Applied NWP [1.2] Once the initialization problem was resolved in the 1960s, models based on the primitive equations gradually supplanted those based on the filtered

equations. (D&VK Chapters 8, 13) Charney http://books.nap.edu/html/biomems/jcharney.html Applied NWP REVIEW

The humid atmosphere is governed by a system of seven equations and seven unknowns our governing equations. Applied NWP REVIEW Synoptic-scale atmospheric disturbances in the

mid-latitudes are in approximate geostrophic (quasi-geostrophic) balance Applied NWP Well start gradually with a simpler model based on a smaller and less complex set of primitive equations (shallow-water or barotropic primitive equations) Constant density Hydrostatic

Applied NWP barotropic primitive equations (PEs) momentum equations continuity equation Applied NWP

barotropic primitive equations (PEs) Barotropic PE and PE models support the development and propagation of gravity waves required to bring the synoptic-scale atmosphere back to geostrophic balance these models can simulate the geostrophic adjustment process Applied NWP Waves [8.3] Review Section 8.3.1

Phase speed (8.10), phase velocity (8.11), and group velocity (8.12) The energy of a wave moves at the group velocity. Applied NWP Waves [8.3] If the phase speed of the waves does not depend on the wave number, then all of the waves, regardless of wave

number, travel at the same speed (nondispersive) A signal comprised of nondispersive waves will maintain its shape with time If the phase speed of the waves does depend on the wave number, then waves of different wave numbers will travel at different speeds (dispersive) The signal shape will change with time

Applied NWP Waves [8.3] For linear waves in an atmosphere having an embedded background flow The energy of a wave moves at the group velocity. Applied NWP Barotropic gravity waves [8.4]

Need to understand their dispersion properties since they are so important for the geostrophic adjustment process Linearized versions of Eqs. (8.1)-(8.3) Where it has been assumed that (1) the density difference of the two layers is large (use gravity instead of reduced gravity) and (2) the background flow is zero (effects can be added later in the linearized system).

Applied NWP Barotropic gravity waves [8.4] {f} {g} Dispersion relation for linear barotropic inertio-gravity waves

Dispersive different waves (wave numbers) travel at different speeds Applied NWP Barotropic gravity waves [8.4] Rossby radius of deformation distance traveled by a gravity wave during one angular inertial period { = 1/ f }. For a barotropic fluid,

An atmospheric circulation whose characteristic length is << R , the earths rotation can be ignored as it is not important for the dynamics of the circulation. Applied NWP Barotropic gravity waves [8.4] Extension to a fluid having multiple layers An n-layered fluid would have n modes of oscillation; a single barotropic mode and n 1 baroclinic modes. Each mode has its own equivalent depth {He(i)}, wave speed, and

radius of deformation Baroclinic mode wave speeds are much smaller than the barotropic mode wave speed which, from Eq. (8.34), indicates that the effects of the Earths rotation may be more important for small-scale baroclinic disturbances and negligible for the barotropic circulation of the same size (identical K) Has many applications in both atmospheric and oceanic modeling

An atmospheric circulation whose characteristic length is << R , the earths rotation can be ignored as it is not important for the dynamics of the circulation. Applied NWP Why stagger the horizontal grids in our PE models [8.5]-[8.6]? Since gravity waves are important for the geostrophic adjustment process, we need to evaluate how well these waves can be simulated on our horizontal (2D)

grid. Dispersion relations for Eqs. (8.19)-(8.21) {sl#7 of this LP} using the form of differential-difference equations, Applied NWP Why stagger the horizontal grids in our PE models [8.5]-[8.6]? True dispersion relation barotropic inertio-gravity waves

Applied NWP Why stagger the horizontal grids in our PE models [8.5]-[8.6]? Unstaggered 2D grid (Arakawa A grid) True dispersion relation barotropic inertio-gravity waves Applied NWP

Why stagger the horizontal grids in our PE models [8.5]-[8.6]? Staggered 2D grid (Arakawa B grid) True dispersion relation barotropic inertio-gravity waves Applied NWP Why stagger the horizontal grids in our PE models [8.5]-[8.6]?

