Poetry Definitions Very few poets and critics have agreed with one another. The meaning has changed and evolved over time. Poetry is a way of borrowing from other styles of writing (Rosen, 1997). Poetry should be a personal encounter with a poets words that touches you in such a way to bring you back again and again for more you cant get enough! (, 0000). Oxford (0000) the art/work of a poet. The formal characteristics of poetry: composition in verse/metrical language. Patterning poetry has a pattern based on its sound. Poetry is a cultural form where placing of the words is driven by sound as well as sense/meaning. English poetry, free verse excepted, has a regularity of rhythm/metre. A specialised form of language, of which all has rhythm. Poetry has a discernible rhythmic regularity. Wordsworth (0000) poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings; proceeding from the soul of man, communicating its creative energies to the images of the external world. T.S. Eliot (0000) poetry is not a turning loose of the emotion, it is an escape from emotion, not the expression of personality but an escape from personality. Arnold (0000) genuine poetry is conceived and composed in the soul Dryden (1665) mould our thoughts into easy and significant words. Poetry is shaped by its listeners, critics and audiences. New poets should find theirs. Valuable are informed and receptive
readers who can offer useful advice and criticisms. Feedback from more disinterested sources of more practical value. Poetry a gift rather than an art Poetry imaginative, not literal (Lowell, 1921) Poetry Definitions Hughes (1967) imagine what you are writing about: look at it, touch it, smell it, listen to it, turn yourself into it. The words look after themselves. Longley (2010) poetry is personal. Poetry is primarily a medium for the exploration of personal and emotional issues and feelings. Poetry is the most concentrated form of verbal expression Pound (0000) poetry is condensed language charged with a surplus of meaning. Fundamental distinction between poems that can be read and those that cannot Poetry deploys an appropriate/significant form, a form which endorses, heightens, undermines/otherwise exists in a dynamic tension with its content. A powerful, concentrated use of all the resources of language. Unless poetry helps you become a sensitive reader and unless you become a creative reader, not studying poetry at all
Harvey (1998) real poetry is classic; rubbish poetry is smutty, condescending. Duffy (2011) poems are a form of texting. Poetry Forms Prose prescriptive, having demands, restraints, rule and structures poetry can be said to contain much of these qualities an indication of an over-idealised notion of poetry. Awareness of form is crucial to be able to talk about poetry at all. Without this poetry cannot be recognised as poetry. Narrative poems tell a story can often be too long. It often employs the use of different voices and include different characters. Introduce a more complex element to poetry than simple humorous limericks and riddles, useful in engaging children through their story like nature. Descriptive poems demonstrates effective use of many literary techniques: similes; metaphors; alliteration; rhyme. Rap hip hop are examples of performance poetry (similar to song lyrics and jingles). Poetry Forms Nursery Rhymes
A simple traditional song or poem for children. Very young children are capable of responding to rhyme and rhythm through clapping and rocking long before they can articulate language (WEA, 2013) ck tar o D S : les ckory Little p i m Exa ory D winkle e k Hic nkle T d Mic y i n
Tw ee Bli umpt Sheep Thr pty D Black m Hu Blah h Bla Poetry Forms Rhyming Poems A repetition in two or more words of a poem, usually the final syllables at the end of a line. s: ghts e ber l p
m u o m te Exa py Th mmer h Sep Hap in Su s Hat y Bed ty Da ise r Thi e to R Tim Poetry Forms Free Verse Poems: Monologue; Conversation; List Free verse poems have no set metre to them, allowing for freedom of expression due to no particular structure
Monologue A poem in which a single person speaks alone Examples: Alone No Longer Busy No Longer Because I need you, I no longer need me. Because you love me, I no longer love myself. I praise you, Because I am yours.
Conversation An apparently free-flowing, personal meditation, centred on or addressed to someone dear to the poet. Examples: Conversation (Ai, 1999) List A list poem is made up of a long list. They usually have a list in the middle plus a few lines at the beginning/end: Beginning; List, List, List, End. Start with a basic frame e.g. mouse, house, cat, hat, for example and then add in detail. Conversation (Rosen)
Im just going out for a moment. Why? To make a cup of tea. Why? Because Im thirsty. Why? Because its hot. Why? Because the suns shining. Why? Because its summer. Why? Because thats when it is. Why? Why dont you stop saying why? Why?
Tea-time, thats why. High-time you stopped saying why time. I also see something that looks like a house, A monkey, a meerkat, a minx and a mouse, A laptop computer, a boat and a cat, An old pair of glasses, a coat and a hat. (poetry4kids) Poetry Forms Acrostic An acrostic poem is a type of poetry where the first, last or other letters in a line spell out a particular word or phrase :
les p m Exa nsters Mo mer Sum ter Eas Poetry Forms Visual Poems: calligram; shape; concrete. Visual poems have an array of arrangements of text, images and symbols, which help convey the intended effect. Calligram (beautiful writing) The use of words and lines to form poems, sometimes the shape is related to the structure of the poem. For example:
If a poem was linked to the sea, the words may appear shaky Shaky Shape A shape poem is a type of poetry, which describes an object and appears to be shaped like that particular object. For example: Concrete Concrete poems are poems written into a shape For example:
Poetry Forms Structured Poems The following poems are structured poems Cinquain Quatrain
Couplets Limerick Kennings Haiku Tanka Renga Ballads 2, 4, 6, 8, 2 Poetry Forms 2, 4, 6, 8, 2 Cinquain Poems Cinquain poems are five lines long, having only a few words on each line. The first and last lines have 2 syllables, while the middle lines have more, leaving the appearance to look diamond like. All cinquain poems follow this syllable format: Line2 (4); Line 3(6); Line 4(8)
My Mum My mum Is so caring She is always helpful She is so beautiful and kind Love you. Poetry Forms Quatrain Poems Quatrain poems are four lines long, often containing an alternating rhyme. For example: ABAB Lord of Deceit Trapped within a haze of fear, The Lord of Lies does appear.
Clouded by so much thats wrong, Truth gets twisted by his song Poetry Forms Couplets Couplets usually comprise of two lines that have the same rhyme or metre. They must have the same or similar rhythm. Example: My favourite thing to do is play, This is how I will spend my day. Poetry Forms Limerick Limericks can be fun poems with a strong beat. They are very light-hearted and can often be utter nonsense. They consist of 5 lines. Line 1 usually begins There was a and ends with a name, person or place (noun). The last line of a limerick is normally a little unusual.
Limericks have the rhyme scheme AABBA. Lines 1, 2 and 5 rhyme (have between 7 and 10 syllables), and lines 3 and 4 rhyme (have between 5 and 7 syllables. Poetry Forms Kennings A kennings poem is a 2 word phrase describing an object, often using a metaphor. It is a riddle made up of several lines of kennings to describe someone/something. My Sister Dummy-sucker Teddy-thrower Anything-chewer Kiss-giver Slave-employer Dolly-hugger Calm-destroyer Milk-drinker
Nappy-leaker Peace-breaker Scream-shrieker Unlike any other My sister 5, 7, 5 Poetry Forms 5, 7, 5 Haiku A Japanese poem, 3 lines long, consisting of 5 syllables, 7 syllables, 5 syllables. Poetry Forms 5, 7, 5, 7, 7
5, 7, 5, 7, 7 Tanka A Japanese poem, 5 lines long, consisting of 5 syllables, 7 syllables, 5 syllables, 7 syllables, 7 syllables. Poetry Forms 5, 7, 5, 7, 7 5, 7, 5, 7, 7 Renga (linked poem) Poets work in pairs/a small group taking it in turns to compose alternative two-line and three-line stanzas collectively constructing a tanka. Poetry Forms Ballad Poem A ballad is often a poem that tells a story, often used in songs because of their rhyme.
