Leading diverse and creative teams: The role of

Leading diverse and creative teams: The role of

Leading diverse and creative teams: The role of inclusive leadership Roni Reiter-Palmon Professor, Department of Psychology Center for Collaboration Science Why Creativity in Teams? Increasing complexity of problems

Additional performance benefits from varied skills of the team members Creativity is defined as any product, process, or solution that is both original (novel) and useful (appropriate). Team Creativity Much research on teams as a contextual variable (Woodman, Sawyer, &

Griffin, 1993) Focus on individual creativity More recent interest in the construct of team creativity (Reiter-Palmon, Wigert & de Vreede, 2011) Use the Input-Process-Output (IPO) model Input

Team Characteristics Team Diversity Process Social Processes Cognitive Processes In what ways are teams diverse? Demographic characteristics

Gender Age Race/Ethnicity Nationality/Culture Personal Characteristics

Personality Motivation Values Functional Diversity Job/Position Department Discipline Meta analysis by Hulsherger et al. (2009)

Demographic diversity not related to creativity Functional diversity related to creativity Not enough information on personal characteristics Strengths More information More diverse information More perspectives

Cognitive benefits Weaknesses More difficulty in communicating More difficulty in developing trust Social deficits Team Processes Social Processes

Multiple models of important social processes (Mathieu et al., 2008; Rousseau, Aube, & Savoie, 2006; Salas, Stagl, Burke, & Goodwin, 2007) Commonalities across models Collaboration and Coordination Communication Trust and Psychological Safety Conflict

Social Processes - Collaboration Important for Dynamic situation Team adaptation Creativity (Burke et al., 2006; Janssens & Brett, 2006) Collaboration

Team goals that emphasize collaboration relate to idea generation (Mitchell, Boyle, & Nicholas, 2009) Collaboration is related to creativity and innovation in teams (Drach-Zehavy & Somech, 2001; Pearce & Ensley, 2004) Effective collaboration allows for

integration of diverse perspectives Boyle, & Nicholas, 2009) (Mitchell, Social Processes - Communication Internal Communication within the team External Communication outside of

the team With other departments/teams in the organization Outside the organization (customers, suppliers, etc.) Ancona and Caldwell (1992 External Communication

Ancona and Caldwell (1992) Ancona and Caldwell (1992) Ancona and Caldwell (1992) One of the strongest predictors of team creativity (Damanpour, 1991; Hulsheger et al., 2009) Diverse teams engage in more external communication (Ancona & Caldwell, 1992; Keller, 2001) External Communication

Role of external communication Providing diverse information Weak ties related to creativity (Baer, 2010; Perry-Smith, 2006; Perry-Smith & Shalley, 2003) Developing Support for new ideas (Howell & Shea, 2006) Internal communication

Communication with members within the team Collaborative communication increases creativity (Lovelace, Shapiro, & Weingart, 2001) Negative forms of communication hinder creativity (Lovelace, Shapiro, & Weingart, 2001) Frequent communication hinder creativity (Kratzer, Leenders, & van Engelen, 2004)

Trust and Psychological Safety Linked to creativity and innovation (Carmeli & Spreitzer, 2009; West & Anderson, 1996) Linked to team member willingness to discuss information openly (Burke et al., 2006; Edmondson, 2004; Rank et al., 2004). Trust and Psychological Safety

Low trust causes disagreements and ambiguous information to be interpreted in a negative way (Nicholson & West, 1988; Salas et al., 2005; West & Richter, 2008) Conflict Can be task or relationship based (Jehn, 1997)

Hypothesized that task conflict may be beneficial (Kurtzberg & Amabile, 2001; Mannix & Neale, 2005) conflict Mixed results regarding effect of conflict on creativity Relationship = negative

Task = mixed Possible curvilinear relationship (De Dreu, 2006) Social processes are interrelated and may have interactive effects on team creativity and innovation Low trust can lead to more conflict Communication increases trust and

psychological safety trust and psychological safety increase communication Collaboration requires communication Time as an important variable Social processes develop and change over time (team dynamics) Social processes may have different effects depending on timing within a

project Cognitive Processes Social Cognition - How individuals and teams think about teams and team processes Problem Solving (Reiter-Palmon, Herman, & Yammarino, 2008) Cognitive Processes

Received much more attention at the individual level than at the team level Individual models of cognitive processes are available Not clear how individual cognition then is aggregated to the team level Current work focuses on social cognition

How individuals and teams think about teams and team processes Shared Mental Models Reflexivity Shared Mental Model Representation of knowledge or beliefs that are shared by team members (CannonBowers, Salas, & Converse, 1993)

Positive relationship with team creativity and innovation (Gilson & Shalley, 2004; Pearce & Ensley, 2004) SMMs may lead to too much similarity and conformity (Cannon-Bowers et al., 1993) Team Reflexivity