Staggered 2D grid (Arakawa C grid) True dispersion relation barotropic inertio-gravity waves Applied NWP Why stagger the horizontal grids in our PE models [8.5]-[8.6]? Staggered 2D grid (Arakawa D grid)

True dispersion relation barotropic inertio-gravity waves Applied NWP Why stagger the horizontal grids in our PE models [8.5]-[8.6]? Staggered 2D grid (Arakawa E grid) True dispersion relation barotropic inertio-gravity waves

Applied NWP Why stagger the horizontal grids in our PE models [8.5]-[8.6]? Relatively stable atmosphere Applied NWP Why stagger the horizontal grids in our PE models

[8.5]-[8.6]? Purely zonal propagation, B and C grids have the best dispersion properties For northeasterly propagation, C grid has the best dispersion properties D grid has the worst dispersion properties in both examples Note rotational symmetry of B and E grids {B grid-plot in top panel of Fig. 8.10 is identical to E grid-plot of bottom

panel} C grid is very commonly used in numerical models of the atmosphere or ocean. Applied NWP Why stagger the horizontal grids in our PE models [8.5]-[8.6]? Lower stability atmosphere

Applied NWP Why stagger the horizontal grids in our PE models [8.5]-[8.6]? Purely zonal propagation, B and E grids have the best dispersion properties For northeasterly propagation, E grid has the best dispersion properties D grid has the worst dispersion properties in both

examples Note rotational symmetry of B and E grids {B grid-plot in top panel of Fig. 8.10 is identical to E grid-plot of bottom panel} B and E grids are also used, particularly for mesoscale models in highly baroclinic environments, in which the Rossby radius of deformation is small. Applied NWP Numerical Stability of Barotropic PE models [8.7]

Leapfrog time-differencing scheme on the A, B, C, and E grids Idealized stability condition A, B/E, and C Grid stability conditions Applied NWP Numerical Stability of Barotropic PE models [8.7] C grid has the most stringent stability criterion

A grid has the least stringent stability criterion Using Adams-Bashforth Scheme (rather than the leapfrog scheme) B/E grids have the most stringent stability condition C grid has the least stringent stability condition Effects of Coriolis term- Applied NWP

REVIEW The humid atmosphere is governed by a system of seven equations and seven unknowns our governing equations. Applied NWP Primitive equations model choices [Chapter 13]

Nonhydrostatic v. hydrostatic models Compressible, anelastic, or incompressible continuity equation Choices are determined by [13.1] scale of phenomena to be modeled computational performance requirements Applied NWP Primitive equations [13.2]

= requires parameterization [dominated by subgrid-scale phenomena] Applied NWP Vertical pressure balance [13.3] Eliminate acoustic waves (see LP#2) using the hydrostatic equation (Eq. 13.8),

allows for a longer time interval (t) to be usedt) to be used vertical motion must be diagnosed from another equation Applied NWP Vertical pressure balance [13.3] As horizontal scale of phenomena approaches its depth, nonhydrostatic vertical momentum equation (Eq. 13.3)

must be used split total pressure and density into base state and perturbation part Applied NWP Vertical pressure balance [13.3] Applied NWP

Vertical pressure balance [13.3] Nonhydrostatic models require a fairly short time interval (t) to be usedt, more iterations per forecast hour) due to the presence and propagation of acoustic waves in both the vertical and horizontal directions Applied NWP The Continuity Equation [13.4] Fully compressible models; through rearrangement of

Eq. 13.15, with some scale analysis, we find which becomes the predictive equation for temperature. Eq. 13.17 is used to predict humidity, Eqs 13.11-13.14 are used to predict u, v, w, Eq. 13.16 is used to diagnose perturbation pressure. Applied NWP

The Continuity Equation [13.4] Anelastic models; use anelastic continuity equation, which eliminates acoustic waves, but gives the added complexity that pressure cannot be diagnosed without solving the computationally intensive elliptic equation, Applied NWP The Continuity Equation [13.4]

Anelastic models; hence, the longer time interval (and fewer iterations per forecast hour) allowed by the anelastic approximation is offset by the time required to numerically solve the elliptic equation at every time step in order to diagnose the pressure Applied NWP A real-live primitive equations model example WRF Version 3

[http://www2.mmm.ucar.edu/wrf/users/docs/arw_v3.pdf] Applied NWP And now for another activity WRFV3 Treasure Hunt http://psc.apl.washington.edu/HLD/

Activity- code word- Thatisheavy