AS Revision - 1 Based on previous questions,

AS Revision - 1 Based on previous questions,

AS Revision - 1 Based on previous questions, and potential answers to those questions Subject Support 2012 Revision topics chosen by your teachers Section B / Question 7 Physiology: Cardiac physiology Blood pressure and velocity Opportunities for Participation: Current Government initiatives

History Subject Support 2012 Section B / Question 7 Expect similar introduction: You have been asked to produce a training programme to help with the fitness training and skill development of a group of performers within an AS level Physical Education class Do not write - they are AS P.E. students and therefore .......!!! Do not write here is my training programme Subject Support 2012

Typical question Section B May 11 Explain how you could calculate the workload intensities for a continuous training programme. In addition, explain the different forms of guidance and the factors you should consider when deciding on the most appropriate method to use. (12 marks) Jan 12 Describe how you would apply the FITT principles and specificity to improve fitness. Explain how the characteristics of the learner and the situation may influence your decision to use command style' teaching to improve skills of the group. (12 marks) Subject Support 2012 Question 7 TWO question will ask about factual different topics; one on fitness , other on skill development Must answer

both areas equal weighting Small space available for planning not marked! Skill - open-ended question - response required is generalities: If studen is........ Iftas is....... The t If situatio n k is...... Subject Support 2012 Question 7

Expect 20 creditable points in m/s hence expect 10 points in m/s for each topic Aim No to identify as many points as possible need for structured essay MUST answer in Extra mark if quality of language is adequate prose Subject Support 2012

Training principles Specificity S Progression P Overload O Reversibilit R y T Tedium Frequency F Intensity I Time T Type T Subject Support 2012 Specificity

Use same energy system -anaerobic aerobic Same mixture of both slow-twitch muscle fibre-type fast-twitch Similarskills/movements Similar intensit y Similar duratio to activity; to activity; n Subject Support 2012

Overload Harder than normal; Body adapts - as fitness improves so increase: Frequenc how often; y Intensity how hard; Type kind of exercise; Time or how long; duration Idea of progression Subject Support 2012 Measuring intensity 60-90% rate training zone = max HR 220 - age Max HR =

(HR range x formula intensity %) Karvonen + (resting Heart of HR) max HR resting HR Heart rate range = Subjective / Borg scale opinion (RPE) Use Rating of Perceived Exertion 6 20 Scale:

(sitting) to exhaustion) (extreme Subject Support 2012 Fitness testing why? Provides Shows measurement ofstarting level strengths and weaknesses improvement s Provides motivatio n Measuressucces Shows s Provides variation

of training from training Subject Support 2012 Ethics of fitness testing Effects interfere may programme with fatigue May May cause cause injury Results

may cause Psychologic al harm Subject Support 2012 Making tests specific Use same: energy system intensity directions of movement equipment method of locomotion Subject Support 2012 Making tests valid and reliable

Valid test should measure what its supposed to measure - specific Links to specificity test protocol same actio similar n as used in activity Reliable when repeated results Differences variations in in results due to changes in fitness not test accuracy Limitations to of measurements Subject Support 2012 Health-related fitness

tests multi-stage fitness/bleep test Muscular endurance sit-ups test Stamina Strength dynamometer test Flexibility Speed - 20/30/40-metre sprint

Power sit and reach test Sergeant/vertical jump test Subject Support 2012 Skill-related fitness tests Agility Illinois agility run test Reaction Balance time ruler drop test Flamingo balance/ Stork stand

test Co-ordination Anderson ball catch test Subject Support 2012 Warm up - benefits Better oxygen Faster metabolism delivery (chemical reactions) blood Improved flow sensitivit Increased y heart Increased efficiency of psychologic

Improved preparation al Movement rehearsal Reduces injuries Subject Support 2012 Warm up - content General warm up jogging to raise heart rate Stretching to reduce injur y and relax

Specific to exercises of increasing intensity skills/movement rehearse Psychological control preparation anxiety Subject Support 2012 Cool down Clears wast e products

