ECONOMICS Twelfth Edition, Global Edition Michael Parkin 7

ECONOMICS Twelfth Edition, Global Edition Michael Parkin 7

ECONOMICS Twelfth Edition, Global Edition Michael Parkin 7 GLOBAL MARKETS IN ACTION After studying this chapter, you will be able to:

Explain how markets work with international trade Identify the gains from international trade and its winners and losers Explain the effects of international trade barriers Explain and evaluate arguments used to justify restricting international trade 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. How Global Markets Work

Because we trade with people in other countries, the goods and services that we can buy and consume are not limited by what we can produce. Imports are the goods and services that we buy from people in other countries. Exports are the goods and services we sell to people in other countries. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd.

How Global Markets Work International Trade Today Global trade today is enormous. In 2013, global exports and imports were $23 trillion, which is one third of the value of global production. In 2013, total U.S exports were $2.3 trillion, which is about 14 percent of the value of U.S. production. In 2013, total U.S. imports were $2.7 trillion, which is about 17 percent of the value of total U.S. expenditure. Services were about 33 percent of total U.S. exports and

about 20 percent of total U.S. imports. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. How Global Markets Work What Drives International Trade? The fundamental force that generates trade between nations is comparative advantage. The basis for comparative advantage is divergent opportunity costs between countries. National comparative advantage is the ability of a nation to perform an activity or produce a good or service at a lower

opportunity cost than any other nation. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. How Global Markets Work The opportunity cost of producing a T-shirt is lower in China than in the United States, so China has a comparative advantage in producing T-shirts. The opportunity cost of producing an airplane is lower in the United States than in China, so the United States has a comparative advantage in producing airplanes.

Both countries can reap gains from trade by specializing in the production of the good in which they have a comparative advantage and then trading. Both countries are better off. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. How Global Markets Work Why the United States Imports T-Shirts Figure 7.1(a) shows U.S.

demand and U.S. supply with no international trade. The price of a T-shirt is $8. U.S. firms produce 40 million T-shirts a year and U.S. consumers buy 40 million T-shirts a year. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd.

How Global Markets Work Figure 7.1(b) shows the market in the United States with international trade. World demand and world supply of T-shirts determine the world price of a T-shirt at $5. The world price is less

than $8, so the rest of the world has a comparative advantage in producing T-shirts. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. How Global Markets Work With international trade, the price of a T-shirt in the

United States falls to $5. At $5 a T-shirt, U.S. garment makers cut production to 20 million T-shirts a year. At $5 a T-shirt, U.S. consumers buy 60 million T-shirts a year. The United States imports 40 million T-shirts a year. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd.

How Global Markets Work Why the United States Exports Airplanes Figure 7.2(a) shows U.S. demand and U.S. supply with no international trade. The price of an airplane is $100 million. Boeing produces 400 airplanes a year and U.S.

airlines buy 400 a year. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. How Global Markets Work Figure 7.2(b) shows the market in the United States with international trade. World demand and world

supply of airplanes determine the world price of an airplane at $150 million. The world price exceeds $100 million, so the United States has a comparative advantage in producing airplanes. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd.

How Global Markets Work With international trade, the price of an airplane in the United States rises to $150 million. At $150 million, U.S. airlines buy 200 jets a year. At $150 million, Boeing produces 700 airplanes a year.

The United States exports 500 airplanes a year. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. Winners, Losers, and the Net Gain from Trade International trade lowers the price of an imported good and raises the price of an exported good. Buyers of imported goods benefit from lower prices and sellers of exported goods benefit from higher prices. But some people complain about international competition:

not everyone gains. Who wins and who loses from free international trade? 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. Winners, Losers, and the Net Gain from Trade Gains and Losses from Imports Figure 7.3(a) shows the market in the United

States with no international trade. Total surplus from T-shirts is the sum of the consumer surplus and the producer surplus. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd.

Winners, Losers, and the Net Gain from Trade Figure 7.3(b) shows the market in the United States with international trade. The world price of a T-shirt is $5. Consumer surplus expands from area A to the area A + B + D.

Producer surplus shrinks from area B + C to the area C. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. Winners, Losers, and the Net Gain from Trade The area B is transferred from producers to

consumers. Area D is an increase in total surplus. Area D is the net gain from imports. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. Winners, Losers, and the Net Gain from Trade Gains and Losses from

Exports Figure 7.4(a) shows the market in the United States with no international trade. Total surplus from airplanes is the sum of the consumer surplus and the producer surplus. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd.

2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. Winners, Losers, and the Net Gain from Trade Figure 7.4(b) shows the market in the United States with international trade. The world price of an airplane is $150 million.

