communication: This describes less well-structured information that is transmitted by informal means, such as casual conversations between members of staff. Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015 Slide 1.14

Information quality dimensions Table 1.1 Summary of attributes of information quality Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015 Slide 1.15 The business environment of an organisation and the main factors that influence it Figure 1.3 Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015

Slide 1.16 What is the relation between e-business and IT The European Commission describes e-business like this: The term e-business covers both e-commerce (buying and selling online) and the restructuring of business processes to make the best use of digital technologies. In general, e-business is concerned with making day-to-day business activities more efficient by improving information exchanges within the

organisation and between the organisation and its partners. Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015 Slide 1.17 How does information support managers? Henri Fayol (18411925) devised a classic definition of management that is still widely used in both industry and academia. To manage is to forecast and plan, to organise, to command, to coordinate and to control.

Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015 Slide 1.18 Decision Making Decision behaviour: Describes how managers make decisions and the factors that influence them. Different decision types Structured decisions: Situations where the rules and constraints governing the decision are known. ex:how sould we process a sale order? semi-structured decisions :between structured and unstructured decision ex:which forign markets should we target ?

Unstructured decisions: Complex situations, where the rules governing the decision are complicated or unknown. ex: what should our distribution channels be? Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015 Slide 1.19 Levels of managerial decision making Figure 1.4 Levels of managerial decision making Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015

Slide 1.20 Decision characteristics and management level Table 1.2 Decision characteristics and management level Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015 Slide 1.21 Information characteristics for decisions

by management levels Table 1.3 Information characteristics for decisions by management levels Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015 Slide 1.22 A model of decision making Table 1.4 A model of decision making

Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015 Slide 1.23 Knowledge management Bergeron (2003), defines knowledge management like this: Knowledge Management (KM) is a deliberate, systematic business optimisation strategy that selects, distils, stores, organises, packages, and communicates information essential to the business of a company in a manner that improves employee performance and corporate.

Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015 Slide 1.24 Knowledge management (Continued) Many organisations have adapted to the knowledge economy by adopting new structures and by creating new roles for managers. The term knowledge worker describes a person whose role is based around creating, using, sharing and applying knowledge. The work of a knowledge engineer focuses on eliciting knowledge from experts so that it can be recorded and shared with others within the

organisation. Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015 Slide 1.25 Knowledge management (Continued) Knowledge can be thought of as the combined result of a persons experiences and the information they possess. In general, knowledge can be described as explicit or tacit. Explicit knowledge is easily captured and stored within documents and other media. This type of knowledge tends to be highly detailed, formal and systematic. It is often stored in the form of manuals, documents, procedures and database files.

Tacit knowledge is characterised by factors such as perceptions, beliefs, values, intuition and experience. Since a great deal of tacit knowledge may be held unconsciously, it is difficult to elicit, describe or record. Knowledge management is involved with collecting (eliciting) knowledge and converting (codifying) it into a form that allows it to be shared across the organisation. A key part of this process involves gathering tacit knowledge and converting it into explicit knowledge. Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015 Slide 1.26

Competitive intelligence (CI) CI involves collecting data from a number of disparate sources and converting it into useful information about an organisations competitors. The information gathered is used to support decision making within the organisation, allowing it to respond more effectively to competition. Bocij, Greasley and Hickie, Business Information Systems PowerPoints on the Web, 5th edition Pearson Education Limited 2015

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Programming games in Visual Basic

    Programming games in Visual Basic

    Programming games in Visual Basic Review programming & VB topics Insertion sort. Best times. Generate questions & answer patterns for quiz Lab/Homework: Catch up! Read chapter 10. Questions/VB technique review Memory label control array holding name of file and picture...
  • Risk Assessment Training - Christopher Lipowski

    Risk Assessment Training - Christopher Lipowski

    RISK ASSESSMENT TRAINING By Faculty of Engineering, Safety Unit * * * 13 * There are many different hazards in a laboratory. Examples include Chemicals Radioisotopes Lasers Flammable materials Electrical sources Biological agents Physical hazards Slips and trips Falling hazard...
  • Leaders for the future Module 1: Leading yourself

    Leaders for the future Module 1: Leading yourself

    Complete this short online EI test. https: ... You may have heard of or used some of the following: Myers-Briggs, Belbin, Packtypes, DOPE, The Insights system, Colourworks, Strengthfinders. ... A link is provided to an online 360 feedback tool. This...
  • Quick & Healthy Meals

    Quick & Healthy Meals

    Nutrient Overview Nutrients 6 essential nutrients Basic functions of essential nutrients
  • Nebraska Legislative Advocacy Who's Telling Our Story?

    Nebraska Legislative Advocacy Who's Telling Our Story?

    Who's Telling Our Story? Hello! Colby Coash. NSPA Legislative Consultant. NASB Associate Executive Director, Director of Government Relations. Colby - do you want to give contact info? Please give folks some background on your experience. Hello! Katie Bevins.
  • Employee Self-Service - Schools - Home page | Schools

    Employee Self-Service - Schools - Home page | Schools

    Employee Self-Service Lite(ESS Lite) will be available to all staff at home or on the move - wherever you have access to the internet ... Payslips can be viewed, printed or e-mailed (though please note that the menu above may...
  • Diapositive 1 - Math Rocks Eco

    Diapositive 1 - Math Rocks Eco

    Enfin, la croissance du PIB est liée en partie au travail Or, la réduction du temps de loisir n'est pas déduite du PIB Et le PIB apparaît parfois contradictoire avec le bien-être On ne peut considérer que le PIB reflète...
  • Frindle Vocabulary Words

    Frindle Vocabulary Words

    Hachiko: The True Story of a Loyal Dog Vocabulary Words Sixth Grade Unit 1 Week 5 * * * * * * * * * Words to Know nudge furious morsel ruff stooped vigil quietly fixed A growth of fur...