Diversity, Inclusivity & Civility: Developing & Enhancing Students' Cultural Competence Part I Tom Brown www.tbrownassociates.com [email protected] Blink Most of us make judgments in
less than two seconds. Many of our conclusions are less rational than we think. In order to be effective in a diverse world? We must use our powers of observation. Count the Fs FINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIF
-IC STUDIES COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF YEARS. Being Aware, Conscious, and Paying Attention There are six FINISHED FILES ARE THE RESULT OF YEARS OF SCIENTIF -IC STUDIES COMBINED WITH THE EXPERIENCE OF YEARS.
Perception: The process of making sense of the world around us people, situations, etc. Reality from our point of view. Our perceptions reinforce what we have been taught or expect, and they can shape our interactions with others different or similar to ourselves. PARIS
IN THE THE SPRING Our perceptions reinforce what we have been taught or expect, and they can shape our interactions with others different or similar to ourselves. The U.S. college campus is one of the few places on earth where people from so many diverse backgrounds come
together for a common purpose Imagine a school where all kinds of people feel comfortable showing up, secure in the knowledge that they have a place they dont have to defend every time they turn around, where they are encouraged to do their best, and are valued for it. Privilege, Power, and Difference
Allan G. Johnson, 2006 Workshop Overview Why does diversity matter? Does diversity support student learning and development? Why and how? What is cultural competence? Can cultural competence be developed? Addressing Some Diversity Issues Barriers to Engagement
Why does diversity matter? Its not just the U.S. Schools with an inclusive orientation are the most effective means of combating discriminatory attitudes and creating welcoming communities, building an inclusive society and achieving education for all.
UNESCO Salamanca Statement, 1994 Why does diversity matter? A view from beyond the academy Whether we like it or not, many times we find ourselves segregated from other groups in schools, churches, and our own neighborhoods. A college campus is like opening the door to the entire world without traveling anywhere else.
Why Does Diversity Matter at College Anyway? US News and World Report , August 12, 2009 Pre-college experiences of US students * Public universities ** Private universities >71% grew up in neighborhoods that were mostly or completely white. +/-15% grew up in neighborhoods that were mostly or completely non-white.
61*-65%** attended high schools that were mostly or completely white. 13**-16%* attended high schools that were mostly or completely non-white. 2009 Freshman Survey Whyfor does diversity It matters institutions
matter? To keep pace in today's complex and competitive global arena, American higher education must retire old notions of educational exclusivity and embrace new models of inclusive excellence. Rethinking Educational Practices to Make Excellence Inclusive, Diversity & Democracy, Spring
2009 Why does diversity It matters for students matter? By incorporating diverse content, perspectives, and approaches into the curriculum, faculty of all disciplines have found both pedagogical and curricular routes that strengthen scholarship and
prepare students for engagement with today's complex world. Teaching Diversity and Democracy Across the Disciplines: Who, What & How, Diversity & Democracy, Fall 2009 The U.S. college campus is one of the few places on earth where people from so many diverse backgrounds come together for a common purpose The other is the US workplace
Are Diversity and Learning Connected? Essential Liberal Learning Outcomes 1. Intellectual and Practical Skills 2. Personal and Social Responsibility 3. Integrative and Applied Learning American Association of Colleges & Universities http://www.aacu.org/value/
Essential Liberal Learning Outcomes Selected examples 1. Intellectual and Practical Skills: inquiry and analysis; critical thinking; teamwork; problem solving 2. Personal and Social Responsibility: civic knowledge and engagement - local and global; intercultural knowledge and competence; ethical reasoning; foundations
and skills for lifelong learning 3. Integrative and Applied Learning: integrative and applied learning AAC&U Do diversity experiences influence the development of critical thinking? Students' involvement in diversity experiences during college had
statistically significant positive effects on their scores on an objective, standardized measure of critical thinking skills. Pascarella, Palmer, Moye, & Pierson, T. Journal of College Student Development, 2001 Do diverse learning experiences benefit students? Diversity has positive effects on students cognitive development,
satisfaction with the college experience, and leadership abilities. Students who interact with racially and ethnically diverse peers show greater intellectual growth and academic skills. Both in-class and out-of-class interactions and involvement with diverse peers foster critical thinking Benefits and Challenges of Diversity, Eve Fine, 2004 Do diverse learning