Example: Poetic Features/Techniques Stanza a group of lines within a poem. A stanza break is the blank line between stanzas. Verse has come to represent any division or grouping of words in a poetic composition, with groupings traditionally referred to as stanzas. Similes the use of language to show comparison, commonly using the words like or as. Metaphors can turn a concept into an object, where language comes closest of all to visual representation. Linking these to form new ideas is emotionally and cognitively rewarding. Alliteration the repetition of the same sound or letter at the beginning of most words. Imagery the elements in a poem that spark the senses, need not only be visual. Broadly understood as point at which language comes close to visual arts ability to concentrate multiple meanings in 1 semantic unit. Imagery is language. Repetition words or phrases are repeated a few times to make an idea clearer. Stress the emphasis that falls on certain syllables. The arrangement of stresses is the foundation of rhythm. Pitch - the high or low quality of sound required to read a poem. Part of the readers intonation. Juncture the manner of transition between two consecutive sounds (the relationship between two successive syllables)
Iambic pentameter - five sets of unstressed syllables (weaker syllables) followed by stressed syllables. For example remark re is the unstressed syllable, mark is stressed (stronger syllable). Sonnet a poem written in a certain format. It has 14 lines which can be broken into 4 sections called quatrains. It has a strict rhyme scheme ABAB/CDCD/EFEF/GG. It is written in iambic pentameter. Description use of adverbs and adjectives. Adverbs - can be used to modify the meaning of an adjective or verb. Adjectives describing an attribute of a noun. Onomatopeaia use of echoic sounds such as: BANG! CRASH! Poetic Features/Techniques Metre and rhyme point which language comes closest to music. Metre is the basic rhythmic structure of a line. Rhyme is where two words sound the same when spoken (onset part of the word). Ambiguity be open to more than one interpretation. Irony express meaning by using language that would normally signify the opposite. Noun the name of a person, place, idea, or concept. Verb expresses action or a state of being.
Implied author - one must take into account the actual text and actions involved in responding to it (Iser, 0000) Bob Dylan better to read too much into a poem than nothing at all. Some poems may require knowledge of authors life (inferential understanding) Nature of poems
Humorous, funny, light hearted poems. Designed to be informative, yet entertaining. Tongue twisters stumbling is the point. This kind of fun is highly motivating. Long/short Rhyming/non-rhyming elaborate/simple. Contemporary. These kinds of poems suggest ideas rather than overtly state them. Classic poems with a high degree of quality and staying power (are still known). Reflective these poems reflect a state of mind using comparisons to objects and life scenarios. Popular culture ideas in the mainstream. Standard English Non-standard English Popular Poets and their Poems Popular Poets and their Poems Michael Rosen
Popular Poets and their Poems Popular Poets and their Poems Popular Poets and their Poems Popular Poets and their Poems Popular Poets and their Poems Examples of Well Known Classical Poets and their Poems Number of childrens authors who become established as a classic set of texts which children should become familiar. Older poems often challenge children to a deeper level in terms of vocabulary development and push children to look more
closely at understanding the meaning of language. Highwayman old poem which demonstrates many aspects of language. Complex poem, must be carefully used. Rich language and the use of old fashioned terms, makes it excellent for demonstrating high quality language which requires the reader more closely to investigate more closely the meaning of the poem. Examples of Well Known Classical Poets and their Poems Examples of Well Known Classical Poets and their Poems Work of Roald Dahl remains popular. Likely to be remembered by parents/grandparents. Examples of Well Known Classical Poets and their Poems
Examples of Well Known Classical Poets and their Poems Voted nations favourite poet! Examples of Well Known Classical Poets and their Poems Examples of Well Known Classical Poets and their Poems Examples of Well Known Classical Poets and their Poems Examples of Well Known Classical Poets and their Poems
Examples of Well Known Classical Poets and their Poems Examples of Well Known Classical Poets and their Poems Walter de la Mere Examples of Some Less Well Known Poets and Poems Examples of Some Less Well Known Poets and Poems Examples of a Variety of Poems for
Specific Year Groups YR3 Paul Perro Intro Perhaps you think your granddad's old? Perhaps you've got antiques? But those aren't really old at all Compared to Ancient Greeks. They lived thousands of years ago Way back in ancient times Let's learn about them now shall we? Here come some little rhymes. Mythology The ancient Greeks believed in
Some really crazy things Like minotaurs, centaurs, And a horse with wings. City States The Ancient Greek cities Were all quite separate. Athens, Thebes, and Sparta Each was a different state. These city states sometimes Decided to unite, Like the time when Persia Came to pick a fight. Olympic Heroes Every country has its heroes, Winners from years past.
Champion athletes, gymnasts, swimmers, Skillful, strong and fast. Alexander the Great The best ever military commander Was a young king named Alexander. From the Macadonian city state He was known as Alexander the Great. A brave man - he had a lot of bottle; A wise man too - taught by Aristotle. He fought many battles & always won, His army never lost a single one. Turkey, Syria and Egypt all fell, So did Babylon, and Persia as well. But after 13 years of war, his men Said they wanted to go home again.
That was the end of conquest & glory And that's the end of Alexander's story Multimodal Poems Allows children to construct meaning in multiple forms. Interdisciplinary curriculum!
Language only partial. There are many modes involved in meaning making. More relevant to children today! Related pictures could show to pupils as oral reading progresses, for young children in particular need to see illustrations so meaning is attached. Reading poetry emphasises holism reflecting upon the inherent ideas, not on segments. Before a discussion! Then analysis of contents occurs (beyond the level of semantics). Importance of providing background information prior to the read aloud. Will provide readiness for listening and later reading of the poem by pupils (Ediger, 2001) Kress (1997) pupils sense making in sounds and articulation of meaning is best done through modal resources manifested in intonational patterns, play with pace and variation of volume permeate ensuing discussions. Misguided presentation of learning as antithetical to media education (Mansell, 2005) New literacies lifeworlds and multimodality poetry is the voice that brings the two together powerfully. Teaching Strategies Short, structured tasks clear targets for boys! Talk! when pupils involved in activities that lead them to discuss, question, clarify and write about course content, they foster better retention of the subject matter, helping expand pupils thinking abilities. Helping to encourage pupils
to talk about the nature of their reading voices, it should assist pupils in acquiring the vocabulary to describe accent, tone and pitch which could help to further articulate their affective impact on themselves as listeners. In most discussion of literature, teachers control the floor, typically returning to the teacher after each pupil turn (tend to be question and answer sessions). Such a pattern characteristic of recitation rather than conversation. Discussion boys seem more likely than girls to compete for the conversational floor (Hutchby and Wooffitt, 1998). Manifestations of greater tendency towards exploratory talk actions that show engagement! Teacher should jump in to discussion to point things out e.g. contradiction. Be wary of offering negative judgements! Major purpose of discussion should be to provoke thought rather than to check childrens comprehension or their use of poetic techniques. Lockward (1994) some teachers and poets see memorisation not as an affliction but a valuable exercise. It is a form of ownership. Haliburton and Smith (1911) first appeal of a true poem is its resonance to our personal acts. This is how every poem should be taught, not an over-analysis as this may prove fatal to pupils love of a good poem. Teacher modelling is important. Vygotsky (1986) Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD). Help children to achieve the meaning and understanding of poems. Scaffolding helps learners to engage in self-reflection, to think abstractly as children begin to understand new
concepts. Wood (1992) learning depends on negotiation of meanings. Those who lead the learning follow. Teaching Strategies Stibbs (1981) teachers encourage poetry by writing it themselves unless teachers do that they are tailors dummies in a nudist colony bad manners! Overly didactic teaching methods may have a negative effect on pupils attitudes. The range of poems studied tends to be limited too many poems considered a lack of significant challenge by the pupils. Make own personal anthology of poems, continually expandable. Quality of poem important should demonstrate a variety of expression so that children have the opportunity to reflect on poets intonation, emphasis, pace, breathiness, volume and pronunciation. Distinct English lessons/relevant knowledge, skills and understanding can be integrated into cross-curricular work. Brownjohn (1994): 2 principles for poetic encounters in the classroom: children should have the opportunity to enjoy playing with language; need practice manipulating words, to feel in control of them rather than letting them have control.
