Environmental Monitoring for West Cumbria in 2014 John
Environmental Monitoring for West Cumbria in 2014 John Titley Monitoring, Assessment and New Reactor Permitting Contents Sellafields permitted discharges Permitted disposals of solid wastes to the LLWR Effluents and gaseous check monitoring Solid LLW check monitoring Environmental monitoring in West Cumbria Doses to public in West Cumbria Conclusions Future changes to EA monitoring from 2016
Sellafields permit in 2014 No changes to the discharge permit limits Discharges of gases; mists; dusts Gross alpha & beta activities. 13 specified radionuclides. All discharges of radionuclides well below permit limits. Liquid discharges via sea pipe-line. 16 nuclides specified, 2 alpha/beta and 1 for U by mass. Variation in discharges from changes in amount of fuel reprocessed. All discharges of radionuclides well below permit limits. Sellafields sea pipe discharges (Bq/y) Nuclide
4.26E+10 8.5 (1.0E+12 Bq = 1 TBq) Sellafields permit in 2015 Changes to the permit 2015 permit variation - liquid discharges new emission point added Calder Interceptor sewer for very low level effluent new site annual limits 10% lower than previous sea pipeline limits for total alpha, total beta; tritium
* LLWR permit status in 2014 No change to limits on liquids, gases and solid waste disposal at the site. There were no disposals of solid radioactive waste during 2014 In October 2015 the Environment Agency issued a varied permit allowing the disposal of further radioactive waste at the LLWR Disposals to LLWR in 2014 (Bq/y) Nuclide LLW Limit
0 0 (1.0E+12 Bq = 1 TBq) Other sites in West Cumbria Metal Recycling Facility Operated by Studsvik UK Ltd at Lillyhall Industrial Estate. Processes metallic LLW for recycling. Permitted discharges: Liquids alpha limit = 5E+05; discharge = <1% beta limit = 5E+05; discharge = 2.1%
Gases alpha limit = 5E+05; discharge = <1% beta limit = 5E+05; discharge = 3.7% Lillyhall landfill Operated by FCC Environment for landfilling of VLLW No radioactive waste accepted during 2014 Effluent and gaseous discharge check monitoring 2014 Effluent & gaseous discharge check monitoring 2014 Agency checks on radionuclides in discharges & disposals in its check monitoring programme Aerial discharges (bubblers & filters)
From Sellafield (Magnox Reprocessing & THORP) Liquid effluents From Sellafield (EARP, SIXEP, SETP, Factory Sewer, Lagoon & Laundry) From Sellafield site boreholes (introduced in 2006). From LLWR (near Drigg) Sellafield - gaseous monitoring 2014 Overall 2014: 48 analytical comparisons. Sellafield - liquid effluent monitoring 2014 Overall 2014: 508 analytical comparisons Sellafield Boreholes monitoring 2014
Overall 2014: 120 comparisons. LLWR - liquid effluent monitoring 2014 Overall 2014: 16 analytical comparisons . Changes to check monitoring of boreholes in 2015 Clarity over groundwater regulation on nuclear sites
Regulatory responsibility with ONR (not EA) EA vires to check monitor boreholes now clear We stopped in 2015 We have results for first quarter of 2015 Checking of solid LLW disposals Solid LLW disposals to LLWR from nuclear sites in England and Wales Changes to LLW management and disposal. Aim: Wastes segregated, sorted and treated. Much less material for disposal to LLWR. Fewer ISO consignments of mixed waste. EA checking (assurance) arrangements for LLW. Targeted checking of key waste streams. Reference drum checking
Checking found no issues in 2014 Finalisation of checking at Harwell Harwell check on characterisation of samples of waste (underground drains) being disposed of at the Kingscliffe Landfill in Northamptonshire. We have been accessing the excavated waste as it is removed from the ground, prior to disposal, sampling, analysing, review of RSRLs approach Our monitoring completed in 2014. Draft report prepared with regulators for comment. Half height ISO freight from SzwB HHISO from SzwB sent to LLWR We used Cavendish Nuclears technique
Detect nuclides from the outside of the HHISO using High Resolution Gamma Spectrometry (HRGS) Results interpreted using Cavendish Nuclear Particle Swarm Imaging (PSIM) Initially a blind analysis (phase 1) no prior knowledge of the ISO container or its contents. Half height ISO freight from SzwB Followed by informed tests (phase 2) Using information declared by the originating site. container weight, contents description, activity assessment (wastestream radionuclide mix) PSIM interpretation refined using this information Phase #1 and phase #2 results for the measured
isotopes showed good agreement with the consignor declared activities. Half height ISO freight from SzwB Phase 2 PSIM image for Co-60 in the phase #1 results highlighted an area of high activity confirmed by the consignor declared information. The refined PSIM modelling in the phase #2 analysis resulted in a reduction in measurement uncertainty on the activity values (factor of 2) Reference drum tests Brought back into use 2 x reference drums Content of drums is known to the EA Radionuclides and quantity are known
Difficult drum and easier drum Drums offered to site test equipment Initially 5 sites Trawsfynydd and Wylfa in Wales during 2014 Sizewell A and Dungeness A; Hartlepool during 2015 Reference drum tests Results: Equipment used by the sites Within 20% to 30% of the known content of the easier drum. Within 60% to 100% of the known content of the more challenging drum. Environmental Monitoring in
2014. Environmental Monitoring in 2014 The Environment Agency is responsible for monitoring non-food parts of the environment. Sediments, water, seaweed, grass, soil, dose rates. Ensuring the dose limit of 1 mSv/y is not exceeded.
