Chapter 17 Parasites Dr. Dipa Brahmbhatt VMD, MPH,

Chapter 17 Parasites Dr. Dipa Brahmbhatt VMD, MPH,

Chapter 17 Parasites Dr. Dipa Brahmbhatt VMD, MPH, MS Objectives

ID Common endoparasites in small ruminants Clinical signs associated with parasites Diagnosis Treatments Reading Assignment Chapter 17: Common Ovine and Caprine Diseases Know table 17 -3: Parasites

Key terms

Fecal flotation ELISA Baerman technique Skin scrapings Pre patent period Direct life cycle Indirect lifecycle

Figure 6-61 Baermann apparatus is used to recover larvae of roundworms from feces, soil, or animal tissues. This apparatus is most useful in recovering larvae of lungworms. (Reprinted from Hendrix CM, Robinson E: Diagnostic parasitology for veterinary technicians, ed 3, St Louis, 2006, Mosby.) Abomasum Family: Trichostrongyloidea Haemonchus Contortus Haemonchus contortus barberpole worm/ wire

worm PPP: 17 21 days 1 (25 mm) Abomasum of Male bursa RIght small ruminants feeds on blood Clinical signs anemia, bottle jaw, chronic weight loss

death Clinical signs Haemonchus bottle jaw: hypoproteinemia and anemia. usually late winter.

Figure 6-34 Characteristic trichostrongyle-type ova of the bovine trichostrongyles. These oval, thin-shelled eggs contain four or more cells. They measure 70 to 120 m long. Some of these ova can be identified by their respective genus; however, identification is usually difficult because mixed infections are common. (From Hendrix CM, Robinson E: Diagnostic parasitology for veterinary technicians, ed 3, St Louis, 2006, Mosby.) Adults in the abomasum. Barberpole worm TX: Levimasole, ivermectin, doramectin,

Moxidectin, albendazole, morantel tartate, eprinomectin, tetramisole Ostertagia ostertagi Ostertagia ostertagi (brown stomach worm) 1/2 (10 mm) adult worm; abomasum most serious impact on calves disrupt gastric acid secretion Male bursa left

Clinical signs diarrhea illthriftthrift poor feed conversion PPP: 16 23 days Ostertagia ostertagi TX: Fenbendazole, ivermectin, doramectin,

morantel tartate, moxidectin Trichostrongylus axei Trichostrongylus axei Bankrupt worm Small stomach worm TX: Fenbendazole, ivermectin, doramectin,

Moxidectin, albendazole, morantel tartate, eprinomectin Adults ~1/4 (4thrift8 mm); abomasum Clinical signs

Diarrhea dehydration bottle jaw emaciation PPP: 21 days Small Intestine

Nematodirus Nematodirus spp. Thin necked intestinal worms N. battus is more pathogenic SI Diarrhea, Anorexia

TX: Fenbendazole, albendazole, ivermectin, Moxidectin, albendazole, morantel tartate, levamisole B = typical strongyle egg PPP: 14 - 21 days Figure 6-35 Characteristic large ova of Nematodirus species. In standard fecal flotation, the eggs of Nematodirus species are larger

than those of other bovine trichostrongyles (150 to 230 m by 80 to 100 m), have tapering ends, and have four to eight cells. (From Hendrix CM, Robinson E: Diagnostic parasitology for veterinary technicians, ed 3, St Louis, 2006, Mosby.) Strongyloides papillosus

Family: Rhabditodea Threadworm CS: foot rot, diarrhea TX: eprinomectin, ivermectin ZOONOTIC PPP: 1 2 weeks

Trichostrongylus Colubriformis Hair worm, black scour worm CS: diarrhea, +/bottlejaw, dec. weight gain, PPP: 21 days ZOONOTIC TX: Fenbendazole, doramectin, Moxidectin, morantel tartate,

eprinomectin Figure 6-36 Characteristic ova of Moniezia species. The eggs of Moniezia expansa are triangular or pyramidal and 56 to 67 m in diameter. The eggs of Moniezia benedini are square or cuboidal and approximately 75 m in diameter. (From Hendrix CM, Robinson E: Diagnostic parasitology for veterinary technicians, ed 3, St Louis, 2006, Mosby.) Cooperia spp. Cooperia punctata or pectinata

Cattle bankrupt worm CS: decreased growth and anorexia PPP: 21 days TX: Fenbendazole, Levimasole, ivermectin, doramectin, Moxidectin, albendazole, morantel tartate, eprinomectin

Bunostomum trigonocephalum Trichostrongloidea Bunostomum trigonocephalum: hookworms Larger than strongyle eggs Diarrhea, anemia, weight loss, death

young animals PPP: 2 months Courtesy of Dr. Dietrich Barth, Merial TX: Fenbendazole, ivermectin, doramectin, Moxidectin, eprinomectin

