Building an Effective System for Teaching All Learners
Building an Effective System for Teaching All Learners to Read at the Elementary Level Colorado TESOL Convention and Exhibition Lynda Espinoza-Idle, M.Ed. Dian Prestwich, PhD November 14,2014 Session Objectives Highlight specific components of an effective system for teaching all learners to read at the elementary level Instruction (Universal and Interventions) Assessment Professional Development Family and Community Engagement Discuss best practices for meeting the needs of English Learners, as related to the components of effective systems Evaluate your schools system for teaching all learners to read in the elementary grades through the Literacy Evaluation Tool 2
Session Objectives Elementary School Instruction 3 *Not included in the diagram: Leadership and Data-Based Decision Making Assessment Community and Family Engagement Professional
Development Colorado READ Act Seven Components of Effective Systems Focus on K-3 instruction, intervention, and assessment Universal Instruction Model of prevention rather than wait to fail model Interventions Plans for students determined to have a significant Assessment reading deficiency (SRD) School Leadership Team Parent communication and collaboration
Professional School and district performance frameworks Development Unified Improvement Plans (UIP) Data-Based Decision Making Per-pupil intervention funds Community and Family Professional development and support Engagement Office of Literacy regional technical assistance Early Literacy Grant (ELG) Early Literacy Assessment Tool (ELAT) project 4 http://www.cde.state.co.us/mtss/components Literacy Evaluation Tool
5 http://www.cde.state.co.us/coloradoliteracy/documentsandfaqs Literacy Evaluation Tool and ELL Crosswalk Universal Instruction: There is evidence that substantiates every student is receiving effective, differentiated Tier I core literacy instruction from high-quality research-based curricula and instructional strategies aligned to the Colorado Academic Standards . Evaluation Criteria 1. Students receive at least 90 minutes of research based reading instruction daily. 2. Teachers incorporate use of the Colorado Academic Standards related to literacy in their daily instruction. ELL Crosswalk with ELL Promising Strategies Provide access to grade level core content by providing accommodation based on language proficiency level (MPI Development) Incorporate use of the WIDA ELD standards daily (MPI
Development) Incorporate structured conversations and collaborative structures to provide access to core content 3. Teachers demonstrate an understanding that literacy instruction includes both knowledge- and skill-based procedures. 5. Literacy is taught daily in both differentiated whole Differentiated based on language proficiency level of ELL group and small group formats based on students needs. student also considered 7. Lesson objectives are clear, transferable, and communicated to students in a manner that is understandable. 8. Instructional conversations routinely take place among instructional coach/ principal, interventionists, and classroom teachers after each interim assessment. 9. High-quality research based instructional materials for varied learning levels are readily available to teachers and students, and teachers are prepared to use the materials daily. 10. Technology is used to support and/or accelerate
student learning and is aligned with the instructional focus. 6 Lesson includes content and language objectives (MPIs) Include ELL teacher in all collaboration to ensure ELL accommodation in all levels of instruction ELL materials that are research based are readily available also: Listed on CDE website Advisory List on CDE Website Examples: I-READY is approved as an interim assessment, diagnostic assessment and instructional Instruction Three tiers universal, supplemental, and intensive interventions English Language Development Advisory lists of instructional programming
7 Literacy Evaluation Tool Universal Instruction: Do all students receive at least 90 minutes of grade level instruction on a daily basis? Does instruction include both the skills (phonological awareness, decoding, sight word recognition) and the knowledge (background information, vocabulary, verbal reasoning, language structures, text structure, and genre) necessary for proficient reading? Are the five components of reading taught in an explicit and systematic manner, using a research-based scope and sequence? (http://www.centeroninstruction.org/files/Building%20the%20Foundation.pdf) 8 Literacy Evaluation Tool Do teachers use high-quality, research-based materials, and are teachers prepared to use the materials on a daily basis? Do instructional conversations routinely take place among literacy coaches, administrators, interventionists, and teachers
to ensure universal instruction is meeting the needs of most students? 9 Literacy Evaluation Tool Supplemental and Intensive Supports: Do students receive an additional 20-40 minutes a day of instruction based on needs determined through data? Is instruction focused, targeted to particular skills and concepts, and delivered with a level of intensity necessary to move students to grade level proficiency? Have you considered group size, engage instructional time, opportunities to practice, explicitness of instruction, and other methods of intensifying instruction when necessary? Does the focus of intervention change as new data is collected and analyzed? 10 Seven Promising Instructional Practices for
