Science 1.10 NCEA L1 Life Processes 1.10 Life

Science 1.10 NCEA L1 Life Processes 1.10 Life

Science 1.10 NCEA L1 Life Processes 1.10 Life Processes 2013 All living things share the characteristics described in MRS C GREN Life function Movement Respiraton Gives us the ability to. Sensitivity Circulation

respond to stimuli Growth Reproduction Excretion Nutrition increase in size move through space obtain energy through biochemical reactions move nutrients, oxygen, heat and water around the body create more living things dispose of waste chemicals

extract useful chemicals from the environment 2 The structure and functions of the human (as an animal) systems: skeletal, digestive, circulatory, respiratory. All vertebrates share the same basic body plan, with tissues and organs functioning in a similar manner. We focus on the human body, studying structure (anatomy) and function

(physiology). 1.10 Life Processes 2013 The structure and functions of the human (as an animal) systems: skeletal, digestive, circulatory, respiratory. Animals are made of complex systems of cells, which must be able to perform all of lifes processes and work in a coordinated fashion to maintain homeostasis (a stable internal environment). During a humans early development, groups of cells specialize into three fundamental

embryonic layers. These embryonic layers differentiate into a number of specialized cells and tissues. Tissues are 1.10 Life Processes 2013 groups of cells similar The structure and functions of the human (as an animal) systems: skeletal, digestive, circulatory, respiratory. Different tissues functioning together for a common purpose are called organs (eg,

stomach, kidney, lung, heart). Organ systems are composed of individual organs working together to accomplish a coordinated activity. For example, the heart, veins and arteries all play a role 1.10 Life Processes 2013 in circulation. Movement and Support: The Human skeletal system.

1.10 Life Processes 2013 The human skeletal system is an internal skeleton that serves as a framework for the body. This framework consists of many individual bones and cartilages. This also includes ligaments and the tendons which hold bones to each other and to muscles that contract and cause the bones to move. The adult human skeleton contains more than 200 bones. The skeleton also provides mechanical protection for many

of the body's internal organs, reducing risk of injury to them, The main bones in the Human skeletal system. The main bones of the human skeleton are divided into two groups. The axial skeleton is the central group of bones based around the spinal 1.10 Life Processes 2013 (vertebral) column.

The appendicular skeleton consists of bones or groups of bones which hang off the axial skeleton. The Human skeletal system. The main bones of the human skeleton are: The Skull Shoulder girdle - clavicle and scapula

Arm - humerus, radius and ulna Hand - Carpals, Metacarpals and Phalanges Chest - Sternum and Ribs Spine - vertebrae, Sacrum (5 fused or stuck together bones) and Coccyx (the tiny bit at the bottom of the spine). Pelvic girdle - Ilium, Pubis and Ischium. Leg - Femur, Tibia and Fibula Ankle - Talus and calcaneus

Composition of Bone A diagram showing a cross-section of the composition of 1.10 Life Processes 2013 bone. The structure of the skeleton and muscles of the human leg The two long bones in the leg provide a rigid frame that the muscles can pull against to provide movement. The thigh muscles attach across the knee joint etc. The muscles are attached to the bones by tendons.

When the muscles contract they shorten and move the bones at the joints. All of the bones in the skeleton require muscles in order to move them. The muscles are attached by the nervous system to the brain which controls their movement either voluntary or automatically when required 1.10 Life Processes 2013

The structure of the skeleton and muscles of the human arm 1.10 Life Processes 2013 The humerus bone joins the ulna and radius bones at the elbow joint to form a rigid but movable structure. This allows the skeleton to provide both support for the body and movement. The biceps and triceps muscles attach across the elbow

joint as an antagonistic pair so that when the biceps contracts its bends the arm but when the triceps contract (biceps relax) it The antagonistic muscles and bones act together to flex or extend the arm Muscles can contract, but are not designed to actively lengthen, so they are arranged as opposing antagonistic pairs. As one muscle shortens, another is stretched and vice versa. The contacting muscles move the bones they are attached to. A joint occurs where two bones meet .

Movement of the skeleton occurs at the joints where two or more bones meet. There are different categories of joints. Freely movable, or synovial, joints allow a range of movement determined by the structure of the joint. Examples of movable joints are the ball and socket (shoulder), hinge (elbow), pivot (between the skull and neck) and

ellipsoidal joint (hand and arm). Ligaments are The structure and functions of Cartilage Cartilage - tough, rubbery surface that allows movement between bones, replaced by wear, lubricate the joint under pressure 1.10 Life Processes 2013 The structure and functions of Hard and Spongy Bone Hard (cortical) bone - on the end and sides aid strength, keeps the weight of bone to a minimum Spongy bone mesh of bone filaments, provided more internal

strength 1.10 Life Processes 2013 The structure and functions of Hard and Spongy Bone 1.10 Life Processes 2013 The structure and functions of Marrow 1.10 Life Processes 2013 Marrow in the middle of long bones produces red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets. There are two types of bone

marrow: red marrow that is responsible for producing red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets yellow marrow consisting mainly of fat cells There are many blood vessels and capillaries woven through the marrow making it very vascular. At birth and in early childhood most of the marrow is red. More and more of it is converted to the yellow type as a person ages. About half of adult bone