The Food Standards Agency is responsible for monitoring the food chain. Fish, shellfish, milk, vegetables and meat. Ensuring that doses from foods are assessed. Direct radiation - Office for Nuclear Regulation ONR Results from the 3 organisations are used to assess total dose compared with dose limit.
Environmental dose rates 2014 Cumbrian and Lancashire Coastlines Average UK background dose rates silts 0.07 Gy/h sand 0.05 Gy/h Highest annual dose rates (2013 in brackets) River Mite 0.14 Gy/h (0.15Gy/h) Newbiggin viaduct 0.12 Gy/h (0.13 Gy/h) Upper River Calder 0.11 Gy/h (0.10Gy/h) W Cumbria Coast - Dose rate trends Gamma dose rates above
mud & salt marshes in NE Irish Sea (Fig 2.23) Summary - silt concs Eskmeals Silt concentrations Bq/kg Nuclide Average 1998-2013 (98-12) 2014 (2013)
380 (280) Americium-241 1140 (1136) 1600 (1200) Plutonium-239/40 630 (634) 720 (570) West Cumbria Eskmeals. Co-60 levels in sediments (Bq/kg) and discharges (TBq/y)
West Cumbria - Eskmeals Ru-106 levels in Sediments (Bq/kg) and discharges (TBq/y) West Cumbria - Eskmeals Cs-137 levels in Sediments (Bq/kg) and discharges (TBq/y) West Cumbria - Eskmeals Am-241 levels in Sediments (Bq/kg) and discharges (TBq/y) West Cumbria - Eskmeals Pu-239/40 levels in sediments (Bq/kg) and discharges (TBq/y) Concs of Am-241 & Cs-137 in
coastal sediments in the NE Irish Sea (Figure 2.22) Doses in West Cumbria in 2014 Presentation of doses in RIFE 20 for 2014 RIFE-20: Presents total dose first Total dose methodology agreed in 2004 Information on habits around nuclear sites Total dose assessments completed at all nuclear sites Doses using other slightly different methods
retained (but no longer highlighted at the front of the report) Summary of non food doses (mSv/y) Group 2012 2013 2014 Recreational user of beaches North Cumbria 0.010
0.22 All sources 0.06 0.08 0.06 Sellafield 0.02 0.02
0.01 All sources 1 1 1 Total dose (mSv/y) West Cumbria (local seafood consumers) Conclusions 1 Disposals & discharges No changes to permit limits for LLWR or Sellafield.
Discharge monitoring broadly acceptable agreement for liquid and gaseous discharges from Sellafield and from LLWR. Solid LLW checking continued and found no issues Conclusions 2 Environment Dose rates - generally unchanged Environmental concentrations generally unchanged and with similar trends to previous years (e.g. Eskmeals) Residue of higher historic environmental burden from 1970s and 1980s continue to affect levels seen. Results are noisy with variation from year to year Conclusions
3 Doses Total dose < 1 mSv/y dose limit. Highest doses (0.22 mSv) associated with Sellafield past discharges increased in 2014 v 2013 primarily because of; increase in range of seafoods eaten. an increase in the proportion of lobster in the diet of high rate consumers Representative person is a high rate mollusc consumer near Sellafield (in 2013 houseboat dweller near Barrow) Highest doses associated with past discharges from Whitehaven plant (0.15 mSv) and to a lesser extent Sellafield (0.068 mSv) EA monitoring programme for 2016 Proposals provided in our report of July 2015 Comments received back from COMARE, Allerdale
BC, Sellafield Limited, Food Standards Agency Minor changes made to; Seawater & grass analysis, Sellafield tarn (water not sediment), Raven Villa sediment analysis will remain as now, seaweed method to be agreed (tips/whole plant), grass, soil and terrestrial dose rate locations agreed. Decision document available if requested Programme will commence in January 2016 End End
The practice change is utilizing the newly appointed APN/FN disaster specialist to design and manage a pre-exposure clinical training in AE squadrons by developing specific types of trauma/injuries seen in current operations as means to acclimate all FN/AET to the...
ionic conditions, caused by an . increase in Mg 2+ concentration, ... A Model of a Complete Active Bacterial Ribosome. A - aminoacyl site. P - peptidyl site ... RNA seems to be the perfect answer to the chicken-egg paradox...
2014 Final Year Engineering Student Survey - Western Canada ReportConducted by Ipsos Reid on behalf of Engineers Canada. ... From a PEO representative ... 2014 Final Year Engineering Student Survey - Western Canada Report Conducted by Ipsos Reid on behalf...
The main advantage of urea is its low toxicity, about 100,000 times less than that of ammonia. Urea can be transported and stored safely at high concentrations. This reduces the amount of water needed for nitrogen excretion when releasing a...
Vertices A vertex is a point where edges meet. Choose a shape that has a vertex. How many vertices does your shape have? Does a cylinder have a vertex? Examples of Solid Figures Cube Examples Rectangular Prism Examples Sphere Examples...
Workday day #2: Complete one media genre and turn in to Mrs. Moore at the end of the period Bring your materials and create your magazine/newspaper ad in vivid color with one of the five advertising persuasive techniques OR Research...
Leisure and Hospitality Fundamentals. Leisure and hospitality is projected to add between 2.1 and 3.3 million jobs by 2021. Jobs for concierges and lodging and entertainment attendants are expected to increase by up to 19% through 2018. Meeting and convention...
Inkaterra Machu Picchu Pueblo Hotel (Andean Amazon Cloud Forest) Travel+Leisure World Best Hotels (2014) Inkaterra La Casona (Cusco City High Andes) First Relais & Châteaux property in Peru. ONGOING PROJECTS. Inkaterra . Hacienda . Urubamba (Midway from Cusco to Machu...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!