CULTURALCOMPETENC E Culturally Responsive Making a Difference: Culturally
CULTURALCOMPETENC E Culturally Responsive Making a Difference: Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT) May 14, 2012 DIVERSIT Y Environments TOPIC PRESENTER Dr. Patrick C. Coggins, PhD., LLD (Hon.) Sponsored by Stetson University Diversity 1 CULTURALCOMPETENCE Cultural Competence Philosophy DIVERSIT
Y Cultural Competence is a Philosophy and a way of life that enables us to appreciate, respect and help people to achieve their highest level of Humanness. (Patrick Coggins, 2000, CDC accepted definition) 2 CULTURALCOMPETENCE Why CRT ? DIVERSIT Y Two Human Rights issues that Eleanor Roosevelt was involved in? 1. Tuskegee Airmen Experience in 1944 2. The 1948 ,Universal Declaration of Human
Rights(30 Rights) 3 CULTURALCOMPETENCE Whereas, recognition of the inherent dignity and of the equal and unalienable rights of all members of the human family is the foundation of freedom, justice and peace in the world. (U.N., 1948) DIVERSIT Y Preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights 4
CULTURALCOMPETENCE Article 1 DIVERSIT Y All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. 5 CULTURALCOMPETENCE Article 15 DIVERSIT Y
Everyone has the right to a nationality. No one shall be arbitrarily deprived of his nationality nor denied the right to change its nationality. 6 CULTURALCOMPETENCE Article 26 DIVERSIT Y Everyone has the right to education. Education shall be directed to the full development of human personality and to strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. It shall promote understanding, tolerance and friendship among all nations, peoples, racial or religious
groups 7 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Presentation Purpose DIVERSIT Y This presentation will provide participants with experiential and practical applications that enable educators to bridge existing gaps in cross cultural interaction with ethnically and racially diverse student groups in Stetson University. Questions to be Answered What is Culturally Responsive Teaching? Why is Cultural Competence necessary in the delivery of educational services? What Cross Cultural values should drive educational and learning practices? Which cultural competence issues and
strategies are research based? What are the benefits to be derived from the use of a Cultural Assessment regimen by educational professionals? 8 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Methodology DIVERSIT Y This session will be conducted through the use of active didactic information and diverse interactive processes. There will be a major emphasis on the practical
application of the content to the facultys realities in higher education settings. 9 CULTURALCOMPETENC E PAST PRESENT FUTURE MONOCULTURAL BICULTURAL MULTICULTURAL Focusing on one dominant culture Primarily
White or Black or Native American. Tend to Focus on two dominant cultures e.g. Black and White or White and Hispanic DIVERSIT Y Cultural Competence Paradigm Shift (Changing our Cultural Perspectives) Focusing on all cultures in our schools, colleges,
communities, and agencies. BUILDING PEACE, HARMONY, APPRECIATION, RESPECT, UNDERSTANDING FOR CULTURAL/ETHNIC DIVERSITY 10 10 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Cultural Paradigm Shift DIVERSIT Y 1948 - U.N. Declaration of Human Rights 1960s Civil Rights. Cultural Sensitivity (T Groups) 1970s Womens Rights 1972: (Amendment EEOC)
1980 Human Rights (Carter) 1990 Global Rights, Multicultural Education, Cultural Diversity 2000 Cultural Competence & CRT Focus Beyond Sensitivity Beyond Awareness Beyond Understanding Today! It is doing, thinking and feeling culturally connected, habitually, and most of all, feeling culturally empowered that matters. 11 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Acquiring Cultural Competence +(CRT) Starts with the recognition/awareness of ones own Biases/Prejudices.(Gary Howard,2006)
Decision to become less Ethnocentric but rather more Bicultural acceptance of at least one outside culture.(De Anda,1984) Grows with knowledge and acceptance of three or more culture (Becoming Multicultural).(Gay,2000) Enhanced with sustained cross cultural contact(s) of OPENNESS (Cultural Competence and Proficiency). (Randy Lindsey, et al,2006) Actualized through the acquisition of cross cultural skills based on substantive cross cultural encounters that leads to DIVERSIT Y
The Journey 12 CULTURALCOMPETENC ETHE CULTURAL COMPETENCE CONTINUUM * Cultural Empowerment Cultural Proficiency Cultural Competence Cultural PreCompetence Cultural Blindness Negative Cultural Incapacity DIVERSIT Y
Positive *Cultural Empowerment added by Coggins (2006) Cultural Destructiveness (Cross 2002 13 CULTURALCOMPETENC Why E CULTURALLY RESPONSIVE TEACHING Is Needed DIVERSIT Y Cognition is Shaped by Cultural Ideas/Information. When an individual fails to teach or learn their history and culture sooner or later their history and culture will be forgotten