Song enhances pupils ability to articulate the effect of vocal play in voiced poems. Moyer (1982) Repeated readings may seem like a punishment, it can be boring for older readers. This is why the use of poetry is ideal with its comparatively short text, fun subject matter and easy match with strategy of repeated reading. Mastery of a short poem can help pupils feel confident and successful. This can be in conjunction with fluency success through tutoring and corrective feedback. Components of repeated readings: listening while reading; assisted reading and modelling. Introduce a poem based on pupils current reading level. guide pupils into the study of poems without forcing them to accept the teachers interpretation hopefully tapping pupils creativity and transform them into active readers of poetry. Teaching Strategies Failure to adopt a more creative approach to poetry makes it vulnerable to becoming a packaged commodity (Hennessy and McNamara, 2011). Danger classrooms become sterile, devoid of human character, warmth and individual personality. A teachers individual character is key in constructing an atmosphere of fruitful teaching and learning. Conceptual space for children to explore ideas, take risks, experiment, problem solve and share ideas.
Meaningful environmental print can support, direct, affect childrens dispositions as well as appropriate resources, enabling them to reflect and sustain their interest in poetry. An ethos that encourages children to push the boundaries in learning, investigate new possibilities and be fearless in their creations. Poetry bags bag labelled with a theme, full of objects to inspire. Ofsted (2007) importance of role poetry as children can demonstrate the use of high quality language and its importance in giving meaning to experiences. Characters in the poem can be explored with children. If there isnt much description of characters, encourage the children to use their imagination to support understanding of the text. Children can think beyond the text, creating character profiles for the different people in the story, write descriptions of how the characters may look/choose wanted posters. Setting can be explored with children. May be linked to an art lesson. Through exploration of rhyming patterns, children can be encouraged to use the poem to create an additional stanza for the poem that fits the rhyming scheme. Language can be explored more closely Teaching Strategies Mixed ability groups fuel discussion. Encourage the children to fuel their own opinions about the poems. Children
share responses with the group. Teacher can make notes for speaking and listening assessment. Intervention groups often receive watered down reading instruction, causing those children to be less engaged with text. An atmosphere of trust and mutual support vital for pupils to progress. ICT Can make work transparent and fun Can serve as a vehicle to connect teachers and pupils outside of the classroom setting. Expectation learning today to be electronically connected wide range of text types now! Can help reveal misconceptions may not otherwise discover! Over emphasis on the presentational aspects can distract pupils from the real value of the word processor as an editing
tool. It can enable writers to make an unmake decisions about structure, line length, word choice and word order in an instant. Important children can make connections between reading and writing processes and are aware of the particular opportunities which the PC offers. Dauite (1983) word processor allows pupils to keep up with their thoughts as they write. The immediate experiment with new word combinations/to reorganise texts can make the idea of drafting much less of a daunting process. It is though by no means fool proof. Audio Play audio recordings of poems to their classes to create opportunities for them to respond. Interpreted and transformed according to a variety of variables. Teacher should take into account how the gender of the recorded voice to be heard by pupils could have a significant effect on the meaning constructed by pupils, especially as the majority of primary school teachers are predominantly female. Byrom (1998) audio resources can play a helpful role in the engagement and learning of lower attaining pupils. Needs to be a shift away from thinking to considering enjoyment of sounds. Listening a lower means to a higher end! Newsom (DES, 1963) and Bullock (DES 1975) reports championed the use of audio resources but to no avail.
Quality of heard voice important for 2 reasons: motivation; materially. Teachers need to be aware of the impact of their own voices. Impression teachers do not feel entirely at ease with supporting pupils listening to poetry it is a novel experience and not normalised in class routines/teacher repertoires. Pupils need training to listen teachers who havent engaged much in this activity will mean neither have they. Video Using video with pupils to record their poetry and performances. Show children videos of poems such as the one below: Overhead Projector
Invaluable tool which can make the drafting of a text much more of a shared experience. Ensure you use a large font size and avoid cramming too much text Using different coloured pens/highlighters can be very helpful Drafts can be annotated and changed very quickly Can be used during the plenary Can be saved. Visiting Poet
Bringing a poet into the classroom is the ultimate way of breathing life into the process of writing poetry. Can leave a long lasting impact on pupils perceptions of poetry must be properly planned! Educational visits excellent opportunities! Cross curricular list of potential venues endless! Diversity of locations which can stimulate new writing (poetry places scheme, 1998-2000)
Puppets/Marionettes Link to Drama! Puppetry is a way for pupils to become engaged in a holistic creative process. Personal characteristics Can use puppets to describe feelings link to emotive poetry? Used for different purposes e.g. assessment and diagnosis. Can be meaningful and engaging! Can take on the role of the teacher e.g. informing, questioning, organising, managing, etc. a puppet that is curious, uncertain, misguided, confused captivating for children. Meets the needs of all learners! . Same kind of learning opportunities for all children Culminating act of performance to encompass more broadly the cognitive, kinaesthetic, aesthetic and communicative processes that pupils exercise during performance study. Often used with children with SEN. Children can retell poems using their own voices, thoughts and ideas. Leave poem open inspire a childs creativity!
Can help to build pupils understanding of the interrelation of reading, writing, speaking and listening. Develops reading confidence for narrative and non-native speakers of a language, increases comprehension and meaningful strategy use. Pupils less inclined to appeal for help with unfamiliar words used a variety of strategies to figure them out. So motivated use writing to develop scripts become enthusiastic authors once they had puppets in need of play (children normally have a hard time coming up with ideas). When pupils enjoy reading and analysing the poems put effort in to the puppet plays. Play childs natural medium of self-expression. Take it seriously! Play a catalyst for positive socialisation. Encourages imagination helps children develop important lifelong skills. Puppets Link to Drama! Recent emphasis on high quality, pupil dialogue. Engaging and motivating children challenge for teachers. Children are keen to talk and explore alternative suggestions can generate ideas for the puppet. children take misconceptions puppet gives seriously do their best to explain how they can be solved. children often talk in dialogic ways explain and justify their ideas. Impacts greater on those who talk the least. Proportion of teacher talk reduced. Children give greater explanations to puppets compared to teachers.
A sense of dialogue which ideas are challenged and built upon, respectful acceptance of responses, teacher acting as facilitator and high level of engagement. children make gains in self-efficacy. Teachers successful in generating a classroom and discussion culture that was supportive, collective and reciprocal. Found it more difficult to generate purposeful and cumulative talk (Alexander, 2008). Teacher confidence an important element if a teacher suspends disbelief, pupils nearly always do! Need to do wholeheartedly to make a positive impact. Few teachers use puppets. Learning through doing! Expands childrens use of vocabulary. Reading theatre meaningful opportunity to practice and strengthen literacy abilities. Wolfe 1993; 4 valuable tool for negotiating text, building status and interpreting text. Highly focused on text and language simplicity ideal for classroom. Meaningful, motivational, purposeful! Importance of process rereading known texts, reading for fluency with expression and reading aloud for a meaningful purpose. Engaged pupils in developing, rereading and performing through oral reading and puppetry. Drama
Engages children in many aspects of the reading process in meaningful and active ways. Performance invite children to assume roles, voice stories and insights, dialogue with others meeting speaking and listening. Invites pupils to act, imagine, embody, feel and shape their way into a deeper knowledge of understanding. Games Rhyming games. This can help children to become more familiar with words, increasing their vocabulary as it can help to make the links clear between oracy and literacy through onset and rime. Oral Performance Good for boys an activity they welcome! Careful they dont dominate! Communicative and expressive arts can be seen as feminine! Differences in reaction according to gender. Boys appear to express themselves with greater physical animation and more overt mimicry. Some boys performance work can be seen as a source of anxiety and tension. Tongue twisters stumbling is the point, as this kind of fun is highly motivating.