experiences benefit students? Diversity has positive effects on students cognitive development, satisfaction with the college experience, and leadership abilities. Students who interact with racially and ethnically diverse peers show greater intellectual growth and academic skills. Both in-class and out-of-class interactions and involvement with diverse peers foster critical thinking
Benefits and Challenges of Diversity, Eve Fine, 2004 Diversity and Education Southern Oregon University Diversity capitalizes on the unique experiences and common wisdom of all cultures by providing a fertile ground for contrast and comparison. Provides a view of other peoples so distinct from, yet similar to, ourselves that our own
lives and experiences are given new perspective and meaning. Diversity is an enriching and necessary component of the total educational experience. How does increasing cultural competence support student learning, growth and development? Chickerings Seven Vectors: Developmental Tasks for College Students
1. Developing competence 2. Managing emotions 3. Moving through autonomy toward 4. 5. 6. 7. interdependence, Developing mature interpersonal relationships Establishing identity
Developing purpose Developing integrity Chickering & Reisser, 1993 Developing Competence Involves using ones mind to build skill using analytical and comprehensive thought and the
development of forming points of view in dealing with experiences in life. Encompass skills of listening, understanding, and communicating and functioning in different relationships. Chickering & Reisser, 1993 Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships
Tolerance and appreciation of differences Acceptance is both intercultural and interpersonal. Openness for the understanding of a person for what qualities they possess, instead of stereotyping, is an increase in tolerance. Chickering & Reisser, 1993 Developing Mature Interpersonal Relationships
Acceptance and appreciation of differences Acceptance is both intercultural and interpersonal. Openness for the understanding of a person for what qualities they possess, instead of stereotyping, is an increase in tolerance. Chickering & Reisser, 1993
Developing Identity Comfort with body and appearance Comfort with gender and sexual orientation A sense of self in a social, historical, and cultural context Clarification of self-concept through roles and
life-style Chickering & Reisser, 1993 Developing Integrity Integrity for ones beliefs, values, and purposes must be established. Also, thinking about others beliefs and points
of view The willingness to preserve self-respect while monitoring behavior. Chickering & Reisser, 1993 Are Diversity and Learning Connected? Questions? Comments? What is Cultural Competence
A set of congruent knowledge, attitudes and behaviors that enable persons from one culture to understand, communicate, operate and provide effective services to people of another culture. Multiple sources Developing Cultural Competence: A Matter of National Security
Concerns that the military as a whole was not prepared to conduct operations in a way that understands other cultures sparked an influx of research into the areas related to cross cultural competence. Instances of stereotyping, racism, and abuses of power showcased the ways in which military members alienated the local populations [in places such as Iraq] Cultural competence
Cultural knowledge Cultural awareness Cultural skill Cultural encounters Cultural desire Campinha-Bacote, 1999 Cross cultural competence Developing an awareness of one's own culture,
existence, sensations, thoughts, and environment; Accepting and respecting cultural differences; Resisting judgmental attitudes such as "different is not as good;" and Being open to cultural encounters;
Being comfortable with cultural encounters. The Purnell Model for Cultural Competence Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Health Summer 2005 Dont ask students to get out of their comfort zone. Challenge and support them to stretch their comfort zone. Cross Cultural Competence includes:
Willingness to Engage Cognitive Flexibility & Openness Emotional Regulation Tolerance of Uncertainty Self- Efficacy Ethnocultural Empathy. Willingness to Engage Represents an individuals willingness
or persistence to stay engaged in making sense of unfamiliar social situations in dissimilar cultures. Cognitive Flexibility & Openness The ability to be flexible in ones approach is expected to allow an individual to solve a range of problems in complex and dynamic situations, which is tantamount to mission success
Gompert, Lachow, & Perkins, 2005 Tolerance of Uncertainty & Ambiguity A general disposition that broadly influences cognition, attitudes, and behavior. Low tolerance for ambiguity is characterized by rigidity, dichotomous thinking, authoritarianism, and ethnocentrism. Frenkel-Brunswik, in Abbe et al., 2007