and the individual or group will be rendered nameless and faceless. (Carter G. Woodson, 1926) Key: Relevant culture specific and reinforcing information is crucial in cross cultural communication. We should also put a face on the cultures in our learning environments. Closing the Cultural GAP will require Educators who: Think systematically about their practice and learn from experiences and, exemplify the virtues they seek to inspire in students: curiosity, tolerance, honesty, fairness, respect for diversity, and appreciation of cultural differences and, examine their practice, seek to expand their repertoire of skills, deepen their knowledge and adapt their teaching to new research and theories. (NEA, 2004) 14 CULTURALCOMPETENC Exercise 1: Development of Culturally E Responsive Educators
DIVERSIT Y National Education Association Standards (2004) said that effective educators and schools demonstrate: Awareness of the influence of context and culture on behavior Exemplify the virtues of appreciation and respect for the individuals cultural, religious, and racial differences and appreciation of the groupcultural differences (NEA, 2004). Exercise: Discussion on the difference between tolerance vs. appreciation? We need to move to a level of appreciation! What is that difference? Please write your response below. _____________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 15 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Exercise 2: Culture
DIVERSIT Y Culture represents the histories, attitudes, behaviors, languages, values, beliefs and uniqueness, which distinguish each racial or subcultural group in a society. Each of us has a historical heritage and a contemporary heritage that comprise our present culture. Exercise: Please define in your own words the term of culture and identify 2 values that are expressed in your definition. _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________ _______________________________________________16 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Understanding Diverse Cultures Material = Surface Culture
DIVERSIT Y TWO TYPES OF CULTURE Material Culture = Surface Culture Immaterial Culture = Deep Culture This specifically represents the external and observable processes, which we see as part of the composite of ones culture. Some examples of this material culture are: Artifacts Color Language Food Dress Songs Behaviors Others: (explore) 17
CULTURALCOMPETENC EUnderstanding Diverse Cultures DIVERSIT Y Immaterial = Deep Culture -The areas we do not see This specifically represents the internal or intrinsic processes, which we cannot see. The oral culture requires cultural translators. Some examples of this immaterial culture are: Myths Folklore Stories Feelings Values Oral Culture Spiritualism Messages Behind the Values Others: (explore)
18 CULTURALCOMPETENC E What is Cultural Competence? DIVERSIT Y Cultural Competence refers to the ability of an individual to interact effectively with people of various cultures. In order to do this, a teacher must have an awareness of their own culture, an attitude towards cultural differences, knowledge of different cultural practices/views, as well as cross cultural skills.
In effect, a Culturally Competent person must have the ability to see beyond the tip of the iceberg and understand other cultures in a much 19 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Culture DIVERSIT Y Central to learning. Beliefs, customs, practices, and social behavior of a particular nation or people. Shapes the thinking process in groups and individuals as well as an
vital part in communication and receiving information. 20 CULTURALCOMPETENC E THE NEW FLORIDA LAWS DIVERSIT Y 21 CULTURALCOMPETENC EUnderstanding the Florida Educational Goals and Laws in MCE F.S 1003.42(2002)
DIVERSIT Y The Declaration of Independence Republican Form of Government FL Statute U.S. Constitution 1003.42, (2002) Flag Education, Display and Flag Salute Civil Government History of Holocaust (1933-1945) History of African Americans Study of Hispanic Contributions to the United States
Study of Womens Contributions Character Development Education for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) FS 1011.62 Accomplished Practices Diversity: Uses teaching and learning strategies that reflect each students culture, learning styles, special needs and socio-economic background. 22 CULTURALCOMPETENC E What is Cultural Competence? DIVERSIT Y Research-based Definitions in Cultural Competence 23
CULTURALCOMPETENC E Definition of Cultural Competence DIVERSIT Y Most definitions of cultural competence use terms to describe an increased cultural awareness, knowledge, and change in attitude. Other authors take the definition of cultural competence further, describing it as a process, rather than an endpoint. For example: Weneger (1999) discusses the need for a lifelong commitment to a journey of increasing cultural understanding. Meleis (1999) stresses the need to actively seek cultural experiences
that expand ones own cultural worldview. Additionally, Campinha-Bacote (2000) includes the educators ability to effectively work within the cultural context of a student as the practical outcome of cultural competence. Effectively working within the students cultural context requires a developmental process for the professional. 24 CULTURALCOMPETENC Definition of Cultural E Competence DIVERSIT Y The ability to relate and communicate effectively when individuals