Team members reflect on the objectives and strategies and adapt them to current or anticipated circumstances (West, 1996) Reflexive teams can change their strategies and learn from past mistakes Important antecedent of team creativity and innovation (Schippers, Den Hartog, & Koopman, 2007; Tjosvold, Tang, & West, 2004)

Team reflexivity may not occur naturally (Muller, Herbig, & Petrovic, 2009) Instructions and minority dissent may contribute to team reflexivity (De Dreu, 2002; Muller et al., 2009) Creative Problem Solving Processes Problem identification and construction Information gathering

Idea generation* (lots of research) Solution evaluation and choice What is missing? Individual cognition vs. team cognition What happens when team members need to put together these individual cognitions? How do we aggregate to the team level? Early and late processes (before and after

idea generation) Problem Construction During this process the problem to be solved is recognized and identified (Is there indeed a problem?) defined (What is the nature of the problem?)

and constructed (What are the parameters of the problem to guide possible solutions?) Based on past experiences with similar problems Problem Representation (Gick & Holyoak, 1983) Includes: Goals, constraints, information and procedures

Typically, automatic application Individual Findings Creative individuals engage in this process (Getzels & Csikszentmihalyi, 1975, 1976) Experts spend more time on PC (Voss et al., 1991) Deliberate PC (more time, more ways,

instructions) results in creative solutions (Basadur, Graen & Green, 1982; Reiter-Palmon, et al., 1997) Focus on goals and restrictions (Mumford, et al., 1996) Very limited research on team level problem construction How do teams construct problems? Similar individual problem constructions

Different construction (rGap) (Cronin & Wiengart, 2007) Large rGaps Lead to less integration, increased conflict, and lower creativity (Gish & Clausen, 2013; Weingart, Cronin, Houser, Cagan, & Vogel, 2005) Lead to increased creativity if differences are discussed (Leonardi, 2011; Weingart, Todorova, &

Cronin, 2008) Instructions to engage in problem construction PC teams were less creative (Reiter-Palmon, Wigert, Morral-Robinson, Hullsiek, Arreola, & Crough, 2011) PC teams were more original (Reiter-Palmon, 2017)

PC teams had lower conflict and more satisfaction with process and outcome Information Gathering and Sharing Cognitive process that relies on social processes (communication) Individuals search both within and outside the team for information Diverse teams have access to more

information and more diverse information Common information is more likely to be shared (Mesmer-Magnus & DeChurch, 2009) Do not always know what is relevant to others No direct studies on information gathering and sharing on creativity

Solution evaluation and selection Ideas are evaluated and choice is made to implement, refine or reject ideas Creative individuals recognize creativity (Basadur, Runco, & Vega, 2000; Runco & Chand, 1995) Standards for evaluation likely come from problem-construction stage

Domain may influence the process (Furst, Ghisletta, & Lubart, 2017; Lubart, 2009; Sullivan & Ford, 2005) When is evaluation more effective: Early vs. Late in the process Evaluation criteria Instructions to choose creative ideas (Lonergan, Scott, & Mumford, 2004; Rietzschel, Nijstad, &

Stroebe, 2010) Creative ideas Original ideas but low quality Team Evaluation and Selection No difference between nominal and interacting groups in idea selection (Faure, 2004; Putman & Paulus, 2009; Rietzschel, Nijstad, & Stroebe, 2006)

Teams are not very good at selecting creative ideas (Kennel & Reiter-Palmon, 2012) Evaluation accuracy leads to selection of more creative ideas (Kennel & Reiter-Palmon, 2012) Providing structure during idea evaluation and idea selection leads to increased accuracy and better idea

selection (Mumford, Feldman, Hein, & Nagao, 2001; ReiterPalmon, Kennel, de Vreede, & de Vreede, in press) Sparse research on problem solving processes Cognitive processes in teams rely on social processes Particularly communication Evidence that both similarity in cognition and diversity can be

important When social deficits can be overcome cognitive benefits facilitate team creativity Social deficits can be overcome by effective leadership Social deficits can be overcome by time Getting to know the other team members Leadership

Is leading creative people different? Creative people are Independent Achievement oriented Arrogant Intelligent/knowledgeable Difficulty in teamwork

Leadership Leaders have an important role in providing resources needed Time Money Materials People Information

Leaders provide direction and vision Leaders can provide role modeling for both social and cognitive processes Leaders can emphasize creativity to facilitate active engagement Instructions Rewarding creativity Leaders can create a culture of

openness and communication Leaders facilitate inclusivity though Openness Engaging all members Facilitating a culture of collaboration Providing support Dec. 2017 Oxford University Press

Contact [email protected] Twitter @rrpcreativity

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