Climate Change Track 4: Agriculture & Forestry Summary of Projected Climate Changes Pacific Region Warmer Wet season gets wetter & dry season gets drier Heavy rainfall gets more intense More sea level rise Fewer tropical cyclones, but more intense Cloud cover reduction For Pacific region: no more than 1.5o warming
Key Priority Area 1 CC impacts on Forests Changes in the flowering and fruiting patterns of certain forestry crops Disruption/permanent loss of fundamental ecosystem goods and services (e.g. freshwater retention and provision, natural hazard regulation, biodiversity) Increased incursions of invasive species and pests & diseases - in some high elevation island areas, warming has already led invasive species to overtake native species Coastal forests (including mangroves) under threat from sealevel rise, cyclones and storm surges Loss of cloud forests due to increasing temperatures in high altitudes Forests & climate change Deforestation and forest degradation contributes to GHG emissions the Agriculture and Forestry Sector
contributes about 24% of global GHG emissions In the Pacific deforestation (conversion of forests into other land use types) is largely caused by agriculture expansion Forest degradation (reduced services provided by the forest) from unsustainable logging and local utilisation REDD+ is a mechanism aimed at addressing the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation + promoting the conservation of forest carbon pools, sustainable management of forests and enhancing
forest carbon stocks Fiji (Ambassador Amena Yauvoli) as Chair of G77 in Warsaw COP19 facilitated the adoption of the Warsaw Framework on REDD+ Activities in the Pacific Existence of the Pacific Regional Policy Framework for REDD+ (endorsed by Forestry Ministers) REDD+ readiness currently carried out in Fiji (FCPF, GIZ, UNREDD), PNG (FCPF, UNREDD, JICA, AUSAID, GIZ) Vanuatu (FCPF, GIZ, UNREDD), Solomon Islands (UNREDD, GIZ) Most Pacific forestry issues enter UNFCCC negotiations through the Coalition for Rainforest Nations - CfRN
(members: Fiji, PNG, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands) Some issues to be considered Recognise that REDD+ will also ensure sustainable utilization of forest resources Performance-based payments must be permanently attractive for stakeholders Co-benefits from REDD+ are as important (if not more) as GHG emission reductions/removal Recognise that customary landownership in the Pacific is different from other REDD+ regions Ethnic people are not the minority in the Pacific (like in South America) Structures and framework protecting the interests of indigenous Pacific Islanders are largely in place Issues continued Establishing trust between all stakeholders is key for
implementation of any program! Forests are more than carbon! Recognise the dual role of forests in climate change adaptation and mitigation Our forest ecosystems will degrade with a 2C increase! Strengthen role of regional organisations (e.g. PIDF, SPC, MSG) in coordinating negotiation positions and facilitating information and technology sharing, and capacity building of Pacific Island Countries Key issues for COP21, Paris Inclusion of REDD+ in draft agreement text (to be proposed in ADP by CfRN) Strengthen emission removal component in current accounting (reforestation and afforestation, agroforestry activities carbon stock enhancement) Ensure predictable and long-term funding through fund-based mechanisms and easier accessibility Ensure the provision of sustainable capacity building and technology
transfer (ensure local/regional expertise is developed and country experts provided international exposure) Regional approach to allow small island countries (not REDD+ implementers) to receive non-carbon benefits from REDD+ (e.g. capacity building and technology transfer for vegetation monitoring) promoted in Pacific Regional REDD+ Policy Framework Key Priority Area 2 - Climate Change Impact on Food Security* Net food production is facing an overall decline across most of the Pacific region due to: -Unsustainable land use & land tenure -Urban migration & Diet change -Loss of crop biodiversity Climate change risks and threats
exacerbate challenges already faced by the sector *Food security refers to access by all people at all times to sufficient, safe and nutritious food for a healthy and active life. Key Issues Short Term Direct loss and damage resulting from frequent and more intense extreme weather events (Cyclone, Flood, Drought,)
Fiji & Samoa - TC Evan 2012 (US$97m & US$26m), Tonga, - TC Ian 2014 (US$18 m), Vanuatu TC Pam 2015 (US$56 m) Solomon Islands - Flood 2014 (US$18m) Fiji - Drought 1998 (US$70 m) PNG Frost/Drought 2015 (60,000 people affected)
Long Term Low production resulting from slow onset events (high temperature, changing rainfall patterns, inundation, salt water intrusion, coastal erosion) PNG - Tuber formation in sweet potato was significantly reduced at temperatures above 34 C Vanuatu - Some plants flowering earlier than usual while others are fruiting much later than normal Kiribati Pandanus trees are lost through coastal erosion due to sea level rise Tuvalu - Taro pits on some islands and atolls have been contaminated by salt water intrusion Key Messages - Sector resilience must be built to cope with and adapt to climate change impacts
Strengthening the sector by enhancing or reinvesting in core strengths to develop resilience and adaptive capacity in particular research and development, extension services New and innovative strategies such as crop and farmer insurance schemes, and developing private sector opportunities and partnerships with local farmers in agribusiness, agritourism Key Priority Area 3: Agribusiness Key Priorities 1. Boost agriculture productivity and agro-exports from the region 2. Develop agribusiness for supporting economic growth and sustainable livelihoods
3. Promote resilient socio-economic development based on agriculture 4. Deal with climate change effects on incomes, welfare food security Key Issues 1. Low production and productivity Heterogeneous small scale producers (Tonga, Vanuatu, Samoa, Cook Islands) with limited scale and capacity to complete. PICs supply is low & intermittent even in existing markets 2. Lack of agro-processing & manufacturing high-value products Less explored in PICs (embryonic with limited range in Fiji, PNG, Samoa) 3. Inefficient linkage to major markets 30-35 days by sea freight to the North ($3000/container) air freight is expensive. Connectivity, cost and frequency - cost escalates with small quantity 4. Limited capacity to deal with bio-security and technical barriers to trade
Certification and technology for bio-security, post-harvest handling & market information Key Messages 1. Financing entrepreneurship and trade Collateral to secure funding, investment in farm equipment and infrastructure 2. Technology - knowhow and transfer Source right technology, need cost-subsidy and skills to work with modern technology 3. Research & Development Innovative/improved varieties to deal with climate impacts, pests and diseases Develop high yielding crop varieties Sustain high productivity overtime
4. Research institutes, MOA extension services and development partners must collaborate Funding and development assistance Research and information dissemination Specialized impactful training Develop/harness internal-external linkages
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