ELECTRONICS PRIMER II Operational Amplfier Operational Amplifiers take

ELECTRONICS PRIMER II Operational Amplfier Operational Amplifiers take

ELECTRONICS PRIMER II Operational Amplfier Operational Amplifiers take small voltages and make them MUCH larger.

Golden Rules (Op amp with negative feedback): (1) No-current flows into either (+) or (-) inputs. (2) The (+) and (-) inputs are at the same voltage. Signal Conditioning Electrical engineers use operational amplifiers (Op Amps),

resistors, capacitors, diodes, transistors, etc. to perform mathematical operations like Multiplication/Division Addition/Subtraction Absolute Value Natural Log

Filters Inverting Gain Amplifier Gain = - R2 / R1

Non-Inverting Gain Amplifier Gain = (1 + R2 / R1) Summing Amplfier

Difference Amplfier Integrator Sensor Fundamentals How do sensors function?

Common and useful robotic sensors:

Touch Sensor Resistive Position Sensor Photocell Light Sensor Phototransistor Light Sensor Shaft Encoder

Transducer A transducer is a device or structure that transforms a physical quantity into an electrical one or a device / structure that transforms an electrical quantity into a physical one. For example: A microphone transforms changes in sound

pressure level into changes in voltage. A condenser microphone is one in which a moving diaphragm alters the distance between two metal plates. This results in a proportional change in the capacitance of the plates. Another Transducer Example

A speaker transforms changes in voltage into sound pressure waves. Sensor We will use the term sensor in this class to denote any device used to sense the robots environment.

A senor is the transducer and any associated electronics needed to interface the transducer to the CBC. For example, even though a microphone converts changes in sound pressure level into changes in voltage, we can not directly connect a microphone to the CBC. The voltage levels are TOO SMALL. The microphone output

must first be amplified and perhaps filtered! Other Examples Where Capacitive Transducers Are Used Accelerometer Fluid Level Sensor

Digital Signals A digital signal can take on only one of two voltages: 0 Volts and 5 Volts. The CBC treats 0 Volts as logical TRUE and the 5 Volt signal as logical FALSE.

5 Volts 0 Volts A Simple Touch Sensor (Digital) Mechanical switches permit or interrrupt the flow of current.

WARNING: Mechanical switches BOUNCE!!!!! A few milliseconds. Simple Position Sensor (Analog) 47K for CBC digital port

15K for CBC analog port Noise All electronics circuits generate small, random electrical currents or voltages. Noise can also enter electronic circuits by means of electromagnetic waves generated by

things such as electric motors, radio stations, electric outlets. The CBCs digital circuits also serve as a noise source which may corrupt your sensor signals. Passive, RC, Lowpass Filter

f3dB = 1 / (2RC) Lowpass Filter Simulation Passive, RC, Highpass Filter

f3dB = 1 / (2RC) Highpass Filter Simulation

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