Consumer surplus shrinks to the area A. Producer surplus expands to the area C + B + D. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. Winners, Losers, and the Net Gain from Trade

The area B is transferred from consumers to producers. Area D is an increase in total surplus. Area D is the net gain from exports. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. International Trade Restrictions

Governments restrict international trade to protect domestic producers from competition. Governments use four sets of tools: Tariffs Import quotas

Other import barriers Export subsidies 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. International Trade Restrictions Tariffs A tariff is a tax on a good that is imposed by the importing country when an imported good crosses its international boundary. For example, the government of India imposes a 100

percent tariff on wine imported from the United States. So when an Indian wine merchant imports a $10 bottle of California wine, the merchant pays the Indian government $10 import duty. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. International Trade Restrictions The Effects of a Tariff With free international trade, the world price of a T-shirt is $5 and the United States imports 40 million T-shirts a year.

Imagine that the United States imposes a tariff of $2 on each T-shirt imported. The price of a T-shirt in the United States rises by $2. Figure 7.5 shows the effect of the tariff on the market for Tshirts in the United States. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. International Trade Restrictions Figure 7.5(a) shows the market before the government imposes the

tariff. The world price of a T-shirt is $5. With free international trade, the United States imports 40 million T-shirts a year. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd.

International Trade Restrictions Figure 7.5(b) shows the effect of a tariff on imports. The tariff of $2 raises the price in the United States to $7 a T-shirt. U.S. imports decrease to 10 million a year. U.S. government collects

the tariff revenue of $20 million a year. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. International Trade Restrictions Winners, Losers, and Social Loss from a Tariff When the U.S. government imposes a tariff on imported T-shirts:

U.S. consumers of T-shirts lose. U.S. producers of T-shirts gain. U.S. consumers lose more than U.S. producers gain. Society loses: A deadweight loss arises. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. International Trade Restrictions U.S. Consumers of T-Shirts Lose U.S. buyers of T-shirts now pay a higher price (the world price plus the tariff), so they buy fewer T-shirts.

The combination of a higher price and a smaller quantity bought decreases consumer surplus. The loss of consumer surplus is the loss to U.S. consumers from the tariff. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. International Trade Restrictions U.S. Producers of T-Shirts Gain U.S. garment makers can now sell T-shirts for a higher price (the world price plus the tariff), so they produce more

T-shirts. But the marginal cost of producing a T-shirt is less than the higher price, so the producer surplus increases. The increased producer surplus is the gain to U.S. garment makers from the tariff. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. International Trade Restrictions U.S. Consumers Lose More than U.S. Producers Gain Consumer surplus decreases and producer surplus

increases. Which changes by more? Figure 7.6 illustrates the change in total surplus. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. International Trade Restrictions Figure 7.6(a) shows the total surplus with free international trade.

The world price of a T-shirt is $5. Imports are 40 million T-shirts a year. Consumer surplus is the area of the green triangle. Producer surplus is the area of the blue triangle.

2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. International Trade Restrictions The gains from trade is the area of the dark green triangle. Total surplus is the sum of the green and blue

areas. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. International Trade Restrictions Figure 7.6(b) shows the winners and losers from a tariff. The $2 tariff is added to the world price, which increases the price in the United States

to $7 a T-shirt. The quantity of T-shirts produced in the United States increases and the quantity bought in the United States decreases. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. International Trade Restrictions

Consumer surplus shrinks to the green area. Producer surplus expands to the blue area. Area B is a transfer from consumer surplus to producer surplus. Imports decrease. Tariff revenue equals area D: Imports of T-shirts multiplied by $2 a T-shirt.

2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. International Trade Restrictions Society Loses: A Deadweight Loss Arises Some of the loss of consumer surplus is transferred to producers and some is transferred to the government as tariff revenue. But the increase in production costs and the loss from decreased imports is a social loss. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd.

International Trade Restrictions The cost of producing a T-shirt in the United States increases and creates a social loss shown by area C. The decrease in the quantity of imported T-shirts creates a social loss shown by area E.

The tariff creates a social loss (deadweight loss) equal to area C + E. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. International Trade Restrictions Import Quotas An import quota is a restriction that limits the maximum quantity of a good that may be imported in a given period. For example, the United States imposes import quotas on food products such as sugar and bananas and

manufactured goods such as textiles and paper. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. International Trade Restrictions The Effects of an Import Quota Figure 7.7(a) shows the market before the government imposes an import quota on T-shirts.

The world price is $5. The United States imports 40 million T-shirts a year. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. International Trade Restrictions Figure 7.7(b) shows the market with an import quota

of 10 million T-shirts. With the quota, the supply of T-shirts in the United States becomes S + quota. The price rises to $7. The quantity produced in the United States increases and the quantity bought decreases. Imports decrease. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd.

