Discrete Math CS 2800 Prof. Bart Selman [email protected]

Discrete Math CS 2800 Prof. Bart Selman selman@cs.cornell.edu

Discrete Math CS 2800 Prof. Bart Selman [email protected] Module Number Theory 1 The Integers and Division Of course, you already know what the integers are, and what division is However: There are some specific notations, terminology, and theorems

associated with these concepts which you may not know. These form the basics of number theory. Vital in many important algorithms today (hash functions, cryptography, digital signatures; in general, on-line security). 2 The divides operator New notation: 3 | 12 To specify when an integer evenly divides another integer Read as 3 divides 12 The not-divides operator: 5 | 12

To specify when an integer does not evenly divide another integer Read as 5 does not divide 12 3 Divides, Factor, Multiple Let a,bZ with a0. Def.: a|b a divides b : ( cZ: b=ac) There is an integer c such that c times a equals b. Example: 312 True, but 37 False. Iff a divides b, then we say a is a factor or a divisor of b, and b is a multiple of a. Ex.: b is even : 2|b. Is 0 even? Is 4?

4 Results on the divides operator If a | b and a | c, then a | (b+c) Example: if 5 | 25 and 5 | 30, then 5 | (25+30) If a | b, then a | bc for all integers c Example: if 5 | 25, then 5 | 25*c for all ints c If a | b and b | c, then a | c Example: if 5 | 25 and 25 | 100, then 5 | 100

(common facts but good to repeat for background) 5 Divides Relation Theorem: a,b,c Z: 1. a|0 2. (a|b a|c) a | (b + c) 3. a|b a|bc 4. (a|b b|c) a|c Proof of (2): a|b means there is an s such that b=as, and a|c means that there is a t such that c=at, so b+c = as+at = a(s+t), so a|(b+c) also. Corollary: If a, b, c are integers, such that a | b and a | c, then

a | mb + nc whenever m and n are integers. 6 More Detailed Version of Proof Show a,b,c Z: (a|b a|c) a | (b + c). Let a, b, c be any integers such that a|b and a|c, and show that a | (b + c). By defn. of | , we know s: b=as, and t: c=at. Let s, t, be such integers. Then b+c = as + at = a(s+t), so u: b+c=au, namely u=s+t. Thus a|(b+c). 7

Divides Relation Corollary: If a, b, c are integers, such that a | b and a | c, then a | mb + nc whenever m and n are integers. Proof: From previous theorem part 3 (i.e., a|b a|be) it follows that a | mb and a | nc ; again, from previous theorem part 2 (i.e., (a|b a|c) a | (b + c)) it follows that a | mb + nc The Division Algorithm Theorem: Division Algorithm --- Let a be an integer and d a positive integer. Then there are unique integers q and r, with 0 r < d, such that a = dq+r. Its really just a theorem, not an algorithm

Only called an algorithm for historical reasons. q is called the quotient r is called the remainder d is called the divisor a is called the dividend 9 q is called the quotient r is called the remainder d is called the divisor a is called the dividend What are the quotient and remainder when 101 is divided by 11?

a d q r 101 = 11 9 + 2 We write: q = 9 = 101 div 11 r = 2 = 101 mod 11 10 If a = 7 and d = 3, then q = 2 and r = 1, since 7 = (2)(3) + 1. If a = 7 and d = 3, then q = 3 and r = 2, since 7 = (3)(3) + 2. So: given positive a and (positive) d, in order to get r we repeatedly subtract d from a, as many times as needed so that what remains, r, is

less than d. Given negative a and (positive) d, in order to get r we repeatedly add d to a, as many times as needed so that what remains, r, is positive (or zero) and less than d. 11 Theorem: Division Algorithm --- Let a be an integer and d a positive integer. Then there are unique integers q and r, with 0 r

Consider the set of non-negative numbers of the form a - dq, where q is an integer. Hmm. Can this set be empty? Note: this set is non empty since q can be a negative integer with large absolute value). By the well-ordering property, S has a least element, r = a - d q 0. (Existence, cont.) r is non-negative; also, r < d. otherwise if r d, there would be a smaller nonnegative element in S, namely a-d(q0+1)0. But then a-d(q0+1), which is smaller than a-dq0, is an element of S, contradicting that a-dq0 was the smallest element of S. So, it cannot be the case that r d, proving the existence of 0 r < d and q.

QED b) Uniqueness (note standard proof structure) Suppose q, Q, R 0 r , R d such that a dq r and a dQ R. Without loss of generality we may assume that q Q. Subtracting both equations we have: d (q-Q) = (R r) So d divides (R-r); so, either |d| |(R

(*) r)| or (R r) = 0; Since d < R - r < d (because 0 r , R d ) i.e., |R-r| < d, we must have R r = 0. So, R = r. Substituting into the original two equations, we have dq = d Q (note d0) and thus q=Q, proving uniqueness. (or directly from (*)) QED

Modular arithmetic If a and b are integers and m is a positive integer, then a is congruent to b modulo m if m divides a-b Notation: a b (mod m) Rephrased: m | a-b Rephrased: a mod m = b mod m If they are not congruent: a b (mod m) Example: Is 17 congruent to 5 modulo 6? Rephrased: 17 5 (mod 6) As 6 divides 17-5, they are congruent Example: Is 24 congruent to 14 modulo 6? Rephrased: 24 14 (mod 6)

As 6 does not divide 24-14 = 10, they are not congruent Note: this is a different use of than the meaning is defined as used before. Spiral Visualization of mod Example shown: modulo-5 arithmetic The spiral/circular view is useful to keep in mind when doing modular arithmetic! 0