Reduces chance of DOMS Prevents blood Reduces adrenaline pooling levels Allows heart rate to fall Content - stop around jogging/walking exercising and move static stretching Subject Support 2012 Types of stretching idea is whatholds stretched position agonist Active Passi held by own

ve stretch held by partner or isometric self Static stretch held and bouncing contractions applied Ballistic stretch by stretch while Key moving Dynamic Subject Support 2012 Stretching safely Warm- prior to stretching / up slowly begin sports specific

Make stretch (30) seconds Hold/repeat stretch for Never hold a painful stretch /danger of no ballistic injury agonists and Balance/equalise antagonists stretches / Subject Support 2012 Types of training Continuous training Trains aerobi c

Running, Steady state systems cycling, swimming exercise Aim for 70% of maximum effort Heart rate close to bpm 130-150 Use Borg scale 13-15 Subject Support 2012 Intermittent (interval)

training Alternate recovery periods of effort and More workloa Lots d variety than continuous anaerobi of possible remember tedium c Interval training vary - intensity; duration; recovery time; number of repetitions

Subject Support 2012 Circuit training Series of exercises performed one after the other stations Very variabl aerobic or e anaerobic 1 stations; minute per station;2-4 laps Rest timed or in between stations Usually 8-12 Can

include skills practice Subject Support 2012 Weight training Can improve: strength power muscular endurance speed on overload Use machines and/or free weights Based Subject Support 2012 Plyometric training

Power Eccentric training stretch to load muscle concentric Stronger contraction follows Subject Support 2012 Mobility training Static exercises best as part

coolofdown Dynamic better stimulate muscle and tendon sense organs Gradually increase speed range and Subject Support 2012 Skill development - style of question Use what? when? why? Consider learner -stage motivation fitness Consider

situationsafety equipment time Consider task -complexity type Subject Support 2012 Teaching styles Command -teacher makes all decisions skills Advantagessimple good for - beginners; safety; control;

learner Discovery provides solution variety Advantages helps with confidence; good When of correct solutions Subject Support 2012 Teaching styles Problem-solving problem set by teacher learner solves Advantages increases understanding

decisionand motivation; good for individuals and making groups; Reciprocal teacher work in pairs; decides what is taught Advantages - develops selfconfidence; instant feedback; learner s communicate Subject Support 2012 Whole and part methods of practice Whole practice whole skill; no breakdown into parts Establishesschema / kinesthesis high for comple skills with x and

organisation; skills simpl e Part isolate and practice parts Used For complex skills E.g. organisation with low swimming stroke Subject Support 2012 Progressive part and whole-partwhole methods of practice Progressive part practice parts; chain them back together in order gymnastics

routine E.g. continuit y Establishes Whole part whole attempt whole skill; improvekinesthesi part; then repeat s whole coherence Establishes Maintains Subject Support 2012 Massed or distributed Consider: Task fatiguing / boring? experience / skill level? Subject - Subject Support 2012 Advantages of massed and

distributed practice Massed for: Associative stage Fitter / motivated Simple skills Discrete / fine skills Limited time Distributed for: Cognitive stage Less fit / motivated Complex skills Continuous / gross skills Allows mental rehearsal

Subject Support 2012 Guidance Visual especially goodcognitive for demonstrations stage creates useimage - LTM s visual Verbal in isolation or with suitable for all stages dangerous Mechanical supporting if forced response Manual - directing ( kinesthesis )

Both limit Subject Support 2012 Feedback Receipt ofinformation about movement and its outcome Can concurrent be during performance Can termina or after l intrinsic

be from within performer extrinsic Or from outside performer - Subject Support 2012 Intrinsic feedback Informatio n Body awareness or Improves skill proprioceptors received by kinesthesis develop as performer s