Compact Bone Compact bone, from human femur. Transverse sections showing cross-sections and the arrangement of osteons and Haversian canals. Bone is made up of two types of tissue: the compact bone forms a shell around the spongy cancellous bone that makes up the marrow space in the centre. Compact bone provides strength and rigidity and is solid in appearance. It is composed of a layered matrix of organic substances and inorganic salts that form around an intricate network of vasculature called Haversian canals. The structure and functions of Haversian canals Haversian canals contain nerves/blood to provide nutrients to the cells. A haversian canal is a

central canal within the haversian system a network of canals inside compact bone. Haversian canals occur in the center of compact bone and contain blood vessels, connective tissues, nerve fibers and lymphatic vessels. Compact bone, surround these canals. Haversian systems run parallel to the long axis of bones. Each cylindrical 1.10 Life Processes 2013 unit within compact bone

is an entire haversian The structure and functions of Bone cells / osteocytes Bone cells make up bone tissue using calcium compound to increase strength. Osteocytes are the most abundant cell type in the bone, comprising more than 90% of all cells within the bone matrix or on bone surfaces. Osteocytes are derived

from osteoblasts and are laid down in the bone matrix during bone formation. Tissue types in an arm Broken Bones Broken bones cause pain and mean the injured human is unable to move easily, as the muscles dont have anything to pull/contract on. If more pressure is put

on a bone than it can stand, it will split or break. A break of any size is called a fracture. If the broken bone punctures the skin, it is called an open fracture (compound fracture). A stress fracture is a hairline crack in the bone that 2013 develops 1.10 Life Processes because of repeated or

Implications of a broken bone Implications of a broken bone cause a reduction in support and movement as the muscles no longer have a rigid frame to pull against. There is also the chance of Increased infection risk from break especially with a compound fracture or open fracture

1.10 Life Processes 2013 Environmental Factors affecting support and Movement Environmental factors can include Aging. Aging reduced activity muscle loss reduced support Age wear arthritis reduced mobility 1.10 Life Processes 2013 Environmental Factors affecting support and Movement

Environmental factors can include age/weight gain/gravity, hormone deficiency, calcium uptake and loss (osteoporosis) . Age wear arthritis reduced mobility

1.10 Life Processes 2013 Normal bone A scanning electron micrograph of normal bone. This sample is from a vertebra (a bone of the spine) of a healthy male. 1.10 Life Processes 2013 Bone affected by osteoporosis A thin slice of an osteoporotic vertebra (a bone of the spine) from an 89-year-old woman, showing damage to the structure of the bone. This image has been colour enhanced. 1.10 Life Processes 2013 Bone affected by osteoporosis

A scanning electron micrograph of osteoporotic bone. This sample is from a vertebra (a bone of the spine) of an 89-year-old woman with osteoporosis. 1.10 Life Processes 2013 Human Skeleton The skeleton of a human male in a sitting position. 1.10 Life Processes 2013 Human Fingers The bones of the human fingers, wearing a ring. This image is a photograph of an X-ray attributed to L Ropner, 1897.

1.10 Life Processes 2013 Female figure running Artwork of the figure of a woman running, revealing the skeleton 1.10 Life Processes 2013 beneath transparent skin. Xray of hip bone 1.10 Life Processes 2013 Growth

Bone cells are called osteocytes and are made through the process of mitosis during cell division for growth and repair. Mitosis rate is significantly influenced by age and hormone levels. For example during infancy human growth hormone levels are high promoting rapid cell division and growth

as the long bones extend at the growth plates and deposition 1.10 Life Processes 2013 levels are high as Growing Bone A region of growth (epiphyseal growth plate) in an immature thighbone. Cartilage is stained purple, and bone is stained yellow-green. The rapidly dividing cartilage cells within the purple band at the top form stacks that run parallel to the long axis of the bone. Below this zone, the cartilage becomes calcified and the cartilage cells (chondrocytes) die. Further down is the ossification zone, where the bone tissue is laid down. The structure and functions of the human (as an

animal) systems: skeletal, digestive, circulatory, respiratory. Bone cells are called osteocytes and are made through the process of mitosis during cell division for growth and repair. 1.10 Life Processes 2013

The epiphysis The epiphysis is the rounded end of a long bone - the region of bone that forms joints with adjacent bones. The process seen here is ossification, the growth process that results in the generation of new bone. Calcification occurs during ossification. Environmental factors: Diet Diet If calcium is lacking from a persons diet then depositions of calcium during normal bone growth can be reversed to release calcium from the bones, this causes weakening of the bones and conditions such as osteoporosis.

