Anatomy and Physiology I Muscles of Facial Expression,
Anatomy and Physiology I Muscles of Facial Expression, Mastication, and Movement of the Head Instructor: Mary Holman www.bodyworlds.com Dr. Gunther von Hagens
Plastination Characteristics Used to Name Muscles Directional terms used to describe orientation of muscle fibers to body midline Rectus - parallel to midline
Transverse - perpendicular to midline Oblique - diagonal to midline Characteristics Used to Name Muscles Size - Relative size of the muscle Maximus - largest Minimus - smallest Longus - long Brevis - short Latissimus - widest Longissimus - longest
Magnus - large Major - larger Minor - smaller Vastus - great Characteristics Used to Name Muscles Shape - Relative shape of the muscle Deltoid - triangular Trapezius - trapezoid Serratus - saw-toothed Rhomboideus - diamond-shaped
Orbicularis - circular Pectinate - comb-like Piriformis - pear-shaped Platys - flat Quadratus - square Gracilis - slender Characteristics Used to Name Muscles Action - Principle action of the muscle Flexor - decreases joint angle Extensor - increases joint angle
Abductor - moves bone away from midline Adductor - moves bone toward midline Levator - produces superior movement Depressor - produces inferior movement Supinator - Turns palm superiorly or anteriorly Pronator - Turns palm inferiorly or posteriorly Sphincter - decreases size of opening Tensor - makes a body part rigid Rotator - moves bone around longitudinal axis Characteristics Used to Name Muscles
Number of Origins Biceps - two origins Triceps - three origins Quadriceps - four origins Location Example - frontalis Origin and Insertion Example - Sternocleidomastoid Important Terms of Muscle Action Origin
Insertion Agonist or Prime mover Synergist Antagonist Muscles of Facial Expression Epicranius Frontalis and Occipitalis Orbicularis oculi Orbicularis oris Buccinator
Zygomaticus major and minor Platysma Fig. 9.25a Muscles of Facial Expression Frontalis Epicranial
aponeurosis Epicranius Occipitalis Orbicularis oculi Zygomaticus major Zygomaticus minor Orbicularis oris
Buccinator Platysma Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Occipitalis Epicranius Epicranial aponeurosis Frontalis
Origin: Occipital Bone Insertion: Skin/muscle near eye Action: Raises eyebrows Fig. 9.25a Orbicularis oculi Origin: Maxillary and frontal bones
Insertion: Skin around eye Action: Closes eye Fig. 9.25a Zygomaticus major and minor Origin: Zygomatic bone Insertion:
Orbicularis oris major minor Fig. 9.25a Action: Raises corner of the mouth Orbicularis oris
Origin: Muscles near mouth Insertion: Skin of lip Action: Closes/protrudes lips Fig. 9.25a Fig. 9.25b
Buccinator Origin: Outer surfaces of maxilla and mandible Insertion: Orbicularis oris Action: Compresses cheeks inward 9.25a Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Risorius Action: Abducts angle of the mouth Platysma Origin: Fascia in upper chest Insertion: Lower border of mandible Action:
Draws edges of mouth down - pouting Fig. 9.25a Muscles of Mastication Temporalis Lateral Pterygoid Medial Pterygoid Masseter 9.25 b
Temporalis Origin: Temporal bone Insertion: Coronoid process and anterior ramus of mandible Action: Elevates mandible Fig. 9.25c
Lateral Pterygoid lateral medial Origin: Sphenoid bone Insertion: Anterior surface of mandibular condyle
Action: Depresses and protracts mandible and moves it side to side Fig. 9.25c Medial Pterygoid lateral medial
Origin: Sphenoid, palatine and maxillary bones Insertion: Medial surface of mandible Action: Elevates mandible and moves it side to side
Pterygoids Masseter Origin: Lower border of zygomatic arch Insertion: Lateral surface of mandible Action: Elevates mandible
Fig. 9.25a Muscles that Move the Head Sternocleidomastoid Splenius capitis Semispinalis capitis Longissimus capitis Scalenes Sternocleidomastoid
Origin: Anterior surface of the sternum, upper surface of the clavicle Insertion: Mastoid process of temporal bone Action: Fig. 9.25a
Flexes neck, pulls head to one side, elevates sternum Fig. 9.26 Splenius capitis Origin: Spinous processes of upper thoracic and lower
cervical vertebrae Insertion: Occipital bone & mastoid process of temporal Action: Rotates head, bends head to one side, or extends neck Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
Fig. 9.26 Semispinalis capitis Semispinalis capitis cut Origin: Processes of upper thoracic and lower cervical vertebrae Insertion: Occipital bone
Action: Extends head, bends head to one side, or rotates head Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Fig. 9.26 Longissimus capitis Origin: Upper thoracic and
lower cervical vertebrae Insertion: Mastoid process temporal bone Action: Extends and rotates head Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Scalenes
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