Lecture 10: Magnetic Levitation IEE Culminating Lab &

Lecture 10: Magnetic Levitation IEE Culminating Lab &

Lecture 10: Magnetic Levitation IEE Culminating Lab & Timely Curricular Information January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics 1 Magnetic Levitation Experiment Magnets or magnetic materials can be suspended either using magnetic attraction or repulsion and permanent or electromagnets. January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics

2 Magnetic Levitation Trains can magnetically fly over a roadbed with position sustained by some kind of control system Force can either be attractive or repulsive January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics 3 Some Commercial Products http://www.gadgets4sure.com January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering

Electronics 4 The Physics of Levitron The spinning top keeps itself stabilized vertically while the magnetic base keeps the top suspended. http://www.levitron.com/ January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics 5 The Physics of Levitron The top actually precesses around the vertical axis (like the earth on its axis). There is a range of stable revolutions per second (2030). The weight must also be set to exactly balance gravity.

January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics 6 2 Minute Quiz Specify any design issue for repulsive levitation Specify any design issue for attractive levitation January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics 7 Maglev Experiment: How the Globes Are Suspended

IR Emitter Electromagne t Control Circuit IR Detector IR Light Beam Ball to be suspended From Barrys Coilgun Design Site Barrys design is slightly more advanced http://www.oz.net/~coilgun/levitation/home.htm January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics 8

Maglev Experiment Close up photos showing levitation of washer and ball bearing with magnet attached. Some preferred orientation is necessary for stability. January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics 9 Maglev Experiment Unblocked Beam Blocked Beam The position of the suspended object (here a ball) is sensed by how much of an IR beam is blocked by the object. This requires an IR emitter and an IR detector.

January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics 10 Maglev Experiment Blocked Beam The emitter puts out a constant light intensity. The detector signal is amplified and compared with a reference voltage. The output of the comparison drives the electromagnet. If the ball is too high (detected IR signal too small), the coil current is reduced. If the ball is too low (detected IR signal too large), the coil current is increased. January 30, 2 020

Introduction to Engineering Electronics 11 Maglev Experiment From Radio Shack MiniNotebooks The IR emitter and detector are powered just like the LEDs we used previously. The resistor in series gives us the best operation and also protects the diode. Lab 2 on Diodes has the resistor. Labs 5, 6, and 7 drive the LEDs directly. January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics 12

Maglev Experiment The photo emitter and detector circuits to be used in the experiment January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics 13 Maglev Experiment Inverting Op-amp Buffer The circuit is constructed of the op-amp configurations we saw in Lab 4. The actual circuit must also contain some mathematical operation for stable control. This control in this case is analog. There are many other options.

January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics 14 Maglev Experiment Inverting Op-amp Buffer For the inverting op-amp V For the buffer January 30, 2 020 V O U T

O U T V Introduction to Engineering Electronics V R IN f R1 IN 15 Maglev Experiment From

Detector Buffer Buffer First, two buffer circuits are used to isolate the control function (which we will return to). January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics 16 Maglev Experiment Bias Buffered Input to Summing Inverting Op-amp January 30, 2 020

Inverting Op-amp Introduction to Engineering Electronics 17 Maglev Experiment Voltage from op-amps drives transistor which provides the current for the electromagnet. January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics 18 Maglev Experiment Control How does the control work?

We need to look at different types of control. January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics 19 Maglev: Types of Control Oven Temp Set Point Temp Power On-Off Control (also called Bang-Bang) Commonly used for thermostats. When the temperature is to low (bang) it is on. When the temperature is too high (bang) it is off. Note the large excursions in temperature and that hysteresis is used to delay turn on and turn off. January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics

20 Maglev: Types of Control Set Point Temp Oven Temp Proportional Control For 3 gains W A P (T S TO ) The power W is proportional to the difference in temperature between the set point and the actual temperature. Note as gain increases, the temperature becomes more unstable but can get closer to the set point. January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering

Electronics 21 Maglev: Types of Control Oven Temp Set Point Temp Power Proportional-Integral-Differential Control (PID) d T S T O W A P T S T O A D A I T S T O d t dt Works the best but is more mathematically demanding since it is 3rd order. January 30, 2 020

Introduction to Engineering Electronics 22 Maglev: Types of Control Proportional-Integral Control (PI): In a simple system where noise may be a problem, the derivative term is not used. This is the approach used in the Embedded Control Class. More on control can be found at Feedback and Temperature Control from the University of Exeter and the Hackers Diet (really!) by John Walker. January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics 23

Maglev Experiment: Controller In Out For a resistor: For a capacitor: January 30, 2 020 V IR 1 V C Introduction to Engineering Electronics Id t 24 Controllers PID Controllers can be implemented many, many different ways.