Monieza expansa CESTODES Monieza expansa Not very pathogenic PPP: 40 days TX: Fenbendazole, albendazole, dichlorophen, lead, arsenate, niclosamide

Moniezia expansa,egg. Courtesy of Merial Cecum and Colon Oesphagostomum columbianum Strongylidae Oesphagostomum columbianum: nodular

worm cecum, colon anorexia; severe, constant, dark, persistent, fetid diarrhea with fly strike; weight loss; and death Adults: cysts in GI PPP: 40 days

Oesphagostomum columbianum TX: Albendazole, Eprinomectrin, Moxidectin, Doramectin, albendazole, morantel tartate, levamisole Oesophagostomum gross lesions (nodules), abomasum, sheep. Courtesy of Dr. Raffaele Roncalli

Chabertia ovina Large bowel worm CS: anemia PPP: 2 months TX: Albendazole, Fenbendazole, ivermectin

Trichuris ovis Whipworm CS: hemorrhage cecum with fatal infections PPP: 2 months TX: Eprinomectin, Fenbendazole, ivermectin

Lung worms Dictyocaulus filaria Lungworm CS: cough, cyanosis, dyspnea PPP: 28 days Baerman technique TX: Ivermectin, Eprinomectrin,

Moxidectin, Doramectin, fenbendazole, levamisole Figure 6-38 Representative eggs and larvae of Dictyocaulus species, or cattle lungworms. (From Hendrix CM, Robinson E: Diagnostic parasitology for veterinary technicians, ed 3, St Louis, 2006, Mosby.) Protostrongylus Protostrongylus rufescens, P. rushi, P. stilesi

Bighorn sheep lungworm Transmission: transplacental, snails CS: predisposes to pneumonia PPP: 35 days DX: Fecal baerman Flukes: liver and bile

TX: ivermectin, albendazole, fenbendazole Muellerius capillaris Goat lungworms May predispose to pneumonia Baerman techniique snail TX: ivermectin, albendazole, fenbendazole

Figure 6-39 First-stage larva of Muellerius capillaris, the hair lungworm of sheep and goats. First-stage larvae are 230 to 300 m long. The larval tail has an undulating tip and a dorsal spine. (From Hendrix CM, Robinson E: Diagnostic parasitology for veterinary technicians, ed 3, St Louis, 2006, Mosby.) Liver Fasciola hepatica Fasciola hepatica

Liver flukes Live in bile ducts as adults Aquatic snails = intermediate host CS: anemia, weight loss, decreased performance, hepatitis, death PPP: 10 12 weeks Eggs: are heavy sedimentation is recommended

TX: Clorsulon, nitroxynil, rafoxanide ZOONOTIC Figure 6-37 Characteristic operculated ovum of Fasciola hepatica, the liver fluke of cattle, sheep, and other ruminants. The eggs measure 140 by 100 m and are yellowish-brown and oval. (From Hendrix CM, Robinson E: Diagnostic parasitology for veterinary technicians, ed 3, St Louis, 2006, Mosby.)

Thysanosoma actinoides

Fringed tapeworm Sheep CS: weight loss Liver condemned PPP: 30 days Dx: proglottids feces Tx: Fenbendazole and albendazole

ID necropsy Taenia hydatigena Echinoccocus granulosus Taenia ovis

Taenia multiceps References Large animal clinical procedures for veterinary technicians, Elizabeth A. Hanie, 2006 http://www.caes.uga.edu/publications/pubDetail.cfm?pk_ID= 6196 http://courses.cals.uidaho.edu/avs/avs471/Lectures/Lectures %202010/Lecture%20Parasites%20notes.pdf

http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/projects/dxendopar/parasitepages/ trematodes/Fhepatica.htm http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/projects/dxendopar/ index.html#fecal http://www.sheepandgoat.com/HairSheepWorkshop/ parasitism.html http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/projects/merial/Nematodes/ Table1.htm

References http://www.vetmed.wisc.edu/pbs/vetpara/tutorial2.html http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/ toc_22400.htm http://instruction.cvhs.okstate.edu/jcfox/htdocs/clinpara/ lst41_50.htm http://instruction.cvhs.okstate.edu/jcfox/htdocs/clinpara/lecture.htm http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/projects/merial/index.html Laboratory procedures for Veterinary Technicians, 5 th edition, 2007,

Hendrix C.M; Sirois M. K Holtgrew-Bohling , Large Animal Clinical Procedures for Veterinary Technicians, 2nd Edition, Mosby, 2012, ISBN: 97803223077323 References http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/17/7/101519-f1.htm http://www.extension.org/pages/19680/goatother-parasites

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