The character of recorded reading may be important to pupils response, especially motivation and engagement. Reading Poetry Successful readers bring with them many complex skills as they interact with text: fluently access it; constantly construct meanings as they read; infer further meaning from contextual information. Fluency essential aspect of social nature of reading. Provides many benefits to reader. To prevent word recognition problems, pupils should follow print discourse. Most poems are short encourages readers of all levels of proficiency to read many of them. Children who had been reluctant to read prose aloud more commonly frequently volunteer to read shorter passages that typify most poetry. Doesnt take long for pupils to be captivated by allure of poetry. It can be a rewarding and enjoyable experience. Appeals to the fondness children have for rhyme and rhythm. Teachers should nurture childrens Poetry salient facet of the reading curriculum Carefully chosen poems should be read aloud in class should encourage: optimal listening; secure the learners interest; stress meaningful content so that the reading makes sense to them; understanding of the purpose for reading; intrinsic motivation for people to do more reading of diverse kinds of poems (refer to poetry forms section); learners to enjoy
reading activities; listeners in wanting to write poems; learners to perceive relationships between reading and writing (as theyre inextricably linked); feeling and the aesthetics of poems; stimulation, of wanting to learn more about creatie uses of words and language (Gunning, 2000) Boring experiences must be avoided in reading poetry (refer to teaching strategies). Model the correct stress, pitch and juncture. Having own spontaneous reactions gives children a tacit permission for children to have theirs. Dias (1987) reading poetry is primarily and essentially a teacher-directed classroom activity referred to as the fullfrontal approach. Reading Poetry Second reading should involve pupils in the read aloud. Rereading good so long as pupils remain interested in the poetry selection. Unknown and unrecognised words may then be mastered. May be followed by discussion in small groups. Poetry is meant to be said out loud. It can become a powerful tool for early literacy as it contains language used in beautiful forms which children can easily wrap around their tongues and play with its sounds. Readers tend to focus on different aspects of a poem during different readings. DES (1988) pupils have an ear for language, hearing poetry first can be a thoroughly enjoyable experience. Can manifest
in repetition of details, physical animation and sustained engagement in subsequent discussion. Domaille and Edwards (2006) student teachers identify their strengths as readers. Graham and Kelly (1997) reading requires knowledge of how language works semantically and syntactically. This is acquired through social interaction with culture and the world. Bars and Brown (1990) shared and guided reading perfect for immersion activities. Pennac (2006) rights of the readers of poetry books: right not to read from beginning to end but dip in; right to read and reread; right to read them aloud; right to learn them by heart; right to read anything considered to be poetry; right to finish a poetry book if you dont like it. Writing Poetry Integrates well with different purposes in writing. Pupils should practice writing the particular kind of poem after it has been introduced as they will have gained the prerequisite experiences in which to do so. Poets make use of imagery in writing. 2 kinds: similes make for creative comparisons; alliteration 2 or more words in sequence with the same beginning sound, adding novelty and originality. (refer to poetic features). Children should observe it, hear and enjoy it.
Onomatopoeia inherent part of a poem pupils may brainstorm these and use selected ones to use in their written poems. Use of displays teachers should be drawn to the ideas contained on displays, as a motivator. Poems may be written by children to indicate what they have learned (refer to assessment). Benefits of encouraging learners to write poetry: discovery; power and release; grace. These are all based on the tenet children are natural poets. Yates (2007) free writing writers produce works they havent anticipated. Goal is development of individual personal voices through poetry writing Obied (2007); Schwalb (2006). Teachers are committed to encouraging pupils to use poetry writing as part of their self development. Prefigure the needs of the writer (personal growth model) whilst recognising the need to scaffold (Wood, Bruner and Ross, 1976) Pupils rarely engage in extended writing digital communication is now a deeply embedded cultural practice where reading is privileged over writing. 2/3 of pupils have a less than favourable positive attitude towards writing, something indicative of all primary student teachers the future of writing in primary schools.
Writing Poetry Ability to write needs the experience of reading as it helps to provide models of the function, structure and power of written texts. Implicit resonance with identification of needs (Maslow, 1954 self actualisation) learners need psychological safety, which can occur when the writer has a strong self of own authorial voice and feels empowered to make choices about the type of writing they do and as such be innovative with their use of written language. Teachers need to create personalised spaces for writing and recognise these may be different for different children. When a novice writers ideas repeatedly fail to be afforded with a more powerful other this can cause damage to self-esteem which may cause a long term reluctance to write. Specific conditions required by writers: sufficient time to think and plan; use of mind mapping; elicit memories and organise thought. Pullman (2002) critical of over emphasis on planning. In order to progress in writing children must demonstrate an ability to use adjectives. Careful not to over-exaggerate the use of them as children use them to make their writing more interesting. Teachers are aware of the need for different kinds of thinking to come into play at different parts of the poetry writing process discipline is required for advancement of skills in poetry writing.
Wilson (2010) importance of risk taking and experimentation in poetry writing foregrounds the need of the writer ahead of the reader. Faigley (1994) poetic writing which appears to reflect the processes of the creative imagination is deliberately arranged to seem spontaneous. Expressive writing should contain integrity, spontaneity and originality which should not be subject to scrutiny. Writing Poetry Wilson (2010) poetry is a fertile space which affords teachers the opportunity to test their different beliefs and values as well as pedagogical approaches. School teachers expected to demonstrate proficiency as writers. Those charged with developing childrens writing need to have a secure knowledge of the syntactic and textual features of the text types they will be teaching, they also require knowledge of the processes of composition. Teachers have a moral obligation to write themselves, should keep their own folder in the classroom along with their pupils. Teachers of writing need to be creative, process knowledge of processes and composition and have a familiarity with
different textual structures (includes generation of ideas and their translation into the meaningful text as well as the ability to review and revise). This process is recursive rather than linear/sequential. Graves (1994) only writers should be allowed to teach writing because writers alone understand the circumstances of creation. Gordimer (2013) to be a writer is likened to a voyage of discovery, a prerequisite of teachers. Sarmiento and Vasqez (2010) through writing teachers gain a better sense of whom they are and gain insights into their writing selvs. Aharonian (2008) concern pupils achievements in writing lag behind achievement in reading. Teacher insider knowledge as writers has a positive impact on pupils achievement. Positioning student teachers as writers and support for their writing can enable self-efficacy to be developed, a subjective view of ones competence. Ofsted (2009) found weaknesses in lessons. The technical aspects of writing were over-emphasised where knowledge was privileged over practice in writing. Teachers lacked confidence as writers unable to demonstrate to pupils how ideas are created, shaped, reviewed and revised. Opportunity to readdress relationship with writing. Cremin and Myhill (2012) some teachers with low self-esteem as writers avoided risk taking and did minimal writing demonstration out of fear. Writing Poetry
Stannard and Huxford (2007) writing pedagogy in England has been neglected. Ofsted (2009) clear need to reinvigorate the teaching of writing. 1 possible reason a tendency to privilege reading over writing. This is accompanied by a privilege of reading for pleasure but rarely engaging in writing for pleasure (Peel, 2000; Cremin, 2008) Domaille and Edwards (2006) rare student teachers identify their strengths as writers. Bailey (2002) teachers adhere to the demonstration of discrete skills in their teaching of writing. They need therefore a confident understanding of childrens writing development and a clear rationale for writing pedagogy. Andrews (2008) tenets to teach writing: write; pupils should respond to one anothers writing; teacher should act as a writer alongside pupils and be prepared to undertake the same tasks; best teacher of writing another teacher of writing; the various processes need to be mapped and practiced: pre-writing, drafting, revising, editing, conferencing and publishing. Wenger (1998) the teaching of writing is a social activity where each writer is supported by their peers in a community of practice. 1 size fits all teaching method inappropriate due to individualistic nature of written composition and its recursive process.
