Advertising Design: Theoretical Frameworks and Types of Appeals

Advertising Design: Theoretical Frameworks and Types of Appeals

Advertising Design: Theoretical Frameworks and Types of Appeals Chapter 6 Adweek Media and Harris Interactive Survey Ads somewhat or very interesting (55%) Ads not interesting at all (12%) Ads very influential in purchase decisions (6%) Nearly half of 18-34 year-olds influenced

by advertising 37% of 35-44 year-olds influenced by advertising 28% of individuals 45+ influenced by advertising Chapter Overview Advertising design Hierarchy of effects model Means-end theory Advertising appeals

Creative Brief Review: The objective The target audience The message theme The support The constraints Hierarchy of Effects Model

Awareness Cognitive Knowledge Attitudes From Ch. 3 Affective Liking HEM

Conative Preference Conviction Purchase Means-End Chain

Product attributes Consumer benefits Leverage points Personal values Executional framework Personal Values Pleasure Security Self-fulfillment Self-respect Sense of

belonging Social acceptance age, Personal values vary by culture, need for survival, etc. Wisdom

Comfortable life Equality Excitement Freedom Happiness Inner peace Mature love

Means-End Theory Means-end chain Message (means) lead to end state (personal values) Means-End Conceptualization of Components of Advertising Strategy (MECCAS) Six elements Product attributes Consumer benefits Leverage points Taglines Personal values Executional framework

Leverage Points Moves consumer from benefits to personal value Links attributes benefits personal values Associated with attitude change Ads need powerful leverage points Means-End Chain Product Attributes

Executional Framework Leverage Point Consumer Benefits Personal Values Means-End Chain for Milk Attributes Benefits

Personal Values Low Fat Healthy Calcium Healthy Bones Ingredients Good Taste

Vitamins Enhanced sexual ability Self Respect Wisdom Comfortable Life Wisdom Pleasure Happiness Excitement Fun Pleasure

F ig 6 . 3 Advertising Appeals Fear Humor Sex Music Rationalit y Emotions Scarcity

Fear Appeal Fear increases interest and is remembered Severity and vulnerability Severity level of consequence Vulnerability probability of event occurring Actions controlled by response costs

Humor Appeal Used in 30% of ads. Excellent in capturing attention. Score high in recall tests. Should be related directly to customer benefit. Sex Appeal Subliminal techniques Nudity or partial nudity Sexual

suggestiveness Overt sexuality Sensuality Sex Appeal Breaks through clutter Use has increased Not as effective as in the past Advertisers shifting to more subtle sexual cues. Sex Appeal Nudity or Partial Nudity

Used for wide variety of products Attracts attention Not always designed to solicit sexual response Underwear commercials Decorative models Booth bunnies Sensuality Approaches Women respond more favorably More sophisticated

Relies on imagination Images of romance and love can be enticing Are Sex Appeals Effective? Research Results: Sex and nudity do increase attention. Rated as being more interesting. Often leads to strong feelings about the ad. Brand recall is lower. Often interferes with message comprehension.

May impact feelings toward the brand Disadvantages of Sex Appeals Less influence today Reduces brand recall Affects comprehension Creates dissatisfaction with ones body Stereotyping

Sex Appeals in International Advertising Varies across countries Determined by religion, culture, and values Moslem countries Middle eastern countries European countries France United States Chile

Music Appeal Has intrusive value Gains attention Increases retention of visual information Can increase persuasiveness Rational Appeal Based on hierarchy of effects model. Used by business-to-business advertisers. Well-suited for Print media

Complex products High involvement products Emotional Appeal Based on three ideas: Consumers ignore most ads Rational ads go unnoticed Emotional ads can capture attention Key to developing brand loyalty. Effie Awards humor and emotions. Use in b-to-b advertising increasing. Works well when tied to other

appeals. Scarcity Appeal Based on Limited supply Limited time to purchase Tied with promotional tools such as contests, sweepstakes, and coupons. Encourage customers to take action.

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