(mod 5) 20 15 10 4 19 14 9 (mod 5) 4 8 1 (mod 5)

5 0 3 13 18 3 (mod 5) So, e.g., 19 is congruent to 9 modulo 5. 2

1 6 11 16 21 Congruence classes modulo 5. 7

12 17 22 2 (mod 5) More on congruence Theorem: Let a and b be integers, and let m be a positive integer. Then a b (mod m) if and only if a mod m = b mod m Even more on congruence Theorem: Let m be a positive integer. The integers a and b are congruent modulo m if and

only if there is an integer k such that a = b + km Example: 17 and 5 are congruent modulo 6, so 17 = 5 + 2*6 5 = 17 - 2*6 18 Even even more on congruence Theorem: Let m be a positive integer. If a b (mod m) and c d (mod m), then a+c (b+d) (mod m) and ac bd (mod m) Example We know that 7 2 (mod 5) and 11 1 (mod 5)

Thus, 7+11 (2+1) (mod 5), or 18 3 (mod 5) Thus, 7*11 2*1 (mod 5), or 77 2 (mod 5) 19 Applications of Congruences 20 Hashing Functions Also known as: hash functions, hash codes, or just hashes.

Two major uses: Indexing hash tables Data structures which support O(1)-time access. Creating short unique IDs for long documents. Used in digital signatures the short ID can be signed, rather than the long document. 21 Hash Functions Example: Consider a a record that is identified by the SSN (9 digits) of the customer.

How can we assign a memory location to a record so that later on its easy to locate and retrieve such a record? Solution to this problem a good hashing function. Records are identified using a key (k), which uniquely identifies each record. If you compute the hash of the same data at different times, you should get the same answer if not then the data has been modified. 22 Hash Function Requirements A hash function h: AB is a map from a set A to a smaller set B (i.e., |A| |B|). An effective hash function should have the following properties: It should cover (be onto) its codomain B.

It should be efficient to calculate. The cardinality of each pre-image of an element of B should be about the same. b1,b2B: |h1(b1)| |h1(b2)| That is, elements of B should be generated with roughly uniform probability. Ideally, the map should appear random, so that clearly similar elements of A are not likely to map to the same (or similar) elements of B. 23 Why are these important? To make computations fast and efficient. So that any message can be hashed.

To prevent a message being replaced with another with the same hash value. To prevent the sender claiming to have sent x2 when in fact the message was x1. 24 Hash Function Requirements Furthermore, for a cryptographically secure hash function: Given an element bB, the problem of finding an aA such that h(a)=b should have average-case time complexity of (|B|c) for some c>0. This ensures that it would take exponential time in the length of an ID for an opponent to fake a different document having the same ID. 25

A Simple Hash Using mod Let the domain and codomain be the sets of all natural numbers below certain bounds: A = {aN | a < alim}, B = {bN | b < blim} Then an acceptable (although not great!) hash function from A to B (when alimblim) is h(a) = a mod blim. It has the following desirable hash function properties: It covers or is onto its codomain B (its range is B). When alim blim, then each bB has a preimage of about the same size, Specifically, |h1(b)| = alim/blim or alim/blim.

A Simple Hash Using mod However, it has the following limitations: It is not very random. Why not? For example, if all as encountered happen to have the same residue mod blim, they will all map to the same b! (see also spiral view) It is definitely not cryptographically secure. Given a b, it is easy to generate as that map to it. How? We know that for any nN, h(b + n blim) = b. Collision

Because a hash function is not one-to-one (there are more possible keys than memory locations) more than one record may be assigned to the same location we call this situation a collision. What to do when a collision happens? One possible way of solving a collision is to assign the first free location following the occupied memory location assigned by the hashing function. There are other ways for example chaining (At each spot in the hash table, keep a linked list of keys sharing this hash value, and do a sequential search to find the one we need. ) Digital Signature Application Many digital signature systems use a cryptographically secure (but public) hash function h which maps arbitrarily long documents down to fixed-length (e.g.,

1,024-bit) fingerprint strings. Document signing procedure: Given a document a to sign, quickly compute its hash b = h(a). Compute a certain function c = f(b) that is known only to the signer This step is generally slow, so we dont want to apply it to the whole document. Deliver the original document together with the digital signature c. Signature verification procedure: Given a document a and signature c, quickly find as hash b = h(a). Compute b = f 1(c). (Possible if fs inverse f 1 is made public (but not f ).) Compare b to b; if they are equal then the signature is valid. What if h was not cryptographically secure? Note that if h were not cryptographically secure, then an opponent could easily forge a different document a that hashes to the same value b, and thereby attach

someones digital signature to a different document than they actually signed, and fool the verifier! Pseudorandom numbers 30 Pseudorandom numbers Computers cannot generate truly random numbers thats why we call them pseudo-random numbers! Linear Congruential Method: Algorithm for generating pseudorandom numbers. Choose 4 integers

Seed x0: starting value Modulus m: maximum possible value Multiplier a: such that 2 a < m Increment c: between 0 and m In order to generate a sequence of pseudorandom numbers, {xn | 0 xn

Pseudorandom numbers Formula: xn+1 = (axn + c) mod m Let x0 = 3, m = 9, a = 7, and c = 4 x1 = 7x0+4 = 7*3+4 = 25 mod 9 = 7 x2 = 7x1+4 = 7*7+4 = 53 mod 9 = 8 x3 = 7x2+4 = 7*8+4 = 60 mod 9 = 6 x4 = 7x3+4 = 7*6+4 = 46 mod 9 = 1 x5 = 7x4+4 = 7*1+4 = 46 mod 9 = 2 x6 = 7x5+4 = 7*2+4 = 46 mod 9 = 0 x7 = 7x6+4 = 7*0+4 = 46 mod 9 = 4 x8 = 7x7+4 = 7*4+4 = 46 mod 9 = 5 32