A good diet is required to develop muscle and bone as well as adequate levels of human growth hormone. Calcium and phosphate help to produce strong bones and protein is required for muscle development. If bones and muscles do not grow adequately the person will struggle to move around efficiently and this could cause issues with their lives. 1.10 Life Processes 2013 Skeleton of a man with numerous osseous growths The skeleton of a man, aged 39 years, which had numerous osseous growths of varied dimensions. From the Hunterian specimen in the

Museum of the Royal College of Surgeons, no.1616a. Presented by Samuel George Shattock, Esq (1888-1889). Environmental factors: Age Age Age influences bone growth and repair as when you are younger you bones are developing faster and mitosis is producing new osteocytes quickly. This means that when young children break a bone it usually repairs quickly e.g. greenstick breaks. 1.10 Life Processes 2013

Environmental factors: Steroids Chemicals that can influence growth include steroids. They can increase the rate of mitosis and produce bigger muscles. However there are sometimes negative effects on growth taking steroids especially for young children and adolescents as increased levels of these hormones can actually signal bones to stop growing 1.10 Life Processes 2013 Linking Structure and Movement with Environmental Factors. Reasons are given that link the structure/functioning of a bone AND the effect of an environmental factor on support and/or movement. MERIT Structure and Function

Cartilage - tough, rubbery surface that allows movement between bones, replaced by wear, lubricate the joint under pressure Hard bone - on the end and sides aid strength, keeps the weight of bone to a minimum Spongy bone mesh of bone filaments, provided more internal strength Marrow red, in the middle produces red blood cells Haversian/canals contain nerves/blood to provide nutrients to the cells Bone cells/osteoctyes make up bone tissue using calcium compound to increase strength Broken bones means the animal is unable to move easily, as the muscles dont have anything to pull/contract on. The two long bones in the leg provide a rigid frame that the muscles can pull against to provide movement. The thigh muscles attach across the knee joint etc. 1.10 Life Processes 2013

Environmental factor age/weight gain/gravity, hormone deficiency, calcium uptake and loss Linking Structure and Movement with Environmental Factors. Significant links are made between the structure/functioning of the bones AND an implication of effect of a broken bone on support and/or movement. EXCELLENCE Structure and Function: The humerus bone joins the ulna and radius bones at the elbow joint to form a rigid but movable structure. This allows the skeleton to provide both support for the body and movement. The biceps and triceps muscles attach across the elbow joint as an antagonistic pair so that when the biceps contracts its bends the arm but when the triceps contract (biceps relax) it straightens the arm.

Environmental factor: Implications of a broken bone e.g. reduction in support and movement as the muscles no longer have a rigid frame to pull against. Aging reduced activity muscle loss reduced support OR age wear arthritis reduced mobility OR Another reasoned link e.g. increased infection risk from break. Linking Growth with Environmental Factors. Reasons are given that link a feature of growth and the physical characteristics observed to the effect of ONE environmental factor (e.g. age, exercise, diet, chemicals) on growth. MERIT Diet

If calcium is lacking from a persons diet then depositions of calcium during normal bone growth can be reversed to release calcium from the bones, this causes weakening of the bones and conditions such as osteoporosis. A good diet is required to develop muscle and bone as well as adequate levels of human growth hormone. Calcium and phosphate help to produce strong bones and protein is required for muscle development. If bones and muscles do not grow adequately the person will struggle to move around efficiently and this could cause issues with their lives. Age Age influences bone growth and repair as when you are younger you bones are developing faster and mitosis is producing new osteocytes 1.10 Life Processes 2013 means that when young children break a bone it usually

quickly. This repairs quickly e.g. greenstick breaks. Linking Growth with Environmental Factors. Significant links are made between the biological ideas relating to growth, (life process) AND an implication of effect the environmental factor on the growth of the organism (human). EXCELLENCE Steroids Bone cells are called osteocytes and are made through the process of mitosis during cell division for growth and repair. Mitosis rate is significantly influenced by age and hormone levels. For example during infancy human growth hormone levels are high promoting rapid cell division and growth as the long bones extend at the growth plates

and deposition levels are high as long as diet sufficient in nutrient such as calcium and phosphate. Chemicals that can influence growth include steroids. They can increase the rate of mitosis and produce bigger muscles. However there are sometimes negative effects on growth taking steroids especially for young children and adolescents as increased levels of these hormones can actually signal bones to stop growing 1.10 Life Processes 2013

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