2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. International Trade Restrictions Winners, Losers, and Social Loss from an Import Quota When the U.S. government imposes an import quota on imported T-shirts: U.S. consumers of T-shirts lose. U.S. producers of T-shirts gain.

Importers of T-shirts gain. Society loses: A deadweight loss arises. Figure 7.8 illustrates the winners and losers with an import quota. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. International Trade Restrictions Figure 7.8(a) shows the total surplus with free international trade. Total surplus is maximized.

2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. International Trade Restrictions The import quota raises the price of a T-shirt to $7 and decreases imports. Area B is transferred from consumer surplus to

producer surplus. Importers profit is the sum of the two areas D. The area C + E is the loss of total surplusa deadweight loss created by the quota. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd.

International Trade Restrictions Other Import Barriers Thousands of detailed health, safety, and other regulations restrict international trade. Export Subsidies An export subsidy is a payment made by the government to a domestic producer of an exported good. Export subsidies bring gains to domestic producers, but they result in overproduction in the domestic economy and underproduction in the rest of the world and so create a deadweight loss.

2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. The Case Against Protection Despite the fact that free trade promotes prosperity for all countries, trade is restricted. Seven arguments for restricting international trade are that protecting domestic industries from foreign competition Helps an infant industry grow. Counteracts dumping. Saves domestic jobs.

Allows us to compete with cheap foreign labor. Penalizes lax environmental standards. Prevents rich countries from exploiting developing countries. Reduces offshore outsourcing that sends U.S. jobs abroad. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. The Case Against Protection Helps an Infant Industry to Grow Comparative advantages change with on-the-job experience called learning-by-doing. When a new industry or a new product is bornan infant

industryit is not as productive as it will become with experience. It is argued that such an industry should be protected from international competition until it can stand alone and compete. Learning-by-doing is a powerful engine of productivity growth, but this fact does not justify protection. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. The Case Against Protection Counteracts Dumping

Dumping occurs when a foreign firm sells its exports at a lower price than its cost of production. This argument does not justify protection because 1. It is virtually impossible to determine a firms costs. 2. It is hard to think of a global monopoly, so even if all domestic firms are driven out, alternatives would still exist. 3. If the market is truly a global monopoly, it is better to regulate the monopoly rather than restrict trade.

2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. The Case Against Protection Saves Domestic Jobs The idea that buying foreign goods costs domestic jobs is wrong. Imports destroy some jobs but create jobs for retailers that sell the imported goods and for firms that service these goods. Free trade also increases foreign incomes and enables foreigners to buy more domestic production.

Protection to save particular jobs is very costly. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. The Case Against Protection Allows Us to Compete with Cheap Foreign Labor The idea that a high-wage country cannot compete with a low-wage country is wrong. Low-wage labor is less productive than high-wage labor. And wages and productivity tell us nothing about the source of gains from trade, which is comparative

advantage. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. The Case Against Protection Penalizes Lax Environmental Standards The idea that protection is good for the environment is wrong. Free trade increases incomes and poor countries have lower environmental standards than rich countries. These countries cannot afford to spend as much on the

environment as a rich country can and sometimes they have a comparative advantage at doing dirty work, which helps the global environment achieve higher environmental standards. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. The Case Against Protection Prevents Rich Countries from Exploiting Developing Countries By trading with people in poor countries, we increase the

demand for the goods that these countries produce and increase the demand for their labor. The increase in the demand for labor raises their wage rate. Trade can expand the opportunities and increase the incomes of people in poor countries. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. The Case Against Protection Reduces Offshore Outsourcing that Sends U.S. Jobs

Abroad Offshore outsourcing occurs when a firm in the United States buys finished goods, components, or services from firms in other countries. Despite the gain from specialization and trade that offshore outsourcing brings, many people believe that it also brings costs that eat up the gains. Why? Americans, on average, gain from offshore outsourcing, but some people lose. The losers are those who have invested in the human capital to do a specific job that has now gone offshore.

2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. The Case Against Protection Why Is International Trade Restricted? The key reason why international trade restrictions are popular in the United States and most other developed countries is an activity called rent seeking. Rent seeking is lobbying and other political activity that seeks to capture the gains from trade. Youve seen that free trade benefits consumers but shrinks the producer surplus of firms that compete in markets with

imports. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. The Case Against Protection Those who gain from free trade are the millions of consumers of low-cost imports. But the benefit per individual consumer is small. Those who lose are the producers of import-competing items. Compared to the millions of consumers, there are only a

few thousand producers. These producers have a strong incentive to incur the expense of lobbying for a tariff and against free trade. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd. The Case Against Protection The gain from free trade for any one person is too small for that person to spend much time or money on a political organization to lobby for free trade. Each group weighs benefits against costs and chooses the

best action for themselves. But the group against free trade will undertake more political lobbying than will the group for free trade. 2016 Pearson Education, Ltd.

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