China Grew up along the Huang-He Yellow river Prone to violent and unpredictable flooding Was the Yellow river more like the Tigris and Euphrates or the Nile?
Impact of Chinas Geography Long distances and physical barriers isolated China,
blocking cultural diffusion Protected China from invasion Isolation contributed to the Chinese belief that China was the center of the earth and the only civilization, Middle Kingdom
Early Dynasties The Xia- 2200-1800 B.C.E. Once thought to be mythical Kings closely linked to religionperformed rituals and sacrifices; spoke to gods on behalf of the people Irrigation and pottery Walled towns
The Shang- 1700-1100 B.C.E. First system of writing in China (eventually, writing provides unity and a common cultural element for China) Crafted bronze- sign of status Had a class system (nobles, artisans,
peasants, slaves) Horse-drawn chariots Strengthened govt. Shang religion Oracle bones Integral to knowledge about the Shang Priests would inscribe questions on an
animal bone (usually turtle shell) They would then heat the bone and interpret the resulting cracks Ancestor worship Gods controlled forces of nature and shaped human lives
The Zhou 1100 B.C.E.-500 C.E. Used the idea of the Mandate of Heaven to help give credibility to their govt. Right to rule comes from the gods Ruler is considered the Son of Heaven Rulers should be wise and principled
Disasters, economic problems, and corruption were signs that the gods were displeased Zhou contributed Chinas earliest poetry (Book of Songs) Confucius- philosopher of the late
Zhou era Established trade routes First coins Population increase Three Philosophies Confucianism Legalism
Daoism Religion or Philosophy? Traditional Chinese beliefs are often mistakenly called religions and they are not Confucianism, Legalism and Daoism are not religions
They are philosophies (secular emphasis) Confucianis m Teachings of Confucius Chinas most influential scholar
was Kongfuzi (551-479 BCE) concerned with: how to ensure social order good government. His teachings were collected in a work called the Analects
Written by his students Confucianism began during the Zhou dynasty Teachings of Confucius Confucius & The Analects His ideas included that everyone has duties and Responsibilities (reciprocal):
Filial piety, or respect for parents, is the most important duty. A ruler has the responsibility to provide good government. In return, the people should be respectful and loyal subjects. Government leaders and officials should be well educated. Harmony is achieved when people accept their place
in society. Education is essential Patriarchal men dominant; women should be chaste Did Confucianism adhere to a rigid or loose class structure? Was it possible to promote yourself in society or gain equality if
you were in a subordinate position? i.e. a peasant, a woman? Legalism Hanfeizi People are evil
Emphasized the importance of strict laws and harsh punishments Strong leader and central government Became official policy of Qin
dynasty Daoism Laozi Founded by Lao Tzu (604517 BCE) Emphasized living in
harmony with nature A direct reaction to the formalism of Confucianism: Daoism looked for the simple Confucianism more concerned with work
ethic and proper conduct Both Confucianism and Daoism were based on Chinese traditions Both were responses to problems in society (warring states period occurs soon after Confucius and
Lao Tzu) Of the Chinese philosophies, which has had the most widespread and long-term influence? Japan?
Korea? An old saying Confucius has a sour look as he tastes the vinegar. Buddha has a bitter look as he tastes
the vinegar. Laozi has a smile as he tastes the vinegar. Yin and Yang The female is the yin (shady)
principle of passive, shaded, and reflective. (moon) The male is the yang (sunny) principle of active, bright, and shining.
(sun) Early civilizations in Mesoamerica Olmecs- 1500 B.C.E. Rubber people
Settlements began as religious centers Stone heads Foundation for other Mesoamerican cultures
South America The Chavin- built by community cooperation Irrigation systems, temples No central govt. Geographic barriers block trade
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