Pseudorandom numbers Formula: xn+1 = (axn + c) mod m Let x0 = 3, m = 9, a = 7, and c = 4 This sequence generates: 3, 7, 8, 6, 1, 2, 0, 4, 5, 3 , 7, 8, 6, 1, 2, 0, 4, 5, 3 Note that it repeats! But it selects all the possible numbers before doing so The common algorithms today use m = 232-1 You have to choose 4 billion numbers before it repeats Multiplier 75 = 16,807 and increment c=0 (pure multiplicative generator) 33

Cryptology (secret messages) 34 The Caesar cipher Julius Caesar used the following procedure to encrypt messages A function f to encrypt a letter is defined as: f(p) = (p+3) mod 26 Where p is a letter (0 is A, 1 is B, 25 is Z, etc.) Decryption: f-1(p) = (p-3) mod 26

This is called a substitution cipher You are substituting one letter with another 35 The Caesar cipher Encrypt go cavaliers Translate to numbers: g = 6, o = 14, etc. Full sequence: 6, 14, 2, 0, 21, 0, 11, 8, 4, 17, 18 Apply the cipher to each number: f(6) = 9, f(14) = 17, etc. Full sequence: 9, 17, 5, 3, 24, 3, 14, 11, 7, 20, 21 Convert the numbers back to letters 9 = j, 17 = r, etc. Full sequence: jr wfdydolhuv

Decrypt jr wfdydolhuv Translate to numbers: j = 9, r = 17, etc. Full sequence: 9, 17, 5, 3, 24, 3, 14, 11, 7, 20, 21 Apply the cipher to each number: f-1(9) = 6, f-1(17) = 14, etc. Full sequence: 6, 14, 2, 0, 21, 0, 11, 8, 4, 17, 18 Convert the numbers back to letters 6 = g, 14 = 0, etc. Full sequence: go cavaliers 36 Rot13 encoding

A Caesar cipher, but translates letters by 13 instead of 3 Then, apply the same function to decrypt it, as 13+13=26 Rot13 stands for rotate by 13 Example: >echo Hello World | rot13 Uryyb Jbeyq > echo Uryyb Jbeyq | rot13 Hello World 37 Primes and Greatest Common Divisor

Prime numbers A positive integer p is prime if the only positive factors of p are 1 and p If there are other factors, it is composite Note that 1 is not prime! Its not composite either its in its own class An integer n is composite if and only if there exists an integer a such that a | n and 1 < a < n 39 Fundamental theorem of arithmetic Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic:

Every positive integer greater than 1 can be uniquely written as a prime or as the product of two or more primes where the prime factors are written in order of non-decreasing size Examples 100 = 2 * 2 * 5 * 5 182 = 2 * 7 * 13 29820 = 2 * 2 * 3 * 5 * 7 * 71 In a fundamental sense, primes are the building blocks of the natural numbers. Fundamental theorem of arithmetic: Strong Induction [from before] Show that if n is an integer greater than 1, then n can be written as the

product of primes. 1 - Hypothesis P(n) - n can be written as the product of primes. 2 Base case P(2) 2 can be written a 2 (the product of itself) 3 Inductive Hypothesis - P(j) is true for 2 j k, j integer. 4 Inductive step? Whats missing? Uniqueness proof, soon a) k+1 is prime in this case its the product of itself; b) k+1 is a composite number and it can be written as the product of two positive integers a and b, with 2 a b k+1. By the inductive hypothesis, a and b can be written as the

product of primes, and so does k+1 , QED Composite factors Theorem: If n is a composite integer, then n has a prime divisor less than or equal to the square root of n Proof Since n is composite, it has a factor a such that 1 n and b > n, then ab > n*n > n. Contradiction.) Thus, n has a divisor not exceeding n This divisor is either prime or a composite

If the latter, then it has a prime factor (by the FTA) In either case, n has a prime factor less than n QED Showing a number is prime E.g., show that 113 is prime. How? Solution The only prime factors less than 113 = 10.63 are 2, 3, 5, and 7 None of these divide 113 evenly

Thus, by the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, 113 must be prime 43 Showing a number is composite Show that 899 is composite. Solution Divide 899 by successively larger primes, starting with 2 We find that 29 and 31 divide 899 44 On a linux system or in cygwin, enter factor 899 > factor 899

899: 29 31 >factor 89999999999999999 89999999999999999: 7 7 13 6122449 23076923 Some random numbers factored (using factor) 12304: 2 2 2 2 769 12304038495: 3 5 7 3109 37691 29485404038495: 5 5897080807699 294854040334945723: 67 2472061 1780217629 29485404033420344: 2 2 2 1109 3323422456427

294854043485472: 2 2 2 2 2 3 151 173 117574409 29485404203484: 2 2 3 101 103 229 1031411 9348492404203484: 2 2 7 23 14516292553111 928439237492742742: 2 13 89 10453 12821 2993831 9284392329378472: 2 2 2 31321 37053384029 9284392329378472323: 3 3 3 307 1120085936708707 Hmm. Apparent pattern of a several small prime factors ending with one or two very large primes. Real? Still many mysteries in prime number patterns Open questions about exact distribution of primes closely related to the main open problem in math: the Riemann hypothesis concerning distr. of zeros of

the Riemann zeta-function. Theorem: There are infinitely many primes. See our earlier proof by contradiction. 47 Mersenne numbers Mersenne number: any number of the form 2n-1 Mersenne prime: any prime of the form 2p-1, where p is also a prime Example: 25-1 = 31 is a Mersenne prime But 211-1 = 2047 is not a prime (23*89)