Self Efficacy A person with high self-efficacy may engage in more cross-cultural encounters and persist in encounters, whereas a person with low self-efficacy would harbor feelings of selfdoubt and may be likely to withdraw prematurely from such encounters. Bandura, 1997; Ang, Van Dyne, Koh, & Ng, 2004; Schwarzer & Jerusalem, 1995 Ethnocultural Empathy
Does not feel irritated when people of different ethnic or cultural backgrounds speak their native language around them Not difficult to put themselves in the shoes of someone from another culture. Can easily understand what it would feel like
to be a person from a different culture. When dealing with people of a different ethnicity or culture, understanding their viewpoint is a top priority. Thinks about the impact of jokes on people who are targeted. Developing competence is a process Cultural competence is not acquired quickly or casually, rather it requires an
intentional examination of ones thoughts and behaviors. The first step toward becoming culturally competent is realizing that you probably arent. Cultural Competence in the Biology Classroom Kimberly Tanner & Deborah Allen, 2007 Developing competence is a process Denial: individuals refuse all interaction with other
cultures and show no interest in discovering cultural differences. They may also act aggressively during cross cultural situations. Defense: individuals consider all other cultures to be inferior to their own culture and will constantly criticize behavior or thoughts by someone from another culture. Minimization: individuals start believing that all
cultures share common values. They will also minimize any cultural differences by correcting people to match their expectations. Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity Dr. Milton Bennett Developing competence is a process Acceptance: Individuals may still judge other cultures negatively but they will tend to recognize
that cultures are different and they may become curious about cultural differences Adaptation: Individuals gain the ability to adapt their behavior by intentionally changing their own behavior or communication style. Integration: this stage, individuals instinctively change their behavior and communication style
when interacting with other cultures. This stage tends to only be achieved by long term expatriates living and working abroad or Global Nomads. Dr. Milton Bennett Cross Cultural Competence includes: Having the capacity to: value diversity conduct self-assessment manage the dynamics of difference acquire and institutionalize
cultural knowledge adapt to the diversity and cultural contexts of individuals and communities served. From Knowing to Doing Requires more than acquiring knowledge. It is leveraging knowledge, attitudes, and skills to engage and intervene appropriatelyacross cultures.
Latino 101, Dr. Maria Hernandez, 2007 Cultural Competence Questions? Comments? Attention to diversity perceived as divisive and inhibiting community. A strategy to counter the divisive perceptions of diversity is to broaden our definition of diversity, in ways that
highlight the intersectionality of race/ethnic, gender, class, religion, sexual orientation, within a framework of marginalization and justice. Marilyn Fernandez, Santa Clara University Making Diversity More Inclusive Culture is often viewed in the U.S. as being primarily related to race, ethnicity, and gender
Effective diversity/inclusivity education must also address other kinds of diversity which lead to marginalization and exclusion. If the World Were a Village of 100 People 49 would be male, 51 would be female 82 people of color; 18 white 33 Christians 22 Muslims, 15 Hindus 14 would speak Chinese, Mandarin
8 English 8 Hindi 7 Spanish 89 would be heterosexual; 11 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender(LGBT) 67 would be unable to read 5 would control 32% of the entire worlds wealth; all 5 would be US citizens 1 would have a college education
Seven kinds of diversity Beverly D. Tatum, 1999* ism Otherness
Race/ethnicity Gender Religion Sexual Orientation Socio-economic status Age Physical/Mental Ability *Why are all the black kids
Sexism Religious oppression Heterosexism Classism Ageism Ableism sitting together in the Other diversity??
Other diversity 1. Weight 2. Height 3. Accent Accent Bias Many Americans distrust those who speak English with a foreign accent. When we dont understand what someone is saying, we lose confidence in the speaker altogether.
Why We Dont Believe Non-Native Speakers Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 2010 Inclusive College Policies No person shall be subjected to discrimination in any program or activity of the District on the basis of: language accent marital status age medical condition
ancestry national origin citizenship status parental status color race disability religion economic status sexual orientation ethnic group
transgender identification veteran status gender Developing Cross Cultural Competence Addressing Some Diversity Issues Socio-economic issues?
What do we believe about poverty? Poverty in the US is decreasing The poverty rate had risen significantly in seven of the prior 10 years from a recent low of 11.3 percent in 2000. US Census Bureau September 2012 What do we believe about poverty?
