Lifespan Development Developmental Psychology What shapes the way
Lifespan Development Developmental Psychology What shapes the way we change over time? Focus on psychological changes across the entire life span Every area of psychology can be looked at from this perspective
biological development social development cognitive/perceptual development personality development Fundamental Issues: Nature vs. Nurture What is role of heredity vs. environment in determining psychological makeup? Is IQ inherited or determined early environment?
Is there a criminal gene? Is sexual orientation a choice or genetically determined? These are some of our greatest societal debates Mistake to pose as either/or questions Dominant and Recessive Genes Genotypeunderlying genetic makeup Phenotypetraits that are expressed
Dominant geneswill always be expressed if present Recessive geneswill not be expressed unless they are in a pair Sex Linked Traits Traits linked to the X or Y (sex) chromosomes Usually recessive and carried on the X chromosome Appear more frequently in one sex than another Color blindness, baldness,
hemophilia, Fragile X Physical and Psychological Development Related Physical development begins at conception Physical maturity sets limits on psychological ability visual system not fully functional at birth language system not functional until much later
Prenatal environment can have lifetime influence on health and intellectual ability Prenatal Development Conceptionwhen a sperm penetrates the ovum Zygotea fertilized egg Germinal periodfirst two weeks after conception Embryonic periodweeks three through eight after conception Fetal periodtwo months after conception
on Development Nutrition Anxiety Mothers general health Maternal age Teratogensany agent that causes a birth defect (e.g., drugs, radiation, viruses) Disease thalidomid e
Fetal alcohol syndrome Infant Abilities Infants are born with immature visual system can detect movement and large objects Other senses function well on day 1 will orient to sounds turn away from unpleasant odors prefer sweet to sour tastes Born with a number of reflex behaviors
Infant Reflexes Rootingturning the head and opening the mouth in the direction of a touch on the cheek Suckingsucking rhythmically in response to oral stimulation Graspingcurling the fingers around an object Social and Personality Development Temperament--inborn
predisposition to consistently behave and react in a certain way Attachment-- emotional bond between infant and caregiver Temperament
Chess S., Thomas, A. (1987) Easyadaptable, positive mood, regular habits Slow to warm uplow activity, somewhat slow to adapt, generally withdraw from new situations Difficultintense emotions, irritable, cry frequently Averageunable to classify (1/3 of all children) Goodness of fit Quality of Attachment
Parents who are consistently warm, responsive, and sensitive to the infants needs usually have infants who are securely attached Parents who are neglectful, inconsistent, or insensitive to infants needs usually have infants who are insecurely attached Harlows Monkeys Social Isolation leads to serious problems Normal
development requires affectionate contact Lack of social contact, rather than lack of parent causes the problem Lesser periods of isolation may be overcome, longer periods cause irreparable damage
Ainsworths Strange Situation Used to study quality of attachment in infants Observe childs reaction when mother is present with the child in a strange room Observe the childs reaction when mother leaves Observes the childs reaction when mother returns Language Development
Noam Chomsky asserts that every child is born with a biological predisposition to learn language universal grammar Motherese or infant directed speech--style of speech used by adults (mostly parents) in all cultures to talk to babies and children Language Development Infant preference for human speech over
other sounds before 6 months can hear differences used in all languages after 6 months begin to hear only differences used in native language Cooingvowel sounds produced 24 months Babblingconsonant/vowel sounds between 4 to 6 months Even deaf infants coo and babble Language Development MONTH
Two-word stage Sentences Young Childrens Vocabulary Comprehension vocabulary-words that the infant or child understands Production vocabulary--words that the infant or child understands and can speak Gender Role Development
Gendercultural, social, and psychological meanings associated with masculinity or femininity Gender rolesvarious traits designated either masculine or feminine in a given culture Gender identityA persons psychological sense of being male or female Between ages 2-3 years, children can identify themselves and other children as boys or girls. The concept of gender or sex, is, however, based more on outward characteristics such as clothing.
