Need For and Benefits of Tier 3 Vehicle

Need For and Benefits of Tier 3 Vehicle

Need For and Benefits of Tier 3 Vehicle and Fuel Standards The Air Pollution Problem Remains Very Serious With Millions Breathing Unhealthy Air

Vehicles Remain A Major Source This is especially true with regard to NOx and VOCs the precursors of ozone. Technology Exists To Substantially

Reduce Emissions Further Potential Tier 3 Technologies are almost entirely the same as those already on California PZEV/SULEV (i.e., EPA Tier 2 bin 2) models of today increased precious metal (Pt/Pd/Rh) catalyst loading

optimized close-coupled catalyst secondary air injection pump evaporative control system active HC adsorber on limited models Estimated Cost ~ $150 Low Sulfur Gasoline is Key

All Existing Catalyst Equipped Vehicles Will Be Improved With Lower Sulfur Gasoline Poisoning of Precious Metal HC, CO, NOx SO2 Precious Metal Poisoning of Washcoat

SO2 O2 Precious Metal Lower O2 Storage Ability Cerium SO3

O2 CeO2 Ce SO4)2 Alumina Al2O3 Al2 SO4)3 Fluidized Catalytically Cracked (FCC) Naphtha Is The Primary Source Of Sulfur In The Gasoline

Naphtha Hydrotreating (Post-treating) To Reduce The Sulfur Content All existing FCC post-treaters would require revamping to meet the 10-ppm sulfur standard; The average capital expenditure for revamping is 30 percent of the expenditure for new post-treaters (even though some of the

existing units may require no revamping); and The target rate of return on refinery investments is 7 percent before tax. Cost ~ $0.008/ gallon Cost Effectiveness of Tier 3 Low-Sulfur Gasoline Relative to Other NOx Reduction Measures NOx Reduction Measure

Cost Per Ton of NOx Reduced Tier 3 Low-Sulfur Gasoline $3,300 Oil/Gas Boilers Serving EGUs

$1,100 - 8,700 New Small Gas Boilers $3,300 - 16,000 Municipal Waste Incinerators $2,140 (SNCR)

HEDD EGUs $45,000 - $300,000 per unit Stationary Generators $39,700 - 79,700

Minor New Source Review $600 - $18,000 Source: Senate Staff Briefing on the Need for Strong NOx Caps in the Eastern U.S OTC, ICAC, NACAA and Maryland (July 2010).

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • TRAINING OBJECTIVES 1. Understand the I Welcome global

    TRAINING OBJECTIVES 1. Understand the I Welcome global

    The refugee crisis specifically is covered in more depth in the presentation "I Welcome Refugees Training Presentation and Facilitation Notes" ... (Edward Timpson) lost his seat in the election. ... Ask each group to share an answer to a question...
  • Association for Family Therapy Annual Conference Liverpool 2014

    Association for Family Therapy Annual Conference Liverpool 2014

    The Systems Psychodynamics of Organisations (2001)Karnac Huffington, C. et al. eds. Working Below the Surface. (2004) Karnac Cooper, A and Lousada,J Borderline Welfare: Feeling and fear of feeling in modern welfare ( 2005) Karnac External environment=turbulent, give examples. ...
  • Human Development -

    Human Development -

    Development is the sequence of age related changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to death . It encompasses changes in physical, cognitive and social behaviors. Major issues. A. Nature versus nurture — are we more affected by...
  • Big Bang Theory -

    Big Bang Theory -

    Big Bang Theory Main Premise: the universe began with a gigantic explosion 10-29 billion years ago nothing existed before this NO time, NO space out of nothingness came everything in the universe and it started to expand Where is Theory...
  • Lesson 1a - Italian Fascism

    Lesson 1a - Italian Fascism

    Matteotti assassination (1924) Suppression of independent forces. Opposition outlawed (1926) ... Effect of the Abyssinian Crisis on Italy. Diplomatically and economically isolated. Pushed closer to central and southeastern Europe and Germany.
  • Presentation Title Goes Here with room for three lines of ...

    Presentation Title Goes Here with room for three lines of ...

    STANDARDS AND ADVOCACY COMMITTEE. MANDATE. The Advocacy Committee has the responsibility to: Interact with regulators, policy-makers, CFA Institute and other industry bodies where necessary to promote member interests in advocacy, standards and ethics
  • Chapter 1

    Chapter 1

    In the ABC Corp. example, the profit per unit ($10), the production time per unit(5 hours), and the production capacity(40 hours) are environmental factors not under the control of the manager or decision maker. Decision Variables - controllable inputs; decision...
  • Social Engagement & Leadership

    Social Engagement & Leadership

    Increase awareness of leadership skills. Engaging with peers daily. Active understanding of leadership skills. Engagement at sessions. Values personal relationships. Demonstrates leadership skills daily. Facilitation of sessions. GOALS: Increase student engagement, Develop leadership skills, Develop Healthy Peer Relationships. Brooke