Subject Support 2012 Extrinsic feedback From outside of themselves Most used by beginner s E.g. from coach, team mates, crowd, officials Subject Support 2012 Other forms of feedback to encourage Positive praise Negative

critical to correct - how long after the event Delayed / immediate Knowledge of results KR ( ) success outcome of (KP) Knowledgemoveme of performance success of nt Subject Support 2012 Which feedback when? cognitiv e associativ e Extrinsic KR

Terminal Positive Immediate autonomou s Intrinsic KP Concurrent Negative Delayed Subject Support 2012 Typical questions Jan 11 Qu 2. (b)(i) Briefly explain the terms cardiac output and stroke volume and the relationship between them. (3 marks) May 11Qu 2 (a) (ii) Explain how the heart controls the rate at which it beats. (4 marks) May 10 Qu 1 (b) (i) What are the effects of training on resting cardiac output and stroke volume? (2 marks)

Jan 12 Qu 1 (b) Explain how changes in the acidity of the blood cause the heart rate to increase during a game of football. (4 marks) Subject Support 2012 4 1 Heart rate values Stroke volume Heart rate Cardiac output Cardiac output The volume of blood pumped out of one ventricle per beat The number of times the heart contracts per minute

The volume of blood pumped out of one ventricle per minute Stroke Heart = x volume rate Subject Support 2012 4 2 Effects of exercise Heart rate increasesfaster contraction blood flows quicker stronger Stroke volume increases contraction - more blood pumped out per beat Cardiac output increases - more blood / oxygen

to exercising muscles Subject Support 2012 4 3 Heart rate increases - changing heart rate sets heart rate - intrinsic brake and accelerator Nerves act as Vagus (parasympathetic) nerve slows heart rate Sympathetic nerve speeds up heart rate SAN Subject Support 2012 4 4

Cause of change in heart rate Exercise moreCO2 in blood Increased acidity Detected by chemoreceptors Impulses to medulla Changes to heart rate via vagus and sympathetic nerves Subject Support 2012 4 5 Cardiac cycle - order of contraction Diastole Atrial

systole Ventricular systole The cardiac cycle - from within atria SAN Impulses spread through atria systole atrial Picked up by AVN Descends to tip of ventricle bundle of His Purkinje fibres ventricular systole Intrinsic Subject Support 2012 4 7 Effects of training gets bigger hypertrophy powerful Hence more muscle more

contraction Increased resting and exercising Heart stroke volume Same restingcardiac output bradycardia hence decreased resting heart rate Subject Support 2012 4 8 Typical question Jan 12 Qu 1 (c) (ii) How does a lower resting heart rate affect oxygen delivery to muscles? (2 marks) May 11 Qu 2 (a) (i)

Use Starlings Law of the heart to explain how stroke volume increases when running. (3 marks) Jan 11 Qu 2 (b) (ii) Explain the term cardio-vascular drift. (3 marks) Subject Support 2012 Heart rate range Limited volume of blood for oxygen transport When exercising heart rate increase s - requires energy hence more oxyge blood containing goes to n heart Less

muscles available for Training increased lower resting heart rate - oxyg rate range heart heart muscleuses en s available less blood more for Subject Support 2012 5 0 Starlings Law of the heart Exercise

need for more blood venous return more blood increased The more the walls of the heart are stretche by incoming blood d Heart muscle iselastic the more its stretched, the powerfu more l heart muscle the contraction of the Hence during exercise increased venous return causes an volume increased stroke Subject Support 2012 5 1

Cardiovascular drift Changes to cardiac output, stroke volume and heart rate during a period of steady state exercise 180 160 140 120 Heart rate (bts/min) Cardiac output (l/min) Stroke volume (mls) 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 5 10 15 20

25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 time (mins) 52 Subject Support 2012 Description Steady

60 exercise lasting state minut es Cardiac Stroke Heart output stayssame volume increases rate decreases Subject Support 2012 5 3 Explanation of cardio-vascular

drift Continuous Reduces exercise lots of sweating reduces venous return Hence blood volume and hence stroke volume reduced (Starlings Law) - Cardiac output (Q) needs to be kept