Best writing comes from those who have experienced high quality models of text and engage with their meaning. Guided writing provides a means to step up intensity of collaboration between writers and assists children in becoming more confident managers of narrative. DfES (2005) 1 of the key issues in teaching writing is motivating boys. Its been suggested that an essential aspect of developing boys writing is to encourage writing for purpose and audience. Create a classroom environment where children feel able to share their writing and comment on that of others (a gradual process) Writing Poetry Graves 1981/3 writers rent their pieces and their teachers own them. Writing could begin with unconscious rehearsal e.g. notes. Neglection of the prewriting stages can significantly diminish pupils understanding of the writing process. Graves 1983 advocated the modelling of writing, helping teachers to understand their own writing and developed a community of spirit among the writers in the class. Urges teachers to use simple, straightforward approaches including active listening and demonstration enabling young writers to make sense of the unpredictable and often complex
nature of their writing. Provide regular opportunities to write poetry, can help make it possible to build a stronger picture of childrens strengths and writing habits. Hull recommends building in time to share their drafts as a pair or small group. Used models of poems in classroom. Imitating a model can be a creative process and a strategy for guiding young writers into a literary culture in which writing is created within the context of other writing. Need not be directly linked but produced after a period of absorption. Flexibility is essential if writers are genuinely develop. Myhill (1986) poetry writing classrooms are sites of risk taking outside the bounds of the conventional classroom. Pupils are given the freedom to choose their subjects and styles, developing young writers confidence to make choices about styles and forms is essential if children are to learn to be creative for themselves rather than imitate creators. Devoting too much time and energy to heavily directed planning is something poetry teachers need to be wary of e.g. an extensive array of diagrams, planning charts and writing frames as the creative process could be stifled. Need to give careful consideration to an individuals specific development needs. How to begin drafting: free writing; spider diagrams; stimuli; demonstration. Assessment
Peer feedback Association between teacher-pupil feedback and pupil attributions. Self assessment Write poems to indicate to teacher what they have learned, linking this back to the success criteria at the start of the lesson (WILF poem). Academic self-concept needs to be taken into consideration. It is so personal it seems almost intrusive to be over critical. Teachers comfortable with intervening and supporting pupils during the drafting process but were anxious not to be intrusive. Negative emotions towards the idea of formally assessing poetry. Flexibility and freedom in accepting interpretations and responses desirable but could bring about difficulties in marking and assessment. Comprehension and assessment seem to dominate over reading and response which will lead to a reduced pleasure in texts and adversely influence childrens desire to read. Andrews (1991) poetry is notoriously hard to assess. Assessment frameworks give considerable status to the written mode. Not the easiest medium to measure progress.
Hourd 1949 accept all of the pupils writings rather than make them. Driver 1977 creative writing should take heed of assessment meaures if its not to be simply self expression. A poem should be assessed in relation to the writer, not simply in success related to a model. Assessment Need for consideration of contexts as well as the cognitive and affective processes used by the developing writer A regular assessment dialogue should take place with pupils. Black (1998) formative assessment should offer guidance about the ways pupils might progress in learning, linked to a clear conception of the curriculum and its learning goals. Use the model poem as an assessment tool. Sainsbury (2009) teachers are working within a high stakes assessment environment where the context is driven by notion of accountability. Corrective feedback Planning a final piece of work e.g. performance of poems is a rich means to assess childrens understanding of the genre as well as a number of other key assessments. Making the time to notice childrens poetry writing extremely difficult!
Provide regular opportunities to write poetry, can help make it possible to build a stronger picture of childrens strengths and writing habits. Benefits of Using Poetry/Why Teach Poetry? Word Recognition. Early language experiences are rooted in lullabies, childhood chants and songs, etc. thus many develop an early affinity for rhyme and rhythm. They can easily memorise and say a simple verse. These foundations need to be built upon. Significance of phonics instruction. Correlation between childrens sensitivity to rhyme and successful acquisition of reading skills. Word wonderments quintessential feature of poetry making every poem an opportunity for discovery and delight. Children love the sound of language and thrive on the rhythm of a word/flow of a stanza. Sound comes first, understanding later (Whitin, 1983) Loving language and increased confidence brought about by success in oral poetry reading can help to make pupils enthusiastic about reading all genres. BEA (1990) poetry has enormous value in learning to read. Use of rhyming poems particularly important in supporting
phonemic awareness. Boys underperforming in English something aversive in the experiencing of reading at school. Reading seen as a feminised activity. Literacy dominant underpinning of many teaching activities. Write for a purpose? Can be used to challenge stereotypes Significant gain in the amount of time pupils spend reading immersed in literature for longer and different purposes. Benefits of Using Poetry/Why Teach Poetry? Can help us see differently, understand ourselves and others (TS8) and validate our human experiences e.g. looking past temporary unhappiness/failures (between ourselves and the poet/ourselves and others) ((Denman, 1988 )- poets are the caretakers of the human experience). Reminds us just how things are, comforting and sustaining us, letting us know we are not alone (Morelli, 1997). Once pupils believe personal responses are valid and valuable they may then become motivated to seek the written word as a means to explore and understand the complexities of their personal lives. Genre especially suited to the struggling/unmotivated reader. Poetry finds a home in all areas of the curriculum, enhances thinking skills and promotes personal connections to
content area subjects (can be a temporary escape). Use of well chosen poems extends and enhances the atmosphere surrounding more fact-laden subject areas, making the content area more palatable, meaningful and user friendly. WEA (2013) everyday power of rhyme in remembering information. Rhymes can be used throughout the curriculum. Inter(textuality/contextuality) children may notice links between a poem and a story, even the use of single words. Rosenblatt (1980) recognises cognition is increasingly recognised as being accompanied by affect/feeling. 1982 aesthetic response desires more attention. Teachers seem unsure of the reasons for teaching poetry Wade and Sidaway (1990) 39 reasons for teaching poetry with 4 frequent mentions! (motivational/cognitive rather than exhorting teaching of poetry for its own sake) Harrison and Gordon (1983) teachers felt afraid to teach poetry, were inhibited by it and could not see its purpose. These were reflected in pupils attitudes. Kind of modern day poetry has a demiotic, subversive feel, breaking taboos and debunking traditional literature.
Benefits of Using Poetry/Why Teach Poetry? To poetry we turn to find expression for seriousness Poetry is not a luxury, it is our engagement with the world/each other. At times of personal and natural crisis people turn to poetry to make sense of their condition. Effective teachers of literacy embed teaching of phonics within context of real texts. Bryant and Bradley (1985) poetry teaches children about correspondences between letters and sounds. Subject Pedagogical Knowledge Curriculum Knowledge Teacher Subject Knowledge
Benton (1992) has stated that the handling of poetry is an area of the curriculum teachers feel most unsure about, something they feel guilty about. They worry about the rightness of a poems meaning and of their teaching methods, conveying to children an ambience of anxiety at a problem with hidden rules rather than one of enjoyment. DeLawter (1992) many teachers are concerned with accountability, proficiency testing and a perceived need to teach mastery of specific reading skills. This indicates they are little more than curriculum clerks. Academic self-concept. Interest in poetry should be encouraged not hindered. Developmental needs need to be considered. To understand poem children may need experience of: subject matter knowledge illustration, object and discussion might provide this prerequisite knowledge; novel use of the selected words in the poem these need attention (possibly display prior to reading). Reading and writing of free verse poems preferred by children those that contain no necessary rhyme or use of syllables. Carefully selected poetry has the potential to engage minds, elicit intense emotions and sensory reactions and arouse intrinsic passions. Poetry touches all children a meaningful way. Could be the genre that excites children and motivate them to read and
write. It is amazingly effective but underused (Cullinan et al.,1995). Teachers often see it as a difficult and fruitful task (Rogers, 1985) It is the genre teachers feel most uncomfortable with (Lockward 1994) Several possible issues as to the cause of such lack of knowledge: fear, lack of comfort, teachers who feel compelled to teach reading skills, anxiety over the method and knowledge of poems, negative school experiences and their own experience of over-analysis and interpretation of poems. Subject Pedagogical Knowledge Curriculum Knowledge Teacher Subject Knowledge Helping pupils see the need and purpose of all kinds of poetry is a challenge for primary school teachers. Dias (1992) most pupils in classrooms arrive at destinations rather than having travelled (an analogy suggesting children are given answers to a poems meaning rather than the opportunity to explore a poems meaning for themselves).