If M is a Mersenne prime, then M(M+1)/2 is a perfect number A perfect number equals the sum of its divisors Example: 23-1 = 7 is a Mersenne prime, thus 7*8/2 = 28 is a perfect number 28 = 1+2+4+7+14 Example: 25-1 = 31 is a Merenne prime, thus 31*32/2 = 496 is a perfect number 496 = 2*2*2*2*31 1+2+4+8+16+31+62+124+248 = 496 The largest primes found are Mersenne primes. Since, 2p-1 grows fast, and there is an extremely efficient test Lucas-Lehmer test for determining if a Mersenne prime is prime

Lucas-Lehmer test 50 Heres something to work on 51 9,808,358 digits thats close! 52 Also, what special patterns are there (if any) in the digits of prime numbers?

53 The prime number theorem The ratio of the number of primes not exceeding x and x/ln(x) approaches 1 as x grows without bound Rephrased: the number of prime numbers less than x is approximately x/ln(x) Rephrased: the chance of an number x being a prime number is (roughly) 1 / ln(x) (density: there are n numbers up to n with roughly n/ln(n) being prime. So, frequency of primes among n numbers is around 1/ln(n).) so, less frequent for higher x Consider 200 digit prime numbers ln (10200) 460 The chance of a 200 digit number being prime is 1/460

If we only choose odd numbers, the chance is 2/460 = 1/230 So, actually x /(ln x 1) is better estimate of number of primes . Greatest common divisor The greatest common divisor of two integers a and b is the largest integer d such that d | a and d | b Denoted by gcd(a,b) Examples gcd (24, 36) = 12 gcd (17, 22) = 1 gcd (100, 17) = 1 Relative primes

Two numbers are relatively prime if they dont have any common factors (other than 1) Rephrased: a and b are relatively prime if gcd (a,b) = 1 gcd (25, 16) = 1, so 25 and 16 are relatively prime 59 Pairwise relative prime A set of integers a1, a2, an are pairwise relatively prime if, for all pairs of numbers, they are relatively prime Formally: The integers a1, a2, an are pairwise relatively

prime if gcd(ai, aj) = 1 whenever 1 i < j n. Example: are 10, 17, and 21 pairwise relatively prime? gcd(10,17) = 1, gcd (17, 21) = 1, and gcd (21, 10) = 1 Thus, they are pairwise relatively prime Example: are 10, 19, and 24 pairwise relatively prime? Since gcd(10,24) 1, they are not 60 More on gcds Given two numbers a and b, rewrite them as: a p1a1 p2a2 ... pnan , b p1b1 p2b2 ... pnbn Example: gcd (120, 500) 120 = 23*3*5 = 23*31*51

500 = 22*53 = 22*30*53 Then compute the gcd by the following formula: gcd(a, b) p1min(a1 ,b1 ) p2min(a2 ,b2 ) ... pnmin(an ,bn ) Example: gcd(120,500) = 2min(3,2) 3min(1,0) 5min(1,3) = 22 30 51 = 20 Least common multiple The least common multiple of the positive integers a and b is the smallest positive integer that is divisible by both a and b. Denoted by lcm (a, b) lcm(a, b) p1max(a1 ,b1 ) p2max(a2 ,b2 ) ... pnmax(an ,bn )

Example: lcm(10, 25) = 50 What is lcm (95256, 432)? 95256 = 233572, 432=2433 lcm (233572, 2433) = 2max(3,4)3max(5,3)7max(2,0) = 24 35 72 = 190512 lcm and gcd theorem Theorem: Let a and b be positive integers. Then a*b = gcd(a,b) * lcm (a, b) Example: gcd (10,25) = 5, lcm (10,25) = 50 So, 10*25 = 5*50 Example: gcd (95256, 432) = 216, lcm (95256, 432) = 190512 So, 95256*432 = 216*190512

Euclids Algorithm for GCD Finding GCDs by comparing prime factorizations can be difficult when the prime factors are not known! And, no fast alg. for factoring is known. (except ) On quantum computer! Euclid discovered: For all ints. a, b, gcd(a, b) = gcd((a mod b), b). Sort a,b so that a>b, and then (given b>1) (a mod b) < a, so problem is simplified. Euclid of Alexandria 325-265 B.C.

Theorem: Let a =bq+r, where a,b,q,and r are integeres. Then gcd(a,b) = gcd(b,r) Suppose a and b are the natural numbers whose gcd has to be determined. And suppose the remainder of the division of a by b is r. Therefore a = qb + r where q is the quotient of the division. Any common divisor of a and b is also a divisor of r. To see why this is true, consider that r can be written as r = a qb. Now, if there is a common divisor d of a and b such that a = sd and b = td, then r = (sqt)d. Since all these numbers, including sqt, are whole numbers, it can be seen that r is divisible by d.