The poor are lazy and unwilling to work 2/3 of people living in poverty work an average of 1.7 jobs 1 in 4 earns poverty level wages (less than $8.84 an hour) 27% of working families have INCOMES below 200% of the poverty level Facts about US poverty The federal poverty threshold in 2012 for a
family of four with two children 17 or younger is $23.050. A hypothetical US single parent needs to make at least $20.14 per hour just to cover his or her familys basic necessities. Thats in the cheapest state South Dakota. The nationwide average is $24.09 per hour, or >$50,000 per year MIT Living Wage Calculator
What do we believe about poverty? Poverty is an inner city problem. Since 2000, suburban poverty rates have increased by 53% compared to 26% in cities. Brookings Institution, October 2011 Facts about US poverty The rate of child poverty is higher in the United States than in most other economically advanced countries.
16.1 million US children (persons under 18) living in poverty in 2011 Only two of the 33 countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development devote a smaller share of their economic output to programs that help poor families make ends meet than the United States Mexico and South Korea.
Encourage Critical Thinking Conservative think tanks have spawned a cottage industry churning out dubious studies purporting to show that poor families are living high on the hog on public benefits, a claim that anybody who has actually experienced poverty in America would find laughable. What Matters Today, Joshua Holland 9/21/13 http://billmoyers.com/2013/08/21/cato-institut e-report-says-poor-americans-have-it-too-goo
d / And the American people? A majority of Americans sympathize with the challenges low-income Americans face, with 88 percent saying they deserve help. Perceptions of Poverty Salvation Army, May 2012
Examining Class and Race Exercise I grew up believing all Americans have equal opportunity to succeed because there is a level playing field and affirmative action was no longer necessary. Since then, I have found this exercise useful to challenge our common assumptions of equal access. Paul Kivel, Educator, Activist,
Writer http://www.paulkivel.com/resources/exercise s/24-exercise/126-examining-class-and-race Diversity and inclusivity are about understanding not necessarily agreeing. Religious Diversity Religious diversity
I am noticing more women wearing head scarves (hijab) and they seem to draw some negative reactions from faculty, staff and students. TBA Campus Diversity Needs Assessment Religious Intolerance Theres a level of hatred and animosity thats shocking. Ive been doing this for 31 years and I have never seen such hostility toward Muslim
workers. Mary Jo ONeill, EEOC Attorney Phoenix New York Times, 9/23/2010 Its only a cap! or is it?
Religious Intolerance? The question: Do universities discriminate against religious conservatives? Some professors and students say they do Christian Academics Cite Hostility On Campus National Public Radio, 8/3/2010 Religious diversity?
Americans are slowly becoming less Christian and in recent decades the challenge to Christianity in America does not come from other world religions [but] from a rejection of all organized religions. Pew Forum on Religion in Public Life, 2008 Enhancing empathy exercise: Religion
Imagine that you awoke this morning and you had converted from being Christian or Jewish to Islam, or from being a Muslim or a Christian to Judaism. How would people treat you differently: in your community, at school, at work, on your team? How might family or friends treat you differently? What opportunities might open or close for you?
What rewards might or might not come your way? What other positive or negative changes might you experience? Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues In the past forty years, higher education has made great
strides in building campus and classroom spaces that are more fully welcoming of Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Queer (LGBTQ) people, as well as of academic explorations related to gender and sexuality. And yet Students, staff, professors, or administrators who identify as LGBT
report significant harassment at their colleges and discomfort with the overall campus climate. Chronicle of Higher Education, 9/14/2010 LGBT are among the most despised groups in the United States today. Blumenfeld, 2003 Gays As the Domestic al-Qaeda?!?
They are the biggest threat that our nation has, even more so than terrorism or Islam." Oklahoma Rep. Sally Kern, 2008 Homophobia in Intercollegiate Athletics In a survey of more than 50 current and former college womens basketball
players, 55 percent answered true when asked if sexual orientation was an underlying topic of conversation with college recruiters. ESPN The Magazine January 27, 2010 Some womens basketball programs push their family environment and implicit heterosexuality as part of a consciously negative campaign aimed at other programs perceived sexual slant.