Reading poetry is an opportunity for reading success, increasing the confidence of more timid readers. Ray (0000) uncertainty on the part of some trainee teachers about the teaching of poetry. KS1 and 2 poetry largely taught in context of literacy skills/topic work. May be due to gap in specialist knowledge. Meek (1991) teachers kept attention on the need to control aspects such as SPAG and getting the words right, rather than on poetrys liberating feature the use of the imagination! Teachers believe what they are to teach should be prescribed thoroughly so they are in no doubt what they are to deliver. Teachers should have a deeper knowledge of the subject to inform and enrich their teaching as well as provide answers to questions and to extend their pupils abilities going beyond the National Curriculum content! Twisellton (1998) emphasis on general classroom management and childrens self-esteem rather than subject content. Trainees say they were taught poetry rather than how to understand it/enjoy it/appreciate it. As a result they dont go looking to read it or stumble across it. All trainees believe it to be worthwhile in spite of their own experiences. Cant rely on a poem to produce the same effect consistently good educational practice to prescribe the emotions 1 ought to have. Enjoyment of a poem doesnt necessarily lead to appreciation. Poets may choose to modify their work and presentation to appeal to those with whom they work for to appeal to the
attention of the reader. The full range of poetic experience cannot be covered by 1 attachment. Subject Pedagogical Knowledge Curriculum Knowledge Teacher Subject Knowledge Perry (1973) intellectual pressure felt in all curriculum planning namely the habit of making cognitive education the principle emphasis subordinating other things to it for the cognitive advance they can achieve. Reported decline of children reading for pleasure Teachers pedagogical knowledge and understanding of their use of childrens literature. Seek to develop young readers who can and do choose to read. Classroom practice influenced by a myriad of factors. Teachers knowledge of literature surely a prerequisite to nurture positive attitudes and to sustain and develop young readers. Rarely included in list of teacher required competencies.
Children in England continue to read somewhat less independently and find less pleasure in reading. Wide range of text types now available: magazines, comics, TV, books. More diverse literary texts need to be made available in schools. Practice of relying upon extracts, downloaded/purchased is heavily criticised. Teachers creative literature restricted by centralised systems and their attendant pedagogical practices. ACE (2003) teachers confidence is knowledge and using childrens literature may be limited particularly due to a lack of time to read personally for pleasure. 58% could name 2,1,0 poets. 22% named 0. only 10% named 6. few women or black poets mentioned (Cremin, 2008). DfE (1995) literary texts shared should be written by significant childrens authors. Teachers tend to lean towards those whose poetry might be seen as light-hearted/humorous. Debateable whether teachers have a wide enough range to plan richly integrated and holistic work. Real need for CPD attention teachers need opportunities to enrich this critical knowledge base and need to know how and where to access. Subject Pedagogical Knowledge
Curriculum Knowledge Teacher Subject Knowledge Benton (1978) poetry survives in the gaps if at all. Poetrys problem connected with its risky nature. Maybin 1993 ppls need to understand genres as part of their socialisation denying access to the genre means denying them access to the subject. Kress 1982 the child learns to control the genre but in the process the genre comes to control the child. Assuage of child vulnerability in the face of printed literature. Pupils dont always seem to use a conventional, established literacy-critical metalanguage to discuss poetry. This doesnt mean they dont make sensitive interpretations of text/attend to complex ways of meaning making sometimes construct situated understandings of apparently simple everyday terms which serves as carriers for deep comprehension of textual details. Preminger and Brogan (1993) pupils should have more opportunity to appreciate the bivalent nature of poetry. Ray (1999); Benton (1999, 2000) urged greater attention to poetry in CPD in relation to teachers lack of confidence. Approaches to poetry in the classroom can make children aware of the wide range of emotional possibilities each word possesses according to its context, association, speaker, association/history.
Bruner (on Vygotsky) learners grow into the intellectual life of those around them. Learning is a social activity by nature! (personal growth model) Wilson and Myhill (2012) teachers view metalanguage as being linked to creative freedom of writing poetry. Linguistic metalanguage is associated with rules and restrictions. Teachers reveal a lack of confidence with subject knowledge in both literary and linguistic metalanguage which may be shaping their epistemological beliefs. Lack of confidence may underpin these views. Teachers view poetry as marginalised and isolated. Contrast it is the cornerstone/essence of literacy. Dyson, Gallannaugh and Millward (2003) a tension between the rewards of poetry teaching and the standards agenda. Subject Pedagogical Knowledge Curriculum Knowledge Teacher Subject Knowledge Wilson (2010) ability to conceptualise apparently contradictory aspects of thinking divergent thinking!
Perkings (2011) poetry said to fulfil social and expressive needs this is a claim also made by neuroscientists. School teachers expected to demonstrate proficiency as writers. Assumption all teachers have confidence in themselves as writers the opposite is generally the case. Perfect (2005) poetrys format is especially suited to struggling/reluctant readers and can enhance their motivation. Poetry seems to be the text type most often associated with negative feelings and seems to offer people the most challenges. Adopting the position of supreme arbitrator will not help the pupils develop their own personal response to a text. It will merely compare them to accept the opinion of an expert reader. This can make pupils passive and lead them to perceive reading as if it were a mystery (Stratta et al., 1973) (creativity stifled) Should be counterbalanced with activities that guide pupils into the study of poems without forcing them to accept the teachers interpretation hopefully tapping pupils creativity and transform them into active readers of poetry. When poetry is obscure, chiefly because information necessary for comprehension, not part of the readers knowledge. Reader response critics see meaning resulting from a process of interaction between poem and reader. Barthes visible, readable texts we read creatively; scriptable become like a writer in the creative structure of meaning. Iser one must take into account the actual text and actions involved in responding to it. Children are capable, creative humans who come to the poetry classroom with their own rich and diverse experiences, worthy of exploration.
Medwell et al (1998) effective teachers of literacy highlight meaning when teaching about texts. Literacy learning in an appropriate context can enable children to make real and explicit connections (a functionalist approach). Malaguzzi (2004) children need gifted teachers. Teachers could shape into greatness through working with children and other adults. Subject Pedagogical Knowledge Curriculum Knowledge Teacher Subject Knowledge Multiple benefits of teaching literacy creatively. Involves teaching literacy skills and developing knowledge about language in creative contexts. Explicitly invite learners to engage imaginatively, stretch their generative and evaluative capacities by taking risks and being innovative. Creative teachers extend childrens abilities as readers, writers, speakers and listeners, helping them express themselves effectively.
When creativity emerges children actively become absorbed in exploring ideas, initiating own learning and making choices and decisions. Subject leader voiced concern that if poetry is studied for 2+ weeks children can become bored. Poetry is a subject teachers would quite readily hide in a box and forget all about. Supporting the development of poetry can be an overwhelming task, especially when so many feel their own knowledge of poetry is limited. Hughes (2007) effective use of poetry highly beneficial for childrens literacy development as it encourages an economy and precision in language which can transfer to other types of oral and written communication. Dymoke (2003) 2 differing attitudes: poetry should be central to the curriculum; other teachers treat it with suspicion, often arising from their own negative experiences. Childrens poetry not an exclusive club. Moses (1998) poetry should be for everyone, including reluctant boys who it traditionally doesnt reach. Fuller (1987) those who write poetry for children better written for people of any age. The more pure the poetry, the more difficult to say for whom the poem is written for. Rosen (1992) poetry written for children has become more diverse. It has many voices. Seeks to avoid writing down to children, uses a special voice by using childrens own language to speak about their language, usually in anecdotes. Memorable speech Rosen uses free verse to convey speech, rhythms and thought patterns in memorable ways.
Subject Pedagogical Knowledge Curriculum Knowledge Teacher Subject Knowledge Too often in poetry, children encounter anthologies often with a narrow range of poems and poets. Children dont engage with individual authors work. Carter (2007) sharp reduction in single poet collections as part of a general decrease in poetry book publications. Teacher confidence an issue to teach poetry is to notice how children are writing as one has to draw on their own experiences Kress (1982) the child learns to control the genre but in the process the genre comes to control the child. Duffy (2011) poems are a form of texting. The fun and creativity of mobile texting will turn today's children into exciting poets of tomorrow Britton (1970, 3) verbalisation of the speakers immediate preoccupation and mood of the moment expressive language! (a kind of matrix. As this moved towards the poetic became more shaped and organised, heightening/intensifying the explicit.