Gender Differences Toddler girls tend to play more with dolls and ask for help more than boys Toddler boys tend to play more with trucks and wagons, and to play more actively After age 3 years we see consistent gender differences in preferred toys and activities Children are more rigid in sex-role stereotypes than adults
Social Learning Theory Gender roles are acquired through the basic processes of learning, including reinforcement, punishment, and modeling Gender Schema Theory Gender-role development is influenced by the formation of schemas, or mental representations, of masculinity and femininity Children actively develop mental categories of masculinity ad femininity and categorize these into gender categories or schemas Trucks are for boys and dolls are for girls is an
example of a gender schema Piagets Theory of Cognitive Development Jean Piaget (18961980) Swiss psychologist who became leading theorist in 1930s Piaget believed that children are active thinkers, constantly trying to construct more advanced understandings of the world Cognitive development is a stage process
Piagets Approach Primary method was to ask children to solve problems and to question them about the reasoning behind their solutions Discovered that children think in radically different ways than adults Proposed that development occurs as a series of stages differing in how the world is understood Sensorimotor Stage (birth 2)
Information is gained through the senses and motor actions Child perceives and manipulates but does not reason Symbols become internalized through language development Object permanence is acquired Object Permanence The understanding that objects exist independent of ones actions or perceptions of them Before 6 months infants act as if
objects removed from sight cease to exist Can be surprised by disappearance/reappearance of a face (peek-aboo) Piaget Preoperational Stage (27 years)
Emergence of symbolic thought Egocentrism Lack of the concept of conservation Animism Concrete Operational (712 years)
Increasingly logical thought Classification and categorization Less egocentric Conservation No abstract or hypothetical reason Formal Operational Stage (age 12 adulthood)
Hypothetico-deductive reasoning Emerges gradually Continues to develop into adulthood Critique of Piagets Theory Underestimates childrens abilities Overestimates age differences in thinking Vagueness about the process of change
Underestimates the role of the social environment Lack of evidence for qualitatively different stages Information-Processing Perspective Focuses on the mind as a system, analogous to a computer, for analyzing information from the environment Developmental improvements reflect
increased capacity of working memory faster speed of processing new algorithms (methods) more stored knowledge Vygotskys Sociocultural Perspective Emphasized the childs interaction with the social world (other people) as a cause of development
Vygotsky believed language to be the foundation for social interaction and thought Piaget believed language was a byproduct of thought Identity Development Identity vs. role confusion is the psychosocial stage during adolescence Developing a sense of who one is and where one is going in life Successful resolution leads to positive identity
Unsuccessful resolution leads to identity confusion or a negative identity Eriksons Theory Stage Age Psychosexual Psychosocial Crisis
Infancy to age 2 Oral/ Sensory Trust vs. Mistrust Early 2-3
Muscular/ Anal Play Age 3-5 School Age 6-12 Virtue Danger
Hope Withdrawal Autonomy vs. Shame Will Compulsion/ Locomotor/
Initiative vs. Guilt Purpose Inhibition Latency Industry vs. Inferiority
Competence Inertia Puberty Identity vs. Identity Confusion Fidelity Role Repudiation
Adolescence 12-18 Young 19-35 Intimacy vs. Isolation Love
Exclusivity Adulthood 35-65 Generativity vs.Stagnati on Care
Rejectivity Old Age after 65 Wisdom Disdain Integrity vs. Despair
Kohlbergs Theory of Moral Development Assessed moral reasoning by posing hypothetical moral dilemmas and examining the reasoning behind peoples answers Proposed six stages, each taking into account a broader portion of the social world Levels of Moral Reasoning Preconventionalmoral reasoning is
based on external rewards and punishments Conventionallaws and rules are upheld simply because they are laws and rules Postconventionalreasoning based on personal moral standards Moral Development Adolescence Transition stage between late childhood and early adulthood
Sexual maturity is attained at this time Puberty--attainment of sexual maturity and ability to reproduce Health, nutrition, genetics play a role in onset and progression of puberty Social Relationships Parent-child relationship is usually positive May have some periods of friction Peers become increasingly important Peer influence may not be as bad as most people think. Adolescents tend to
have friends of similar age, race, social class, and with same religious beliefs. Baumrinds Parenting Styles Authoritarianvalue obedience and use a high degree of power assertion Authoritativeless concerned with obedience, greater use of induction Permissivemost tolerant, least likely to use discipline Neglectfulcompletely uninvolved
Adult Development Genetics and lifestyle combine to determine course of physical changes Social development involves marriage and transition to parenthood Paths of adult social development are varied and include diversity of lifestyles Late Adulthood Old age as a time of poor health, inactivity, and decline is a myth Activity theory of aginglife
satisfaction is highest when people maintain level of activity they had in earlier years Death and Dying In general, anxiety about dying tends to decrease in late adulthood Kubler-Ross stages of dying
Denial Anger Bargain Depression Acceptance Not universally demonstrated
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