Analog input can be converted to digital and then processed in the digital domain before being converted back to analog to drive the coil. Digital circuitry can be used. A microcontroller (like in Embedded Control) can be programmed Other options may be discussed in the next lecture. January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics 25 Some Registration Week Information on Majors Related to IEE Electrical Engineering Computer and Systems Engineering Electric Power Engineering EE/CSE Dual Degree EE/EPE Dual Degree

CSE/CS Dual Degree EE/Applied Physics Dual Degree January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics 26 ECSE Undergraduate Advisor David Nichols Available for advice any time Monday, Wednesday and mornings on Thursday. (JEC 6002) Email: [email protected] January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics 27

Electrical Engineering Science, Math, H&SS Core Engineering Core Restricted Electives January 30, 2 020 EE Core Concentratio n Introduction to Engineering Electronics ECSE Core

Free Electives 28 Electrical Engineering Science, Math, H&SS Core Engineering Core Chem Mat I Calculus I&II

Differential Eqns Physics I&II CS I H&SS (5) + PD II Applied Math Elective January 30, 2 020 IEA IEE EG&CAD IED Embedded Control PD I&III Multidisciplinary

Elective Introduction to Engineering Electronics 29 Electrical Engineering ECSE Core EE Core Electric Circuits Computer Components and Operations Signals & Systems Probability for Engr. Applications January 30, 2 020 Analog Electronics or Digital Electronics

Fields and Waves I Microelectronics Technology Lab Elective Introduction to Engineering Electronics 30 Electrical Engineering Concentratio n Automatic Controls Comm & Info Proc

Computer Hardware Electromagnetics Electronic Circuits Power Electronics Manufacturing or Entrepreneurship Microelectronics Individualized January 30, 2 020 Specified Electives Lab Elective Design Elective (no longer included in concentration) Introduction to Engineering Electronics 31

Electrical Engineering Free Electives Restricted Electives Any ECSE or EPOW Used to satisfy concentration Can also include one ENGR course January 30, 2 020 Any course at all Usually used up for dual degrees Most students take additional technical courses See undergrad handbook

Introduction to Engineering Electronics 32 Computer and Systems Engineering Science, Math, H&SS Core Engineering Core Restricted Electives January 30, 2 020 CSE Core Concentratio n

Introduction to Engineering Electronics ECSE Core Free Electives 33 Computer and Systems Engineering Science, Math, H&SS Core

Engineering Core Chem Mat I Calculus I&II Differential Eqns. Physics I&II CS I&II Data Structures & Alg. H&SS (5) + PD II Applied Math Elective January 30, 2 020 IEA

IEE EG&CAD IED Embedded Control PD I&III Multidisciplinary Elective Introduction to Engineering Electronics 34 Computer and Systems Engineering ECSE Core CSE Core Electric Circuits Computer Components and Operations Signals & Systems Probability for Engr.

Applications January 30, 2 020 Computer Architecture, Networks and Operating Systems Software Engineering Elective Introduction to Engineering Electronics 35 Computer and Systems Engineering Concentratio n

Specified Electives Automatic Controls Comm & Info Proc Computer Hardware Computer Systems Manufacturing or Entrepreneurship Individualized January 30, 2 020 Software Engineering Elective Design Elective (no longer included in concentration) Introduction to Engineering Electronics 36

Computer and Systems Engineering Free Electives Restricted Electives Any ECSE or CSCI Used to satisfy concentration Can also include one ENGR course January 30, 2 020 Any course at all Usually used up for dual degrees Most students take additional technical courses See undergrad handbook

Introduction to Engineering Electronics 37 Electric Power Engineering Science, Math, H&SS Core Engineering Core Restricted Electives January 30, 2 020 EPE Core Concentratio n

Introduction to Engineering Electronics ECSE Core Free Electives 38 Electric Power Engineering Science, Math, H&SS Core Engineering Core

Chem Mat I&II Calculus I&II Differential Eqns Physics I&II C Prog. For Engineers H&SS (5) + PD II January 30, 2 020 IEA

Engr. Proc. Or IEE EG&CAD IED MAU Modeling & Control of Dynamic Systems Embedded Control Electronic Instrumentation PD I&III Thermal & Fluids Engr. Multidisciplinary Elective Introduction to Engineering Electronics 39 Electric Power Engineering ECSE Core EPE Core Electric Circuits Fields & Waves I

Signals & Systems January 30, 2 020 Power Engineering Fundamentals Electromechanics Semiconductor Power Electronics EPE Lab EPE Design Introduction to Engineering Electronics 40 Electric Power Engineering Concentratio n Specified Electives

Not required for EPE degree Optional Concentration in Power Electronics Systems -- Includes courses from EPOW, ECSE, & MANE January 30, 2 020 Technical Elective any course in Engineering or Science above the 2000 level Introduction to Engineering Electronics 41 Electric Power Engineering Free

Electives Any course at all Usually used up for dual degrees Most students take additional technical courses See undergrad handbook January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics 42 Dual Degrees EE/CSE Includes only the CSE concentrations (130 credits) CSE/CSYS Includes all CSE

concentrations (131 credits) January 30, 2 020 EE/EPE Includes only the Power Electronics concentration (131 credits) EE/Applied Physics Includes only the Microelectronics concentration (132 credits) Introduction to Engineering Electronics 43 Recent Changes Check ECSE webpage during

registration period New Undergraduate Handbook New design course options ECSE Design Control Systems Design Other courses will be changing Please check advising information on a regular basis January 30, 2 020 Introduction to Engineering Electronics 44

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