Importance of Subject Knowledge/Perception of Poetry Pupil orientation can be influenced by classroom practice. Can sometimes be in conflict at interpersonal and intergroup level teachers and peers! Experience bring the ability to talk about, record and recall. Due to teachers possible lack of positive experience of poems, they may themselves be killing poetry rather than instilling a love of poetry to their pupils. Newkirk (1984) teachers may only teach texts they have mastered in contrast, to how poetry should be taught as most literacy instruction should foster myths a journey to uncover meaning. Teachers rereading qualitatively different from pupils initial reading! Teachers play a crucial role in inspiring young people to enjoy poetry and the way they approach poems. They can help to stimulate a lifelong passion for the genre/rejection. Dymoke (2009) the idea poetry is a difficult medium can lead potential readers to reject its advances. Booktrust (2010) the older pupils get the more likely they are to see poetry as an elite form of art. Motion (2000) teachers need to get over the mental block poetry Is difficult to teach, crucial if their pupils see poetry as
something accessible and enjoyable and can read on their own. More the brain is stimulated, the more it develops the potential to make connections (Greenfield, 2002) Top Tips for Teachers Create a bank of poetry: favourite poems read; new kinds of poetry (as these also need to be explored by pupils). Poems of appropriate length and difficulty can be readily selected to suit diverse ability and interest needs in a classroom. Breadth, diversity and in-depth knowledge important! Make poems available and accessible to all learners. Encourage pupils to become creative in this select a favourite poem and discuss what it suggests (Myers, 1998). Create an emotional readiness before reading poems share some thoughts and feelings in advance of reading, helping to get the children interested in whats ahead. Teachers should bring children and poetry together everyday helps to make poetic language familiar and provocative. A community of poetry readers! Share in the process of constructing meaning. Have a definite strategy planned to introduce a poem to learners. Demonstrate a liking for poetry show children you care about what they feel and think. Create a safe learning environment open to exploration. Talk! Teach poems until we have a good sense of them.
Teacher can feel more comfortable offering their ideas and contending with pupils when ill prepared more willing to assert interpretative authority as a reader. Doesnt squash discussion! Search with pupils for a meaningful interpretation. Move from the role of facilitator to role of participant. Use familiar and engaging material as a starting point - Demonstrate an awareness of a wide range of poetry = can help sow the seeds in the classroom which can be nurtured by the teacher. Begin by freeing the imagination Reject none of the childrens ideas, validate what they suggest (TES, 1997). Legacy of past satisfaction build on childrens own reading interests and preferences. Seek to introduce them to texts which motivate them and build their reading stamina. Teachers Standards TS1 set high expectations that inspire, motivate and challenge children in their knowledge and understanding of poetry through a safe learning environment. TS2 promote good progress and outcomes by pupils. As teachers are becoming more accountable for pupils attainment, progress and outcomes, it is surely more beneficial for children to be motivated and willing to learn by giving them regular opportunities to practice their developing understanding of poetry so that they are able to reflect upon
their own progress TS3 demonstrate good subject and curriculum knowledge, something that is intended through engagement with this CPD resource. TS4 plan and teach well structured lessons that promote a love of learning and engagement, something that can only happen through teacher taking the time to have in interest in poetry themselves. TS5 individual differences among learners related to their learning styles (multiple intelligences (Gardner, 0000)). Teachers need to be aware of such variety to ensure every child in their class attains optimally. Introduce a poem based on a pupils current reading level. TS6 make use of accurate and productive use of assessment by engaging in formative assessment that is worthwhile for pupils and provides corrective feedback. TS7 when learning is engaging and teachers plan good effective lessons, there is likely to be behaviour management problems. TS8 this requires teachers to engage in opportunities for improving their teaching through CPD, something achieved by engaging with this resource. School ethos few schools have a clear rationale for the choice of poems presented to pupils (Ofsted, 2007). This reduces the continuity in the poetry curriculum and progression in childrens learning.
Poetrys Place in the Curriculum Denman (1988) poetry is the most neglected component in the language arts curriculum resulting in children receiving less and less exposure to it. Swanger (1983) rationalisation of art subjects. Pupils used to being presented with accessible, entertaining poems in context of a wider topic area. Concerns have been raised about positioning of childrens literature and its use. Ray (1999); Benton (1999, 2000) poetry is weaker than other aspects of English inspected, suggesting it may be underdeveloped. Benton 1978 poetry is a Cinderella subject. 1999 a rainbow in the English curriculum. 2000 a conveyor belt deleterious effects of the pressures within the English curriculum upon poetry pedagogy. Argue for a more centralised position of poetry in the English curriculum Poetry being squeezed out and constrained. Teachers suggest learning to read properly threatens creativity (Blunkett, 1999) A space in the curriculum which cultivates growth of self and language use. Risk that some teachers relish pupils playfulness with and control over language.
Benton (1999) far from facilitating pupils learning and engagement with poetry, teachers feel constrained to adopt strategies which they feel has hindered it even though teachers value a response based approach. Mroz et al. (2002) based on subject knowledge and content in the curriculum rather than pedagogy, so teaching styles are only officially addressed. Teaching becomes delivery of a curriculum, no longer an engagement with other minds. Benton (2000) miraculous good poetry teaching can be found in schools. Good poetry teaching happens despite all of the odds! Poetry more evident in EYFS/KS1 DfE, 2013 Poetrys Place in the Curriculum Goswami (1990) important poetry is used effectively throughout the primary curriculum. Subsequently more successful in reading, writing, speaking and listening. Key Stage 1:
Yr1/2 comprehension: listening to and discussing a wide range of poems; learning to appreciate rhymes and poems and recite some by heart Listen frequently to poems that cannot be read for themselves. Pupils should begin to understand how written language can be structured. Yr2 sooner pupils can read well and frequently, the sooner they will be able to access vocabulary, comprehension and vocabulary across the curriculum. listening to, discussing and expressing views about a wide range of contemporary and classic poetry recognising simple recurring literary language in stories and poetry continuing to build up a repertoire of poems learnt by heart, appreciating these and reciting some, with appropriate intonation to make the meaning clear participate in discussion explain and discuss their understanding of poems they listen to and that they read themselves writing poetry Develop their understanding and enjoyment of poetry DfE, 2013
Poetrys Place in the Curriculum Key Stage 2: Yr3/4 Listening to and discussing a wide range of poetry Preparing poems to read aloud and perform showing understanding through intonation, tone, volume and action Recognising some different forms of poetry e.g. free verse/narrative Pupils should continue to have opportunities to listen frequently to poems Reading, re-reading and rehearsing poems for presentation/performance gives pupils opportunities to discuss language , including vocabulary, extending their interest in the meaning and origin of words. Pupils should be encouraged to use drama approaches to understand how to perform poems to support their understanding of the meaning. Provide them with an incentive to find out what expression is required feeding into comprehension. Yr5/6 Should be able to read a wider range of poetry written at an age appropriate level of interest with accuracy and at a reasonable speaking pace
Pupils knowledge of language from poetry support their increasing fluency as readers, facility as writers and their comprehension. Continue to discuss and read an increasingly wide range of poetry Learn a wider range of poetry by heart Prepare poems to read aloud and perform showing understanding through intonation, tone and volume so meaning clear to audience. Cross-Curricular Poetry DfEE (2000) potential of heard poetry accords with some aims of citizenship education. Motion (2012) as teachers of English asked to do things around poems as part of the National Curriculum rather than looking at poetry for poetry. Need to strike a balance. Teachers can draw on popular culture, finding examples of generic forms as part of the curriculum. Popular culture can motivate children to engage. Popular culture can include classic genres. Setting can be explored with children. May be linked to an art lesson. Maths children can be challenged to create shape poems. Computing children can engage with audio and make videos of themselves performing poetry.
History many poems have a historic link and can be used to inform children about key events in the past. Music Poetry can have quite a strong link to music due to its use of features such an intonation, pitch and rhythm. Poetry can be used to inform children about important issues Be relevant to both sexes. Doesnt help at school predominance of teachers female. Some schools male teachers fraternising with macho boys engaging in laddish behaviour. Need both role models! LGBT issues Racism EAL Traveller children Multi-culturalism Environmental concerns apathy! Children often separated from natural world biphobia! Critical young children are given these opportunities. Education can foster empathy, compassion and integrity. Knowledge and appreciation correlated. Schwalb (2006) capacity of poetry to bridge/cross borders between different cultures within classrooms.