SV x HR constant increase Q = - if SV , then HR must Q Hence need for in heart rate during steady state exercise to maintain Subject Support 2012 5 4 Typical question Jan 12 Qu 2 (b) During a game, the blood pressure of a player increases. What factors determine the blood pressure in arteries? (3 marks) May 12 Qu 2 As a 400-metre hurdlers blood flows around his Pressure Velocity

body, Blood its vessels pressure and velocity changes, as shown A High High Low Low below.Blood vessels B Blood vessels C (b) (i) or C Low Medium Which of the blood vessels in the table, A, B represents veins? (1 mark)

Subject Support 2012 Blood pressure and velocity Contracting pressure heart generates in arteries (velocity) and pushes blood along varie Pressure and velocity s arterie blood vessels s capillari High pressure and fast in es veins

in Low pressure and slow in Low pressure and quicker in Subject Support 2012 5 6 Pressure and velocity Pressure and velocity are affected by: velocity and pressure area larger area Cross-sectional - less reduces pressure Friction - between blood and walls of blood vessels -

Subject Support 2012 5 7 Subject Support 2012 Blood pressure and velocity Blood pressur e Blood velocity Crosssectional area Arteries Arterioles Capillarie s

Venules Veins Velocity falls then rises increasing & decreasing crosssectional area Pressure falls friction & increasing crosssectional area Subject Support 2012 5 9 Typical question May 09 Qu 5 (c) By 2007 there were nearly 350 Sports Colleges in England. What are the main aims of these Sports Colleges? (4 marks)

May 10 Qu 6 (b) Why has the government in the UK become increasingly involved in developing specific policies to encourage participation in sport? (4 marks) May 12 Qu 5 (b) (ii) The government introduced the best value policy in an attempt to improve recreational and sport provision. Outline the main features of the best value policy. (2 marks) Subject Support 2012 Role of National Government Via DCMS Distributes

money from treasury and National Lottery Sport England Main agency Subject Support 2012 Sport England Funds community sport Works with NGBs Grow Sustain numbers doing sport participation levels Help

Excel talented people 5 National Sports Centres Active Places now SPOGO where to play Subject Support 2012 Government policies Changes over time, but when specification/exam written Physical Education and School PESSCLS Sport Club Links Strategy Sports Colleges School Sport Co-ordinators (SSCo) (SSP) School Sport Partnerships Subject Support 2012

The P.E. and School Sport Club Links Strategy (PESSCLS) School Sport Partnership of Became PESSYP (Young People) Aim - high quality in schools PE and sport Minimum - lessons and 5 hours extra-curricula Use of external coaches Because PE/school sport improves: attendance; concentration; fitness and health Part Subject Support 2012 Sports colleges Part of specialist schools programme400

Eventually Plan for Sport Deliver Governments pupils Provide local community facilities/expertise for and School Sport Partnerships Groups of local secondary schools Subject Support 2012 Inputs and outputs of specialist sports colleges Increased funding Additional

staffing Improved facilities Community club use Sports College s Community schools use Feeder primary schools Subject Support 2012 School sport co-ordinators with groups of primary schools Usually based at Sports College Tries to improve P.E. and school sport

Mainly extra-curricular Primary Link Teacher Work Works with PLTPartnership Development Manager PDM Subject Support 2012 School Sport Partnerships Partnership Development Manager Develop links between schools especially Key Stage 2atand 3 Develop

opportunities for extracurricular sport community Increase participation in alternative sport Provide opportunities in standards Raise roles of pupils Subject Support 2012 Best value Government policy to improve public sector provision includes leisure services fitnesscompanies gyms idea is to allow private to

bid to run public services such as Public sectortaxes forced to account more for the use of local Improves resources/funds efficiency of provision and is better use of Subject Support 2012 Best value Consider which bid gives best value for money Use private sector methods what do people want - deliver to those standards Demonstrate Review

successful delivery regularly Use of facilities private /sector methods to better more classes achieve e.g. Subject Support 2012

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