Need For and Benefits of Tier 3 Vehicle and Fuel Standards The Air Pollution Problem Remains Very Serious With Millions Breathing Unhealthy Air
Vehicles Remain A Major Source This is especially true with regard to NOx and VOCs the precursors of ozone. Technology Exists To Substantially
Reduce Emissions Further Potential Tier 3 Technologies are almost entirely the same as those already on California PZEV/SULEV (i.e., EPA Tier 2 bin 2) models of today increased precious metal (Pt/Pd/Rh) catalyst loading
optimized close-coupled catalyst secondary air injection pump evaporative control system active HC adsorber on limited models Estimated Cost ~ $150 Low Sulfur Gasoline is Key
All Existing Catalyst Equipped Vehicles Will Be Improved With Lower Sulfur Gasoline Poisoning of Precious Metal HC, CO, NOx SO2 Precious Metal Poisoning of Washcoat
SO2 O2 Precious Metal Lower O2 Storage Ability Cerium SO3
O2 CeO2 Ce SO4)2 Alumina Al2O3 Al2 SO4)3 Fluidized Catalytically Cracked (FCC) Naphtha Is The Primary Source Of Sulfur In The Gasoline
Naphtha Hydrotreating (Post-treating) To Reduce The Sulfur Content All existing FCC post-treaters would require revamping to meet the 10-ppm sulfur standard; The average capital expenditure for revamping is 30 percent of the expenditure for new post-treaters (even though some of the
existing units may require no revamping); and The target rate of return on refinery investments is 7 percent before tax. Cost ~ $0.008/ gallon Cost Effectiveness of Tier 3 Low-Sulfur Gasoline Relative to Other NOx Reduction Measures NOx Reduction Measure
Cost Per Ton of NOx Reduced Tier 3 Low-Sulfur Gasoline $3,300 Oil/Gas Boilers Serving EGUs
$1,100 - 8,700 New Small Gas Boilers $3,300 - 16,000 Municipal Waste Incinerators $2,140 (SNCR)
HEDD EGUs $45,000 - $300,000 per unit Stationary Generators $39,700 - 79,700
Minor New Source Review $600 - $18,000 Source: Senate Staff Briefing on the Need for Strong NOx Caps in the Eastern U.S OTC, ICAC, NACAA and Maryland (July 2010).
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