Factors that Effect Implementation of a New National Curriculum Time Need for staff training for all elements of subject knowledge Personal interest Synergy of all three! Increased Recognition of Poetry
UNESCO World Poetry Day, held on the 21st March every year thus helping to support linguistic diversity. Childrens Laureate currently Chris Riddell. Elster and Hanauer (2002) there are many poets and literacy educators who advocate the use of poetry in schools. Ofsted (2007) poetry provision is at least satisfactory. Primary teachers are not English specialists, they tend not to be keen/regular readers of poetry and so may rely on poems/poets they know from their own childhood/those presented in publishers resources. Poems for instructional purposes/models to imitate is a common feature of primary practice. WHSmiths writers in schools The poetry places scheme National poetry day
DfES Poetry class encourages teachers to use poetry in the classroom to develop creative writing and extend childrens literary experience at all key stages (Blunkett, 2000) I firmly believe in the importance of igniting a passion for reading in the next generation (Duchess of Cornwall, 2013) National Literacy Trust (2013) search for Literacy Heroes Poetry Society promote a more general recognition and appreciation of poetry. The society champions poetry for all ages: Foyle Young Poets of the Year Award; National Poetry Competition; Ted Hughes Award for New Work in Poetry Poetry by Heart Department for Education contest. Macmillan is one of the only major publishers with a dedicated childrens poetry list Agendas DES (1975) the practice of using poetry to achieve something else. Attempt to serve affective rather than cognitive processes. Rose (2006) the simple view of reading. A simple model can aid teachers to focus more on comprehension and response. Arts Council England (2003) usefulness of reading and writing and its application across the curriculum. UKLA (2007-8) teachers as readers: building communities of readers designed to develop childrens pleasure in reading through enriching teachers knowledge and skilful use of childrens literature and relationships with parents and librarians.
Newsom Report (1963) recognition of the major role of poetry. Admitted some teachers were reluctant to accept its centrality. It is of course within poetry and drama that the use of language goes deepest. Nobody should have to teach poetry against their will without it English will never be complete! Poetry is not a minor amenity but a major channel of experience. Bullock Report (DES, 1975) language across the curriculum a key feature! Devoted minimal space to poetry teaching. Great educative power of poetry was coupled with concerns about the dispiriting attitudes of pupils who had no intention of reading it after school BOP Consulting (2009) positive experiences are important for laying the foundations for lifetime engagement with poetry. The way poetry is taught is failing to provide pupils with such an outcome. Ofsted (2007) assessment pressures dampen teachers enthusiasm for poetry placing their focus on technical analysis which can lead to dull and repetitive teaching. Excellence and Enjoyment (DfES, 0000) potential of building on childrens curiosity, desire for agency and capacity to generate and innovate. Effective Teachers of Literacy Cox Report (1989) Personal Interest in Poetry
Durham (1997) wanted poetry in her classroom because of its affective power, ability to inspire children to love language and therefore be inspired to read. Teachers may never have had an English teacher who taught it effectively and so had no models to emulate. This could have caused boredom with poems due to their own uncertainty or faulty methods. ACE (2003) lack of time for teachers to read for pleasure. Dreher (2003) teachers who are engaged readers are motivated to read. They are strategic and knowledgeable, socially interactive about what they read. This will help to create engaged pupil readers when showing these qualities in the classroom. Teachers lives and classroom practices are strongly influenced by their pleasure in literature. Particular conception of poetry something to be written and read from page no mention of possibility/practice of listening to poetry (speaking and listening!). Maybe that pupils respond to heard poetry differently than they do poetry they read. This presents a challenge to teachers. Orality/aurality of poetry problematic significantly less tangible and fixed than poetry in the printed mode. Herbert and Hills (2000) was the rhythm that seduced teachers into liking poetry. Dymoke (2003) was the way words had a mesmeric effect.
Poetry can be an escape from a suffocating curriculum/a joyous lifeline. Teachers speak of their personal investment and commitment to poetry. Pleasure and lifeline must be strong if teachers are to maintain their commitment towards it. Personal significance of teachers background, experience, culture and character may appear redundant, inappropriate or unwanted. Medwell et al (1998) teachers coherent belief system about literacy and its teaching is consistent with the ways they choose to teach. Personal Interest in Poetry Apparent link between interests of teachers in reading and childrens interest and self motivation as readers. Rummel and Quintero (1997) teachers lives and classroom practices are strongly influenced by their pleasure in literature. Most subject leaders dont choose to read poetry at home, but instead delighted at reading poetry at school with children. General agreement teachers can teach poetry well without having a declared interest in poetry. Andrews (1991) those teachers with a passion for it time to speak up for its regeneration.
Stakeholders Who Could be Important to Inform? Parents benefit enormously from the increased understanding they get of the educational process (CERI, 1997). Usually the deficit model exposed to losing their connection! No longer able to assess, judge or give an opinion about a new approach. New role = outside observers. Can become problematic because of lack of understanding/information about new ways. Results in increase power of teachers (technical) = essential get it right! Try to increase the autonomy and responsibility of all agents involved! Staff training Ofsted (2007) role of the subject leader crucial in how well poetry is taught. Most effective subject leaders: broaden range of poems studied, enhance the quality of teaching, provided pupils with a varied and rich experience of poetry. They are instrumental in enhancing the poetry curriculum, making good use of activities. Subject leaders deal with initial resistance to poetry in positive and supportive ways, giving advice to get them started. Role of the subject leader: resources; documentation; influence practice; monitor; train staff. It was found considerably more time is spent on resources (Hammersley-Fletcher, 2002). Poetry unlikely to thrive without CPD and head teacher support
Pupil Voice Central to schooling rarely consulted. Usually after significant decisions already been made. Should include their traits be relevant to them to provide them with an active voice! Pupil input into poetry curriculum should be recognised. Pupils need the opportunity to make choices when poetry is selected for reading and writing. Pupils criticisms: teachers dull presentation; poor oral reading/lack of enthusiasm; figurative language/obscure references that are difficult to comprehend; a focus on poetic techniques which pupils consider to be tedious and pointless; frequently being asked to memorise lines/entire poems without purpose or as a consequence of negative behaviour (punishment). 13% children dislike reading. 40% rated themselves as highly confident. 40% reported reading weekly. OECD (2002) 30% hardly ever read for pleasure. 19% - waste of time! 35% would only read if obliged to do so. Children are capable, creative humans who come to the poetry classroom with their own rich and diverse experiences, worthy of exploration. Harrison (2013) (BBC) just over a quarter of children say they read for pleasure outside of school. 1 in 5 embarrassed to be caught with a book. Power relations inevitably change with the emphasis on learners and processes rather than on teachers. Children come to school with a diverse range of backgrounds. Harste et al (1994) homes with litter of literacy can enable
children to become accustomed to using cultural toolkit engaging and self-reflecting. Cox and Schaetzel (2007) childrens greater enjoyment as readers suggest teachers personal interest and motivation to read frames reading teachers, enabling teachers to provide guidance and encouragement. Useful Poetry Resources Websites: http://poetrysociety.org.uk/poetry-society-information/about/ http://www.bbc.co.uk/poetryseason/vote_results.shtml http://www.poetrykit.org/orgs.htm http://www.poetrybooks.co.uk/ http://www.vanitypublishing.info/ https://www.britishcouncil.org/search?search_api_views_fulltext=poetry&=Search http://philiplarkin.com/ (Society) http://www.primaryresources.co.uk/english/englishC7.htm#general http://www.twinkl.co.uk/resources/literacy/writing-and-grammar/poetry http://gigglepoetry.com/
http://www.mamalisa.com/?t=heh http://www.kristinegeorge.com/ http://www.dreamagic.com/poetry/children.html http://thepoetrytrust.org/ http://www.poetryoutloud.org/ https://www.poets.org/ http://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/20100512134444/http://nationalstrategies.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/node/102749 http://www.ncte.org/journals/ej/issues/v96-1 Useful Poetry Resources Poetry Reviews: http://poetry.com/?reviewed=t Poetry Review Journal and Newsletter (The Poetry Society) http://www.cprw.com/ http://reviews.wikinut.com/Top-20-Free-Poetry-Posting-Sites-of-2012/3h5gp836/ http://mywriterscircle.com/index.php?board=10.0
Articles: Search on the Times Education Supplement (TES) website for poetry articles Magazines: UKLA Literacy Teach Primary Books The Poetry Book for Primary Schools (Wilson and Hughes, 1998) Poetry Train References