ELLs 1. Teach content, literacy, and language in an integrated and meaningful way. 2. Scaffold language based on student English proficiency to make sure it is comprehensible. (WIDA Can Do Descriptors) 3. Build on what students already know and help them develop background knowledge they need. (Cultural and native language connection) 4. Explicitly teach vocabulary and academic language. (formal language required to be successful in school settings) 5. Provide ample opportunities for carefully designed interaction with teacher and peers. (Time to talk about it and structured collaborative groups) 6. Strategically provide native language supports. (Transfer from L1 to L2) 7. Teach reading comprehension strategies explicitly. (with ELD scaffolds) 11 Intervention Objectives for ELLs General Objective: (READ Act: Minimum Skill Competency) Summarize central ideas and details from a text Add ELD language function and scaffold aligned to language proficiency level (MPI) WIDA Level 1:
Sort and identify central ideas and important details from a text using pictures WIDA Level 3: Summarize central ideas and important details from a text using sentence frames 12 Literacy Evaluation Tool Are intervention materials readily available to teachers, and are the materials appropriate, purposeful, targeted to students needs, and aligned with universal instruction? Are the materials aligned to what the research on early literacy development supports as the most effective methods for teaching children to read? Is a plan in place for monitoring the progress of students receiving instruction through supplemental and intensive interventions? 13 Sample Schedule
Minimum of 90 minutes instruction in reading Differentiated instruction to address needs of all learners, including English learners Supplemental and intensive supports 14 English Language Development ELD is: A separate, graded instruction in systematic English Language Development A state mandated program based on state ELP (English Language Proficiency) standards A class in which students are grouped by language proficiency levels Explicitly reflected in the schools master schedule
Assessed using the statewide WIDA ACCESS assessment A scope and sequence of vocabulary, language functions and grammatical forms Reading instruction, Walk to Read, Double Dose reading, or A literacy class An extra adult to help in the classroom/Teacher Assistant Sheltered content instruction Tutoring time, Academic Support, Study Hall Special help with classroom projects/Independent Study Just vocabulary SIOP, GLAD, SDAIE (although some of these strategies can be used in an ELD class) Just one software program (can be used to supplement live instruction) ELD is not: ACCOUNTABILITY: ELD Growth Model = MGP & AGP on State ACCESS test.
As listed on School Performance Framework or SPF 15 Access to Core Curriculum Models Sheltered Instruction Students receive comprehensible core content instruction throughout the day. Instruction is delivered by a teacher trained in sheltered instruction using a variety of strategies. Sheltered Language Instruction is: Delivered by the core content teacher Making core content standards accessible to all learners Clear grade level, content and language objectives Active student engagement A gradual release of responsibility Building background knowledge Uses visuals, manipulative, gestures, paraphrasing, etc. Multiple strategies (including those used in programs such as SIOP and SDAIE)
Thinking, How do I make my academic content accessible to this student? Sheltered Language Instruction is not: Only the responsibility of the ESL teacher Lecture only style teaching Just one strategy (i.e. word wall) An extra adult in the classroom/Teacher Assistant Study Hall Independent Study ACCOUNTABILITY: Content Growth Model = MGP & AGP on state TCAP of aggregation of reading, writing and math academic growth rating for ELL Assessment Screening, diagnostic, and progress monitoring Identify level of risk, diagnose specific reading skill deficiencies, and monitor progress toward established goals 17
Assessment for English Language Learners English language acquisition/development services, although important, should not be considered to be interventions. Tier I = ELD Services for ELL students are considered core instruction for all identified ELL - ELD Instruction, accommodations, assessments and progress towards goals documentation as documented by each students English Language Plan (ELP) Tier II = Targeted skill instruction with ELD scaffolds in addition to Tier I ELD program of services. Tier I and Tier II ELD assessment data collection and analysis. Has progress been monitored and compared with the progress of a comparable group of English Language Learners ? It is important to compare students to similar peers (students should be from the same language background and proficiency level) Has progress been markedly lower than that of ELL peers? English language learners demonstrate similar acquisition patterns. It must be shown that a student demonstrates atypical growth for his/her ELL peer group in all areas of language in order for language acquisition to be ruled out as the cause of the difficulties. Data for English language learners should always include the home language survey, formative language proficiency scores, and ACCESS assessments.
