Warm Up 1. What is the name of the point where the angle bisectors of a triangle intersect? incenter Find the midpoint of the segment with the given endpoints. 2. (1, 6) and (3, 0) 3. (7, 2) and (3, 8) 4. Write an equation of the line containing the

(1, 3) slope form. points (3, 1) and (2, 10) in point- (5, 3) y 1 = 9(x 3)

Objectives Apply properties of medians of a triangle. Apply properties of altitudes of a triangle. Vocabulary median of a triangle centroid of a triangle altitude of a triangle orthocenter of a triangle

A median of a triangle is a segment whose endpoints are a vertex of the triangle and the midpoint of the opposite side. Every triangle has three medians, and the medians are concurrent. The point of concurrency of the medians of a triangle is the centroid of the triangle . The centroid is always inside the triangle. The centroid is also called the center of gravity because it is the point where a triangular region will balance.

Example 1A: Using the Centroid to Find Segment Lengths In LMN, RL = 21 and SQ =4. Find LS. Centroid Thm. Substitute 21 for RL. LS = 14 Simplify.

Example 1B: Using the Centroid to Find Segment Lengths In LMN, RL = 21 and SQ =4. Find NQ. Centroid Thm. NS + SQ = NQ Seg. Add. Post. Substitute

Subtract NQ for NS. from both sides. Substitute 4 for SQ. 12 = NQ Multiply both sides by 3.

Check It Out! Example 1a In JKL, ZW = 7, and LX = 8.1. Find KW. Centroid Thm. Substitute 7 for ZW. KW = 21 Multiply both sides by 3.

Check It Out! Example 1b In JKL, ZW = 7, and LX = 8.1. Find LZ. Centroid Thm. Substitute 8.1 for LX. LZ = 5.4 Simplify.

Example 2: Problem-Solving Application A sculptor is shaping a triangular piece of iron that will balance on the point of a cone. At what coordinates will the triangular region balance? Example 2 Continued Understand the Problem

1 The answer will be the coordinates of the centroid of the triangle. The important information is the location of the vertices, A(6, 6), B(10, 7), and C(8, 2). 2

Make a Plan The centroid of the triangle is the point of intersection of the three medians. So write the equations for two medians and find their point of intersection. Example 2 Continued 3 Solve

Let M be the midpoint of AB and N be the midpoint of AC. CM is vertical. Its equation is x = 8. BN has slope 1. Its equation is y = x 3. The coordinates of the centroid are D(8, 5). Example 2 Continued 4 Look Back

Let L be the midpoint of BC. The equation for AL is 8 at D(8, 5). , which intersects x = Check It Out! Example 2 Find the average of the x-coordinates and the average of the y-coordinates of the vertices of PQR. Make a conjecture about the centroid of a triangle.

Check It Out! Example 2 Continued The x-coordinates are 0, 6 and 3. The average is 3. The y-coordinates are 8, 4 and 0. The average is 4. The x-coordinate of the centroid is the average of the x-coordinates of the vertices of the , and the y-coordinate of the centroid is the

average of the y-coordinates of the vertices of the . An altitude of a triangle is a perpendicular segment from a vertex to the line containing the opposite side. Every triangle has three altitudes. An altitude can be inside, outside, or on the triangle. In QRS, altitude QY is inside the triangle, but RX and SZ are not. Notice that the lines containing the altitudes are concurrent at P. This point of concurrency is the orthocenter

of the triangle. Helpful Hint The height of a triangle is the length of an altitude. Example 3: Finding the Orthocenter Find the orthocenter of XYZ with vertices X(3, 2), Y(3, 6), and Z(7, 1).

Step 1 Graph the triangle. X Example 3 Continued Step 2 Find an equation of the line containing the altitude from Z to XY. Since XY is vertical, the altitude is horizontal. The line containing it must pass through Z(7, 1) so the equation of the line is y = 1.

Example 3 Continued Step 3 Find an equation of the line containing the altitude from Y to XZ. The slope of a line perpendicular to XZ is . This line must pass through Y(3, 6). Point-slope form. Substitute 6 for y1,

and 3 for x1. Distribute . Add 6 to both sides. for m,

Example 3 Continued Step 4 Solve the system to find the coordinates of the orthocenter. Substitute 1 for y. Subtract 10 from both sides. 6.75 = x Multiply both sides by The coordinates of the orthocenter are (6.75, 1).

Check It Out! Example 3 Show that the altitude to JK passes through the orthocenter of JKL. An equation of the altitude to JK is 4=1+3 4=4 Therefore, this altitude passes through the orthocenter.

Lesson Quiz Use the figure for Items 13. In ABC, AE = 12, DG = 7, and BG = 9. Find each length. 1. AG 8 2. GC 14 3. GF 13.5 For Items 4 and 5, use MNP with vertices M (4, 2), N (6, 2) , and P (2, 10). Find the

coordinates of each point. 4. the centroid (0, 2) 5. the orthocenter