The above analysis is true for any divisor d; thus, the greatest common divisor of a and b is also the greatest common divisor of b and r. Euclidean Algorithm Lemma: Let a = bq + r, where a, b, q, and r are integers. Then gcd(a, b) = gcd(b, r) procedure procedure (a,b:positive integers) x := a y := b while y 0 Arises when r = 0. So, y begin divides x. But x:=y and r := x mod y

y:=0, so return x. Also x := y y := r note that gcd(a,0) = a. end { gcd(a, b) is x } What about the y=0 case? 66 Do we need a >= b? hmm Euclids Algorithm Example gcd(372,164) = gcd(164, 372 mod 164). 2000+=yr3721642

alg. makes 372 mod 164 = 372164372/164 = 372328 = 44. E-commerce gcd(164,44) = gcd(44, 164 mod 44). possible! 164 mod 44 = 16444164/44 = 164443 = 164132 = 32. gcd(44,32) = gcd(32, 44 mod 32) = gcd(32,12) = gcd(12, 32 mod 12) = gcd(12,8) = gcd(8, 12 mod 8) = gcd(8,4) = gcd(4, 8 mod 4) = gcd(4,0) = 4. So, we repeatedly swap the numbers. Largest first. mod reduces

them quickly! Complexity? Guess O(log b) divisions. Linear in #digits of b! Compare to direct search for divisor. (Lame`s thm. Section 4.3) Integers and Algorithms 68 Base-b number systems

Ordinarily, we write base-10 representations of numbers, using digits 0-9. Of course, any base b>1 will work. For any positive integers n,b, there is a unique sequence Hmm. What about base 1? ak ak-1 a1a0 of digits ai

i Complexity of algs.: i always think about, what i 0 is the length of the input. Some problems still hard even with unary input 69 n a b Base Systems

Theorem: Base b expansion of a number Let b be a positive integer greater than 1. Then if n is a positive integer, it can be expressed uniquely in the form n = ak bk + ak-1 bk-1 + + a1 b + a0 Where k is a non-negative integer, a0, a1, , ak are nonnegative integers less than b, and ak 0 (Proof by induction) 70 Bases of Particular Interest Used only because we have 10 fingers Base b=10 (decimal):

10 digits: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9. Used internally in all Base b=2 (binary): modern 2 digits: 0,1. (Bits=binary digits.) computers Base b=8 (octal): Octal digits correspond to 8 digits: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7. groups of 3 bits Base b=16 (hexadecimal): 16 digits: 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F Hex digits give groups of 4 bits

Converting to Base b (An algorithm, informally stated.) To convert any integer n to any base b>1: To find the value of the rightmost (lowest-order) digit, simply compute n mod b. Now, replace n with the quotient n/b. Repeat above two steps to find subsequent digits, until n is gone (=0). Constructing Base b Expansions procedure base b expansion (n:positive integer) q := n k := 0 while (q 0)

begin ak := q mod b q := q / b k := k + 1 end {the base b expansion of n is (ak-1 ak-2 . . . a1 a0 )b } 74 N=25 in binary? N 25 a0 25 mod 2 1 N 25 / 2 12 a1 12 mod 2 0 N 12 / 2 6

a2 6 mod 2 0 N 6 / 2 3 a 3 3 mod 2 1 N 3 / 2 1 a4 1 mod 2 1 So, we have 25 in binary is 11001. N= 23670 in hexadecimal? 23670 mod 16 = 6; N= 23670/16 = 1479 mod 16 = 7 N= 1479/16 = 92 mod 16 = 12 N= 92/16 = 5 mod 16 = 5

6 76 C76 5C76 76 Addition of Integers in Binary Notation As you have known since grade 1 or before Correctness proof?

procedure add (a,b:positive integers) c := 0 for j := 0 to n - 1 Complexity? (#additions) begin d := (aj + bj + c) / 2 O(n), sj := aj + bj + c - 2d where n is number of bits! c := d (log of the size of the end number)

sj := c {the binary expansion of the sum is (sn sn-1 . . . s0 )2 } {the binary expansions of a and b are: an-1,an-2, a1,a0 and bn-1,bn-2, b1,b0} Multiplying Integers procedure multiply (a,b:positive integers) c := 0 Complexity? (additions and shifts) for j := 0 to n - 1 begin O(n2)

if bj then cj := a shifted j places else cj := 0 end p := 0 for j := 0 to n 1 p := p + cj {p is the value of ab } {the binary expansions of a and b are: an-1,an-2, a1,a0 and 78 bn-1,bn-2, b1,b0} Note: There are more efficient algorithms for multiplication! Modular Exponentiation

Problem: Given large integers b (base), n (exponent), and m (modulus), efficiently compute bn mod m. Note that bn itself may be completely infeasible to compute and store directly. E.g. if n is a 1,000-bit number, then bn itself will have far more digits than there are atoms in the universe! Yet, this is a type of calculation that is commonly required in modern cryptographic algorithms! Hmm. Modular Exponentiation: Using Binary Expansion of exponent n The binary expansion of n

Note that: n b b (b 2 k 1 ak 1 ) a k 1 2 k 1 a k 2 2 k 2 a0 2 0 (b

2 k 2 ak 2 ) 2 0 a0 (b ) We can compute b to various powers of 2 by repeated squaring. Then multiply them into the partial product, or not, depending on whether the corresponding ai bit is 1. Problem solved?

