Lithium Toxicity CC: 66 yom + AMS +

Lithium Toxicity CC: 66 yom + AMS +

Lithium Toxicity CC: 66 yom + AMS + ~3 days HPI: 66 yom with PMH significant for HTN, CKD-IV, CHF, diabetes, hypothyroidism, HDL, gout, PTSD, and schizoaffective disorder presents with 3 days of altered mental status. Patient states that Vietnamese soldiers were chasing

him to the foot of his bed and that he couldnt walk. He complained of shaking. He also was experiencing memory lapses and was unable to recall his transfer from an outside hospital. ROS: Blurry Vision Dizziness Decreased energy Irritability Nausea/Vomiting

Abdominal pain Shaking Polydipsia Polyurea Bowel incontinence Generalized pain PMH: HTN, CKD-IV, CHF, diabetes, hypothyroidism, HDL, Gout, PTSD, schizoaffective disorder, various vitamin deficiencies

Medications: Allopurinol, Amlodipine, ASA, Atorvastatin, Tylenol #3, Gabapentin, Insulin, Levothyroxine, Lisinopril, Lithium, Metoprolol tartrate, Mirtazapine, Omeprazole, Sertraline Allergies: Maxzide, Quetiapine, Risperidone

Social history: Vietnam vet, 100% SC, lives at home with his wife. Remote smoking, heavy alcohol, and IV Drug use. Brother died in the past week, patient smoked marijuana at the funeral Vitals: BP: 221/92 P: 61 T: 98.8 R: 18 Po2: 94% BMI: 39.5 Physical Exam Gen: Difficult to arouse, oriented to self, year is 2020, location is outside hospital, groaning HEENT: NC/AT, PERRL, sclera non-icteric, MMM CV: RRR, no M/R/G Resp: No respiratory distress, CTAB GI: +BS, obese, mild tenderness to palpation, no rigidity or

guarding Extremities: No edema, clubbing, or cyanosis Skin: Warm, dry, no rashes Neuro: Some stuttering, repetitive speech, no involuntary movements or tremors, no facial drooping, moves extremities against gravity PAUSE Differential diagnosis Audience requests labs/imaging

Labs: Na: 145, Cr: 2.37 UDS: +MJ/opiates Ammonia: 18 Lithium: 0.82

CT Head @ OSH: no acute intercranial abnormality MRI Brain: unable to tolerate ECG: no changes PAUSE Differential diagnosis part 3 Audience votes on diagnosis Lithium Toxicity

Presentation: Neurotoxicity: tremor, hyperreflexia, AMS (confusion to delirium) Nausea/vomiting/diarrhea Hypernatremia Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus Endocrinopathies: Hypothyroidism/hyperparathyroidism Diagnosis

Lithium has a narrow therapeutic index Associated with polypharmacy and medical comorbidities Lithium levels, CBC, electrolytes, BUN and Cr Mild symptoms: nausea, vomiting, lethargy, tremor, and fatigue (Serum lithium concentration between 1.5-2.5 mEq/L). Moderate intoxication: confusion, agitation, delirium,

tachycardia, and hypertonia (serum lithium concentration between 2.5-3.5 mEq/L). Severe intoxication: Coma, seizures, hyperthermia, and hypotension (serum lithium concentration (less than 3.5 mEq/L). Treatment Discontinuation of drug IVF

Hemodialysis References Uptodate: Lithium poisoning Sun, M., Herrmann, N. & Shulman, K.I. Clin Drug Investig (2018) 38: 201.

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