Native Language Assessment if needed should be given to demonstrate that the difficulties producing the lack of progress is evident across languages. Dual language assessments are used to confirm the dominate language skills and identify whether or not the issue is seen in both languages or only in the second language. ELD STUDENT COMPARATIVE DATA Grade Level cohort ELL Code District number Average Composite ACCESS level Growth from 2013 to 2014 Average DIBELS Composite Score Growth from BOY to EOY 4th
7 33 -66 (scored lower on EOY) CDE District Office: Based on the above results the following student recommendations are given: 1. SA exceeds his peer ELLs in growth in both ACCESS with a .8 compared to .61 and DIBELs assessments with a 157 point growth compared the average 72 point growth of his ELL peers in SY 2013 2014. He is exceeding typical growth for an ELL and therefore should not be recommended for testing continue RTI 2. SB scored below the average growth of her ELL peers in DIBELS with 7 compared to 72 but similar to her peers in ACCESS with a .6 compared to a .61. The large discrepancy in DIBELS does warrant further testing. She is recommended for further testing and intervention 3. SD scored below the 1.07 average of his ELL peers with a .6 growth in ACCESS. He also scored significantly below in DIBELS average with a 33 compared to the 65 point growth of his ELL peers. He is recommended for further testing because his showing atypical growth on both ELD and Content compared to his ELL peers 4. SE exceeded the language growth on ACCESS compared to her peers with a 1.0 compared to a .81 average. She scored significantly below her ELL peers in DIBLES growth form BOY to EOY. Her -66 decrease warrants further testing . Language is not the main barrier to 19 learning. Literacy Evaluation Tool Is a school-wide assessment calendar in place and adhered to consistently,
20i including both screening and progress monitoring testing dates? Are all students screened for reading difficulties in a timely manner upon the start of the school year (e.g., within the first 30 days of school)? Are students identified as needing supplemental instruction and/or intensive intervention monitored more often (e.g., weekly progress monitoring)? Do teachers receive on-going job-embedded professional development related to assessment administration to ensure data is valid and reliable, and is fidelity of assessment administration verified on a regular basis? Is there evidence that the data collected through screening and progress monitoring is being used regularly to make instructional decisions?
Sample Assessment Calendar 21 Professional Development 22 Professional Development Teacher quality matters. Teacher quality is the most important school-related factor influencing student achievement. Rice, J.K. (2003). Understanding the effectiveness of teacher attributes. 23 Professional Development Joyce and Showers, 2002 PD Components
24 Knowledge Skill Transfer Study of theory through discussions, readings, and lecture 10% 5% 0% Demonstration or modeling in a simulated workplace through film or conducted
live 30% 20% 0% Practice under simulated conditions with peer teachers or small groups of children 60% 60% 5% Peer coaching as the collaborative work of
teachers to solve problems or questions 95% 95% 95% NSDC Staff Development Standards Teachers Meet regularly with colleagues during the school day to plan instruction, Work with colleagues to use data to establish professional learning goals, Demonstrate a deep understanding of subject matter that helps students meet rigorous standards, and Use educational research when making instructional decisions Roy, P. & Hord, S. (2003) Moving NSDCs staff development standards into practice: Innovation configurations. Oxford, OH: National Staff Development Council.