Chronicle of Higher Education, 1/31/2011 Intergenerational Perspectives 53% of all Americans believe same sex couples should have the right to marry. CBS News poll March 2013 >71% of first-year college students believe same sex couples should have the right to marry.
UCLA Freshman Survey, Fall 2012 What about my own personal beliefs or religious views? The responsibility of your choice: To support your institutions mission, vision, values, and policies Diversity and inclusivity are about understanding
not necessarily agreeing. Creating just institutions Seeking social justice for LGBTQ people is a matter of creating institutions that are more just for everyonethat eschew all types of discrimination, invite investment and engagement, and offer opportunities for everyone to succeed. Making Education Inclusive: LGBTQ Contexts
Diversity & Democracy, Winter 2012 Enhancing empathy exercise: Sexual orientation If you are heterosexual, imagine that you awoke this morning and, if you are male, you are gay; if you are female, you are lesbian. How would people treat you differently in your community, at school, at work, on your team?
How might family or friends treat you differently? What opportunities might open or close for you?
What rewards might or might not come your way? What other changes might you experience? Ethnic and Racial Issues Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality If current population trends
continue, minority group members will be 54% of US population in 2050 compared to 24% in 1990. US Census Bureau Race, Ethnicity, and Nationality English language learners are the fastest-growing population in American schools. Their numbers, estimated at 5.5 million today, are projected to grow to one in four K-12
students by 2025. Diversity Learning K-12 A Challenge in Diversity Work Efforts to teach about diverse groups can lead to stereotyping. Asian Pacific American Groups Asian Indian Chinese Filipino Guamanian Hawaiian Hmong Japanese Korean Laotian Pakistani Samoan Thai Vietnamese
Philippines: Principle: 7000 islands 100 languages Diversity in Diversity Diversity in Diversity: Black Is that Black person African American, an African international student, or from a West Indian immigrant family?
As with all groups, it is important to make distinctions based on socio-economic class, gender, and other qualities. A post-racial America? Racial attitudes toward AfricanAmericans have worsened since the election of President Barack Obama. 51 percent of whites now express explicit anti-black attitudes, compared with 48 percent in 2008. Stanford University, University of Michigan,
University of Chicago poll for AP, 2012 Read between the lines Here is how the Salt Lake Tribune delivered the news: An Associated Press poll finds, a slight majority of Americans now express prejudice toward blacks whether they recognize those feelings or not. Terry Shropshire, Rolling Out, 0/29/2012
Whos American? An Associated Press poll finds, a slight majority of Americans now express prejudice toward blacks whether they recognize those feelings or not. Diversity in Diversity: Latino/Hispanic Twenty Spanish and Portuguese speaking
countries in the Western Hemisphere Often Latino is used in contrast to others who are not Spanish speaking Often identify based on country of origin (e.g., Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba) A post-racial America? An AP survey done in 2011, 52 percent of non-Hispanic
whites expressed anti-Latino attitudes. Cubans: White or Black 85 % of Cuban Americans identify as white. A function of the skewed nature of the migration out of Cuba socially and economically. By and large the white elite of the island fled Castros revolution to a
far greater extent than the black lower classes. The Case of White Cubans, Discover, 4/15/12 All ethnic groups in our country are an aggregate of many distinct subgroups. Whos Italian?