Crucially, we can do the mod m operations as we go along, because of the various identity laws of modular arithmetic. All the numbers stay small. 11 3 Example: So, Note: 11 = (1011)2 311 383231 32 9; 34 9 2 81;38 812 6561

By successively squaring: Therefore: 11 8 2 1 3 3 3 3 65619 3 177,147 The algorithm successively computes: 2 4

b mod m, b mod m, b mod m,, b 2j 2k 1 mod m, multiplying together the terms b mod m, where a j 1 Modular Exponentiation procedure modular exponentiation (b:integer, ak1 ak2 a0:binary representation of n, m: positive integer) x := 1

power := b mod m for i := 0 to k1 begin if ai = 1 then x := (x power) mod m power := (power power) mod m end 2i 1 22i 2i 2i return x b

b (b ) (b ) 82 Example: 3644 mod 645 Note: 644 = (1010000100)2 Steps performed by the algorithm: Key point: you compute successive powers but numbers stay small because of repeated Mod operation. Two Additional Applications:

1 - Performing arithmetic with large numbers 2 - Public Key System require additional key results in Number Theory Additional Number Theory Results Theorem: a,b integers, a,b >0: s,t: gcd(a,b) = sa + tb Lemma 1: a,b,c>0: gcd(a,b)=1 and a | bc, then a|c Lemma 2: If p is prime and p|a1a2an (integers ai), then i: p|ai.

Theorem 2: If ac bc (mod m) and gcd(c,m)=1, then a b (mod m). Proof of Theorem 1 Theorem 1: a b 0 st: gcd(a,b) = sa + tb Proof: By induction over the value of the larger argument a. Note: From Euclid theorem, we know that gcd(a,b) = gcd(b,c) if c = a mod b, in which case a = kb +c for some integer k, so c = a kb. With b

induction step. Base case? The base case is solved by considering: s = 1, t = 0, which works for gcd(a,0), or if a=b originally. QED Example: gcd(252,198) = 18. Lets express 18 as a linear combination of 252 and 198. Using the divisions performed by the Euclid Algorithm: 252 = 1 198 + 54 198 = 3 54 + 36 54 = 1 36198 +18+ 54

36 = 2 18 So, 18 = 54 - 1 36 (from 3rd equation) 36 = 198 3 54 (from 4th equation) Therefore 18 = 54 - 1 (198 3 54) = 4 54 1 198 But 54 = 252 - 1 198; so substituting this expression for 54: 18 = 4 (252 - 1 198) - 1 198 = 4 252 5 198 So, the gcd is a linear combination of the original numbers. One of the mulipliers is negative of course. Proof of Lemma 1 Lemma 1: gcd(a,b) = 1and a|bc, then a|c. Proof: Applying theorem 1, s, t: sa+tb = 1. Multiplying through by c,

we have that sac + tbc = c. Since a|bc is given, we know that a|tbc, and obviously a|sac. Thus, it follows that a|(sac+tbc). So, we have that a|c. Proof of Lemma 2 Lemma 2: If prime p|a1an then i: p|ai. Proof: If n=1, this is immediate since p|a0 then p|a0. Suppose the lemma is true for all n

89 Uniqueness of Prime Factorizations The other part of proving the Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic. The prime factorization of any number n is unique. Theorem: If p1ps = q1qt are equal products of two nondecreasing sequences of primes, then s=t and pi = qi for all i. Proof: Assume (without loss of generality) that all primes in common have already been divided out, so that ij: pi qj. But since p1ps = q1qt, we have that p1|q1qt, since p1(p2ps) = q1qt. Then applying lemma 2, j: p1|qj. Since qj is prime, it has no divisors other than itself and 1, so it must be that pi=qj. This contradicts the assumption ij: pi qj. The only resolution is that

after the common primes are divided out, both lists of primes were empty, so we couldnt pick out p1. In other words, the two lists must have been identical to begin with! Aside: Property is so well-known, that there is a temptation to QED assume its obvious. Not so. You need the proof! If it were false, math would be very different. (primes are the building blocks of numbers) Proof of Theorem 2 Theorem 2: If ac bc (mod m) and gcd(c,m)=1, then a b (mod m). Proof: Since ac bc (mod m), this means m | acbc. Factoring the right side, we get m | c(a b).

Since gcd(c,m)=1 (c and m are relative prime), lemma 1 implies that m | ab, in other words, a b (mod m). QED 91 An Application of Theorem 2 Suppose we have a pure-multiplicative pseudo-random number generator {xn} using a multiplier a that is relatively prime to the modulus m. Then the transition function that maps from xn to xn+1 is bijective. One-to-one but why onto? Hmm? Because if xn+1 = axn mod m = axn mod m, then xn=xn (by theorem 2).

This in turn implies that the sequence of numbers generated cannot repeat until the original number is re-encountered. And this means that on average, we will visit a large fraction of the numbers in the range 0 to m1 before we begin to Can you construct a small cycle? repeat! Intuitively, because the chance of hitting the first number in the sequence is 1/m, so it will take (m) tries on average to get to it. Thus, the multiplier a ought to be chosen relatively prime to the modulus, to avoid repeating too soon. Linear Congruences, Inverses

A congruence of the form ax b (mod m) is called a linear congruence. To solve the congruence is to find the xs that satisfy it. An inverse of a, modulo m is any integer a such that aa 1 (mod m). If we can find such an a, notice that we can then solve ax b by multiplying through by it, giving aax ab, thus 1x ab, thus x ab (mod m). Theorem 3: If gcd(a,m)=1 and m>1, then a has a unique (modulo m) inverse a. Proof: By theorem 1, st: sa+tm = 1, so sa+tm 1 (mod m). Since tm 0 (mod m), sa 1 (mod m). Thus s is an inverse of a (mod m). Theorem 2 guarantees that if ra sa 1 then rs. Thus this inverse is unique mod m. (All inverses of a are in the same congruence class as s.) Linear congruences are the basis to perform arithmetic with large integers.