25 Literacy Evaluation Tool Are PD decisions based on research and data and made with a collaborative, representative process through the leadership team? Is ongoing, job-embedded professional learning provided in many ways to meet varying staff needs? Do school leaders regularly encourage teachers to improve instruction based on frequent observations and specific feedback? Is the PD supported by research? Are multiple sources of trend data used to plan and implement PD? 26 Literacy Evaluation Tool What evidence is there that PD changes classroom practices? Is the PD aligned to the UIP goals? Are there structures in place for on-going, job-embedded PD
for new staff members? 27 Professional Development for Teachers of ELLs WIDA Standards Training: WIDA Performance Definitions for Speaking & Writing, WIDA Performance Definitions for Listening and Reading WIDA Can Do Descriptors in all 4 Domains in grade spans: Kindergarten, 1st-2nd grade, 3-5th grade, 6-8th grade and 9-12th grade Model Performance Indicators: Connecting Core and ELD standards into one objective that meets the language level need of the ELL student ELD strategies to ensure core content access Structured conversations Collaborative structures Active engagement strategies Systematic Academic Language: See Fostering a Schoolwide Vocabulary Initiative 28
Community and Family Engagement Students spend more than seventy percent of their waking hours outside school (Clark, 1990; Callendar & Hansen, 2004). Partnering is about ongoing, sustainable, and intentional relationships that enable learning to live in the schoolhouse, in the home, and in the community (Esler, Godber, & Christenson, 2008). Positive effects include higher achievement for students, More engaged families, Stronger community support for schools, and Improved teacher morale and teacher performance. 29 Community and Family Engagement Effective partnering includes consistent implementation of these evidence based practices: Ongoing two way communication that is frequent, systematic, and encouraging Supporting learning at home and school
Jointly developed educational plans Flexible hours and meeting times Use of partnering vocabulary (i.e., we and our) Representative family participation on teams Team based decision making, action planning, progress monitoring, and evaluation Education of all stakeholders in sharing responsibility Policies, documents, artifacts, and materials represent partnering principles Effective homework design focused on successful completion Simon & Epstein, 2001 (Resources located on CDE MTSS webpage) 30 Encouraging Parents to use First Language to Support Literacy Supporting students first language literacy can promote higher levels of reading achievement in English. This is because what students learn in their first language transfers to English and can help them learn English.
That is why ELLs with first language literacy have an easier time learning to read and write in English. Sources: August & Shanahan (2008); Goldenberg (2008) Engaging Families of English Learners Parent Friendly Activities to support the 6 components of Reading in English and Spanish Step 1: Get things that have the same beginning sound. book pencil Step 2: Put one of the two things with the same sound in a bag. ball paper Step 3: Put the other things on the table. Step 4: Have your child pick one thing from the bag.
Step 5: Have your child match that item with the thing on the table that has the same beginning sound. Step 6: Have your child find another thing in the house that has the same beginning sound. book 32 ball baby bed Using the first language at home helps make the transfer to English at School. This is considered a new label for a known concept . Una actividad fcil para ayudar a su hijo con el conocimiento fonmico (que consiste en hablar de los sonidos como partes de una palabra o de una letra). Aqu est lo que tiene que hacer: Paso 1: Tome objetos que empiezan por el mismo sonido.
Libro Lpiz Pelota Papel Paso 2: Ponga una de las dos cosas que empieza con el mismo sonido en una bolsa. Paso 3: Ponga las otras cosas en la mesa. Paso 4: Haga que su hijo escoja una cosa de la bolsa. Paso 5: Haga que su hijo empareje ese artculo con la cosa en la mesa que tiene el mismo sonido inicial. Paso 6: Haga que su hijo encuentre otra cosa en la casa que tiene el mismo sonido inicial. Limonada
Libro 33 Lpiz Literacy Evaluation Tool Are the schools literacy goals effectively communicated in a manner that parents and stakeholders are able to comprehend? Are parents and community members engages as partners in ways that are culturally and linguistically responsive? Are parents regularly informed of literacy expectations and updated on students progress toward meeting those expectations? Are families and community members welcomed as partners to maximize student literacy learning? Are local resources that support literacy activities recognized and encouraged?
34 Next Steps Suggestions: Take back the Literacy Evaluation Tool with ELL Crosswalk and complete a self assessment at your school. Take back the Fostering a School wide Vocabulary Initiative rubric and complete a self assessment at your school. Base on your data from the two tools, reflect on your current state of reality at your school. Together with all stakeholders including your ELD team chart your action plan to get to your desired state of a successful system for achievement of all learners. 35 Presenters Contact Information Lynda Espinoza-Idle: [email protected] 719-579-2590 Dian Prestwich:
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