Multigrade Pedagogy and Assessment Angela W Little Delhi,

Multigrade Pedagogy and Assessment Angela W Little Delhi,

Multigrade Pedagogy and Assessment Angela W Little Delhi, Oct 24-26 2007 From access to success Maheswaris multigrade school What is multigrade teaching? The teaching of pupils from different curriculum grades within the same timetabled period. Multi-grade is also

referred to as: Multiple class Composite class Vertical group Mixed year class Family class Double class Combined class Unitary schools (one-teacher schools) Making the invisible visible India: In 2005-6 76% of all primary (grade 1-5) schools had 3 or less teachers

Peru multigraded In 1998 78% of all public primary schools were Burkina Faso In 2000 36% of primary schools and 20% of classes were multigraded. 18% of students were in multigraded classes England year. In 2000 25% of primary classes were mixed

192 million (of 647 million enrolled in primary) worldwide in de facto MG classes. A further 104 million children remain out of school Teaching and curriculum strategies AVOIDANCE Neglect Deferred entry of one grade combine with next years entry QUASI MONOGRADE One teacher, multiple spaces/chalkboards Multi-year curriculum spans. Learners enter the span at different points DIFFERENTIATION

Teacher centred: Differentiated curricula: input, task, outcome Learner centred: Differentiated materials Mobile multigrade school in Sudan Quasi-monograde: Darfur, Sudan Grade 1+2 morning, teacher moves between 2 classrooms, Grade 3+4 afternoon, same teacher moves between same 2 classrooms Quasi-monograde Vietnam: one teacher, five grades

Quasi-monograde Multi-year curriculum span for Grades 5 and 6 (except Maths), Grade 2 separate Rhodes, Greece Differentiation: Teacher-centred Common language lesson, differentiated tasks, differentiated outcomes Differentiation: Learner-centred guided by quality materials Escuela Nueva Self-organised learning 3-way relationship

between T, S and M Action research with teachers Curriculum restructuring Survey of teachers of multi-grade classes (38 schools in Sri Lanka, 23 in Vietnam) Desk study of the national curriculum by researchers and experts Sri Lanka, mathematics Vietnam, health education

Small group of intervention teachers (18 in Sri Lanka, 5 in Vietnam) Teachers develop the curriculum intervention with action researcher guided by desk study of current curriculum Intervention and Control groups, pre-and post test Curriculum blueprint for maths: Grade 3-5 Theme Topic G3

G4 G5 Number number concept X X X

number patterns X X X fractions X X

X decimals X X Roman numerals X X

Measurement/distance length and distance X X X weight X

X X volume and capacity X X X time

X X X X X area Achievement impact Learning gains on knowledge tests were greater in the

intervention groups than in the control groups Curriculum Development at National level Vietnam G 1-3 Natural and Social Sciences; G 4-5 Science G4-5 Nepal G 2-3 Environment, Health, Sanitation and Social Studies G 4-5 (i) Social Studies (ii) Science, Environment and Health Education Sri Lanka G 3-4 Maths

Assessment for Learning Examples: Escuela Nueva (Colombia), Rishi Valley (India), Vietnam Assessment at end of short units/lessons to assess mastery prior to progression Learners are guided to the assessments by text not by the teacher Learners take the initiative to present themselves to the teacher for assessment Learner repeats the unit with remedial support Assessment for: Selection of individuals:

summative System performance: summative Learning: formative This type of assessment assists the teacher and the learner in the diagnosis of learning difficulties Multigrade lessons for all

Awareness of extent and of current teaching and learning strategies Curriculum re-organisation, supported by formative assessment and quality learning materials in quantity Teacher training Education for All and Multigrade Teaching : Springer, 2006 (ed. A W Little ) multigrade

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