Whos Italian? Veneziano Milanese Siciliana Piemontesi
Liguriano In the US? Italian People from the same ethnic or racial group are also diverse in terms of socio-economic status, education, age, sexual orientation, individual experiences, or disposition. Developing Cross Cultural
Competence Addressing Some Diversity Issues Questions? Comments? Attention to diversity might even be perceived as divisive and inhibiting community. Whites dont want to learn about racism, nor men about sexism, or
heterosexuals about heterosexism, especially if they have worked hard to improve their class position. Alan Johnson, 2006 Teaching White Students about Racism: The Search for White Allies and the Restoration of Hope Beverly Daniel Tatum http://web-prod.spu.edu/depts/csfd/documents/teachingwhitestudentsaboutrac
ism.pdf White students often struggle with strong feelings of guilt when they become aware of the pervasive racism. Even when they feel their own behavior has been nondiscriminatory. These feelings are uncomfortable and can lead white students to resist learning about race and
racism. And who can blame them? White students often struggle with strong feelings of guilt when they become aware of the pervasive racism. Even when they feel their own behavior has been nondiscriminatory. These feelings are uncomfortable and can lead white students to resist learning about race and
racism. And who can blame them? If learning about racism means seeing oneself as one of the bad guys. Beverly Tatum, 1994 Its not personal As a white, male, nondisabled, middle class heterosexual, I do know that in some ways these words are about me But in equally important ways the words
are not about me because they name something larger than me, something I didnt create or invent but that was passed on to me as a legacy of being born into this society. Johnson 2006 Understanding White Identity Development A person must become aware
of her/his Whiteness, learn to accept Whiteness as an important part of her/himself, and to internalize a realistically positive view of what it means to be white. Janet Helms, 1992 White Identity Development: A stage model
Contact stage Disintegration stage Reintegration stage Pseudo-independent stage Immersion/Emersion
Autonomy Helms, 1992 White Identity Development: A stage model Contact stage A primitive status characterized by denial of obliviousness to White privilege. Thus when this status is dominant in a White person, she or he will react to racial stimuli (e.g.,
discussion about racism) with avoidance No acknowledgement of the reality of racism in society, they take no action to understand their own privilege or work toward creating a more just society. White Identity Development: A stage model Disintegration stage Characterized by disorientation, guilt, and anxiety as the realities of
racism seem to break through the obliviousness of the contact stage. The individual is caught between wanting to be accepted by the normative (White) group and at the same time experiencing a moral dilemma over treating/considering people of color as inferior to Whites. White Identity Development:
A stage model Disintegration stage One solution to mitigating the anxiety of this stage is to re-embrace the ideology of the normative White group and its racist social pressure. If a person in disintegration adopts this solution to dealing with her or his ambivalence and anxiety, the reintegration stage has been entered.
White Identity Development: A stage model Reintegration stage Represents the purest racist status in this model. Negative conditions associated with minority individuals are thought to reflect their own failings or lack of effort.
The residual feelings of anxiety and guilt from the previous status are now transformed into anger and fear of minority group individuals White Identity Development: A stage model Pseudo-independent stage Acknowledgement of White responsibilities for past and ongoing
racism. These individuals are not comfortable with a racist stance and begin the search for a new White identity. Attention is directed more toward dissatisfaction with other Whites, not a deep level of personal self-analysis with regard to their own socialized racism. White Identity Development: A stage model
Immersion/Emersion Individuals immerse themselves in the search for accurate information about race and a deeper understanding of their own racial socializations. Individuals might be involved in social activism to fight racism. White Identity Development: A stage model
Emersion involves a withdrawal from the previous frantic search for a new identity that is characteristic of immersion and the embracing of a community of White people where one can be rejuvenated and empowered in continuing ones identity development. White Identity Development:
A stage model Autonomy The autonomous person is cognitively complex and flexible and may avoid life options that involve participation in racial oppression. Have the capacity to relinquish White privilege. Identity Development
Autonomy The autonomous person is humanistic and involved in activism regarding many forms of oppression (e.g., fighting sexism, ageism, homophobia). A broader understanding of white
I first began to perceive that "white man," as commonly used, means complexion only secondarily; primarily it described attitudes and actions. In America, "white man" meant specific attitudes and actions toward the black man, and toward all other non-white men. Malcolm X, The Autobiography
Seven kinds of diversity Otherness Race/ethnicity Gender
Religion Sexual Orientation Socio-economic status Age Physical/Mental Ability
ism Racism/ ethnocentrism Sexism Religious oppression Heterosexism
Classism Ageism Ableism Oppressed and oppressing Most of us will find that we are both dominant and targeted at the same time [but] the targeted identities hold our attention and the dominant identities go unexamined We assume the targeted identity to be the
primary cause of all oppression, forgetting other distortions around difference, some of which we are ourselves practicing. Age, Race, Class & Sex: Women Defining Difference Audre Lord, 1995 Comments Questions Effective activities
Diversity, Inclusivity & Civility: Developing & Enhancing Students' Cultural Competence Part 2: Thursday www.tbrownassociates.com October 10 ~ 3:00-4:30pm EDT [email protected]