QED Example: Find an inverse of 4 modulo 9 Since gcd(4, 9) = 1, we know that there is an inverse of 4, modulo 9. Using the Euclidean algorithm to find the greatest common divisor (see prev. proof): 9=2 4+1 -2 4 + 1 9 = 1 So, -2 is an inverse of 4 module 9 We have: -2 x 4 = -8. And -8 mod 9 = 1. Also, so is every integer congruent to -2 modulo 9, e.g., -2, 7, -11, 16, etc. What are the solutions of the linear congruence 4x 5 (mod 9)? Since we know that -2 is an inverse for 4 mod 9, we can multiply both sides of the linear

congruence: -2 4x -2 5 (mod 9) Since -8 1 (mod 9) and -10 8 (mod 9), it follows that if x is a solution, then x -10 8 (mod 9). We now have 4x 4 8 5 (mod 9) which shows that all such x satisfy the congruence. So, solutions to the congruence are integers x such that x 8 (mod) 9, namely, 8, 17, 26, , and -1, -10, etc. Puzzle: There are certain things whose number is unknown. When divided by 3, the remainder is 2; when divided by 5, the remainder is 3; and when divided by 7, the remainder is 2. What is the number of things?

Whats x such that: x 2 (mod 3) x 3 (mod 5) x 2 (mod 7)? Chinese Remainder Theorem Theorem: (Chinese remainder theorem.) Let m1,,mn > 0 be relatively prime. Then the system of equations x ai (mod mi) (for i=1 to n) has a unique solution modulo m = m1mn. Proof: Let Mi = m/mi. (Thus gcd(mi, Mi)=1.) So by thm 3, yi such that yiMi 1 (mod mi). Now let x = i ai yi Mi. Since mi|Mk for ki, Mk 0 (mod mi), so

x ai yi Mi ai (mod mi). Thus, the congruences hold. (Uniqueness is an exercise.) QED 97 Whats x such that: x 2 (mod 3) x 3 (mod 5) x 2 (mod 7)? Using the Chinese Remainder theorem let: m = 357 = 105 M1 = m/3 = 105/3 = 35;

2 is an inverse of M1 = 35 (mod 3) (since 35x21 (mod 3) M2 = m/5 = 105/5 = 21; M3 = m/7 = 15; 1 is an inverse of M2 = 21 (mod 5) (since 21x11 (mod 5) 1 is an inverse of M3 = 15 (mod 7) (since 15x11 (mod 7) So x 2 35 2 + 3 21 1 + 2 15 1 = 233 23 (mod 105) So answer: 23 So, were solving equations in modular arithmetic . Computer Arithmetic w. Large Ints

By Chinese Remainder Theorem, an integer a where 0 a < m=mi, gcd(mi,mji) = 1, can be represented by as residues mod mi: (a mod m1, a mod m2, , a mod mn) Implicitly, consider the set of equations x a i (mod mi), with ai = a mod mi. By the CRT, unique x a mod m, with m = mi is a solution. Example: How to represent uniquely non-integer integers less than 12 by pairs, where the first component is the remainder of the integer upon division by 3 and the second component is the remainder of the integer upon division by 4? Finding the remainder of each integer divide by 3 and 4, we obtain:

0=(0,0); 1=(1,1); 2=(2,2); 3=(0,3); 4=(1,0); 5=(2,1); 6=(0,2); 7=(1,3); 8=(2,0); 9= (0,1); 10 = (1,2); 11= (2,3) e.g. 5 = ((5 mod 3), (5 mod 4)) Note we have the right number of pairs; one for each number up to 4x3 -1. Computer Arithmetic with Large Ints To perform arithmetic upon large integers represented in this way, Simply perform ops on these separate residues! Each of these might be done in a single machine op. The ops may be easily parallelized on a vector machine. Works so long as the desired result < m.

Example: Suppose we can perform operation with integers less than 100 can be done easily; we can restrict ourselves to integers less than 100, if we represent the integers using their remainders modulo pairwise relatively prime integers less than 100; e.g., 99, 98, 97, 95. By the Chinese remainder theorem, any number up to 9998 97 95 = 89,403,930 can be represented uniquely by its remainders when divided by these four moduli. E.g, the number 123,684 can be represented as (123,684 mod 99; 123,684 mod 98; 123,684 mod 97; 123,684 mod 95) = (33,8,9,89) 413,456 can be represented as (413,456 mod 99; 413,456 mod 98; 413,456 mod 97; 413,456 mod 95) = (32,92,42,16)

To perform a sum we only have to sum the residues: (33, 8, 9, 89)+(32, 92 , 42, 16) = (65 mod 99. 100 mod98, 51mod97, 105mod95) = (65, 2, 51, 10) To find the sum we just have to solve the system of linear congruences: x 65 (mod99) x 2 (mod98) x 51 (mod97) x 10 (mod95) Solution: 537,140 Bigger Example For example, the following numbers are relatively prime:

m1 = 2251 = 33,554,431 = 31 601 1,801 m2 = 2271 = 134,217,727 = 7 73 262,657 m3 = 2281 = 268,435,455 = 3 5 29 43 113 127 m4 = 2291 = 536,870,911 = 233 1,103 2,089 m5 = 2311 = 2,147,483,647 (prime) Thus, we can uniquely represent all numbers up to m = mi 1.41042 2139.5 by their residues ri modulo these five mi. E.g., 1030 = (r1 = 20,900,945; r2 = 18,304,504; r3 = 65,829,085; r4 = 516,865,185; r5 = 1,234,980,730) To add two such numbers in this representation, Just add their corresponding residues using machine-native 32-bit integers. Take the result mod 2k1:

If result is the appropriate 2k1 value, subtract out 2k1 Note: No carries are needed between the different pieces! Pseudoprimes Recall: Theorem: If n is a composite integer, then n has a prime divisor less than or equal to the square root of n So to check if a number n is prime, we check if all its prime factors less than n divide n. If not, the number is prime. Is there a faster way of checking if a number is prime? Pseudoprimes

Ancient (?) Chinese mathematicians noticed that whenever n is prime, 2n11 (mod n). Some also claimed that the converse was true. However, it turns out that the converse is not true! If 2n11 (mod n), it doesnt follow that n is prime. For example, 341=1131, but 2340 1 (mod 341). (not so easy to find the counter example. ) If converse was true, what would be a good test for primality? Composites n with this property are called pseudoprimes. More generally, if bn1 1 (mod n) and n is composite, then n is called a pseudoprime to the base b.

Fermats Little Theorem Fermat generalized the ancient observation that 2p11 (mod p) for primes p to the following more general theorem: Theorem: (Fermats Little Theorem.) If p is prime and a is an integer not divisible by p, then ap1 1 (mod p). Furthermore, for every integer a ap a (mod p). 107 108

Carmichael numbers These are sort of the ultimate pseudoprimes. A Carmichael number is a composite n such that a n1 1 (mod n) for all a relatively prime to n. The smallest few are 561, 1105, 1729, 2465, 2821, 6601, 8911, 10585, 15841, 29341. These numbers are important since they fool the Fermat primality test: They are Fermat liars. The Miller-Rabin (76 / 80) randomized primality testing algorithm eliminates problems with Carmichael problems. Number Theory: RSA and Public-key Cryptography

Alice and Bob have never met but they would like to exchange a message. Eve would like to eavesdrop. They could come up with a good encryption algorithm and exchange the encryption key but how to do it without Eve getting it? (If Eve gets it, all security is lost.) CS folks found the solution: public key encryption. Quite remarkable that that is feasible. 112

Number Theory: Public Key Encryption RSA Public Key Cryptosystem (why RSA?) Uses modular arithmetic and large primes Its security comes from the computational difficulty 113 of factoring large numbers. Public Key Cryptography In private key cryptosystems, the same secret key string is used to both encode and decode messages. This raises the problem of how to securely communicate the key strings.

In public key cryptosystems, instead there are two complementary keys. One key decrypts the messages that the other one encrypts. This means that one key (the public key) can be made public, while the other (the private key) can be kept secret from everyone. Messages to the owner can be encrypted by anyone using the public key, but can only be decrypted by the owner using the private key. Like having a private lock-box with a slot for messages. Or, the owner can encrypt a message with the private key, and then anyone can decrypt it, and know that only the owner could have encrypted it. This is the basis of digital signature systems. The most famous public-key cryptosystem is RSA.

It is based entirely on number theory Rivest-Shamir-Adleman (RSA) The private key consists of: A pair p, q of large random prime numbers, and d, an inverse of e modulo (p1)(q1), but not e itself. The public key consists of: The product n = pq (but not p and q), and An exponent e that is relatively prime to (p1)(q1). To encrypt a message encoded as an integer M < n: Compute C = Me mod n.

To decrypt the encoded message C, Compute M = Cd mod n. RSA Approach Encode: C = Me (mod n) M is the plaintext; C is ciphertext n = pq with p and q large primes (e.g. 200 digits long!) e is relative prime to (p-1)(q-1) Decode: Cd = M (mod pq) d is inverse of e modulo (p-1)(q-1) The process of encrypting and decrypting a message

correctly results in the original message (and its fast!) 116 RSA Approach Encode: C = Me (mod n) M is the plaintext; C is ciphertext n = pq with p and q large primes (e.g. 200 digits long!) e is relative prime to (p-1)(q-1) Ex: Encode STOP using RSA, with p=43;q=59 therefore n=4359=2537, e =13; (note that gcd(e,(p-1),(q-1)) = gcd(13,4258)=1) S 18 P 19 O 14 T15 i.e, 1819 1415, grouped into blocks of 4 1819 and 1415

Each block is encrypted using C = Me (mod n) 1819 13 mod 2537 = 2081 1451 13 mod 2537 = 2182 Encrypted message = 2081 2182 117 RSA Approach Given the message: 0981 0461, how to decode it? Decode: Cd = M (mod pq) d is inverse of e modulo (p-1)(q-1) d = 937 is an inverse of 13 mod (4258=2436) 0981 937 mod 2537= 0704 and 0461 937 mod 2537 = 1115

So the decoded message is 0704 1115 07 H 04 E L 15 P 118 Why RSA Works Theorem (Correctness of RSA): (Me)d M (mod n). Proof: By the definition of d, we know that de 1 [mod (p1)(q1)]. Thus by the definition of modular congruence, k: de = 1 + k(p1)(q1). So, the result of decryption is Cd (Me)d = Mde = M1+k(p1)(q1) (mod n)

Assuming that M is not divisible by either p or q, Which is nearly always the case when p and q are very large, Fermats Little Theorem tells us that Mp11 (mod p) and Mq11 (mod q) Thus, we have that the following two congruences hold: First: Cd M(Mp1)k(q1) M1k(q1) M (mod p) Second: Cd M(Mq1)k(p1) M1k(p1) M (mod q) And since gcd(p,q)=1, we can use the Chinese Remainder Theorem to show that therefore CdM (mod pq): If CdM (mod pq) then s: Cd=spq+M, so CdM (mod p) and (mod q). Thus M is a solution to these two congruences, so (by CRT) its the only solution. 119

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