involved in the interaction do not share the same culture, ethnicity, language, or other salient variables Based on Hains, Lynch, and Wintons (1997). Basic cultural competence occurs when organizations and practitioners respect differences, engage in ongoing cultural selfassessment, expand their cultural knowledge and skills, and adapt services to fit the communitys culture, situation, and perceived needs (Harvey and Rauch, 1997). 25 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Research on Cultural Competence DIVERSIT Y Coggins (2000) The habit of exhibiting the appropriate behaviors with respect to the diverse cultural ethnic and racial student population. Habit is used to indicate the automatic responsive actions of the educator based on personal knowledge and the individuals cues and preferences. Thus, cultural competence is a process
where the practitioner automatically exhibits cultural diversity awareness, culturally Competent Behaviors, and Cultural Sensitivity, all of which are integrated into the Cultural Assessment of the student.(American Journal of Health Studies:21(4)2006 .p9.; CDC (2006). Key words are: Habit Exhibiting Automatic Cultural Diversity Awareness Culturally Competent Behaviors Cultural Sensitivity Cultural Assessment 26 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Research in Support DIVERSIT Y Thus, Ruby Payne, Irvine (1990), Erickson (1987),
Au and Kawakami (1991), Asante (1998) and Banks,2007,2010 all argued that their research and experiences conclude that only when teachers understand the cultural and historical background of students can they comprehend and react positively to minority students while enhancing their academic achievement. 27 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Cultural Competence DIVERSIT Y Beyond Sensitivity and Awareness 28 CULTURALCOMPETENC
E DIVERSIT Y Culturally Responsive Teaching CULTURALCOMPETENC EThe Culturally Responsive School DIVERSIT Y Teachers and school leaders must develop a shared vision of the culturally and linguistically responsive school and teacher. Approaching a student's education in these culturally and linguistically responsive ways rather than emphasizing deficitshas the potential to truly engage all students in learning, both in
college and beyond. Villegas, Ana M. and Lucas, Tamara (Mar. 2007). Responding to Changing Demographics: The Culturally Responsive Teacher. Educational Leadership, Vol. 64, Number 6. (pgs. 28-33.) http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational_leadership/mar07/vol64/num06/The_Culturally_Responsive_Teacher.aspx 30 CULTURALCOMPETENC Culture and Its Impact on Academic E Achievement DIVERSIT Y Culture is the glue that enables an individual to make sense of the world. It is the frame of reference for our intentions, behaviors and impact and influence on others. 31
CULTURALCOMPETENC E Integrating cultural content that enhances achievement for all Students are more likely to master essential reading writing and computational skills when the teacher uses content that deals with significant diverse, human history and cultural events, especially the history and contemporary contributions of their DIVERSIT Y
Culturally Responsive Teaching Means 32 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Five strategies for sustaining a culturally competent school DIVERSIT Y Exercise 5: Five Foundations to CRT Phase 1: Building Trust Proposition: 90% of US College and Public School teachers are white, middle class, English speaking, Received degree in predominantly white college (Gay, Dingus and Jackson, 2003)
No experiential and educational background prepare teacher for their students diversity (Ladson-Billings, 2002; Vaurus, 2002) Your strategy: As an educator to build trust is: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ __ 33 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Phase II: Engaging Personal Culture Proposition: Educators need to build their cultural competence i.e. Their ability to form and model effective cross cultural relationships across racial/ethnic differences (Howard, 2006, Coggins, 2005).Help students to develop: 1. Feeling of belonging
2. Trust in people around them, 3. Belief that teachers value their intellectual competence impacts in student motivation and performance (Aronson and Slede, 2005) Your Strategy: As an educator to engage personal culture that positively impacts on student motivation and performance, I will do the following ______________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________ DIVERSIT Y Exercise 6: Engaging Personal Culture 34 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Ex 6: Social
DIVERSIT Y Dominance/White Privilege Phase III: Confronting Social Dominance/Social Justice (White Privilege) Proposition: Systems of white privilege and preference create enclaves of exclusivity in colleges/schools. Some demographics are served well. Other languish in limitations, mediocrity and failure (Howard, 2006, Banks, 2003, Gay, 2004, Hirsh, 2005, Peggy McIntosh, 1988). Could your college/school show clear and convincing evidence of equitable participation of ethnic minorities in all aspects of University life, etc. Your strategy: As an educator, I would implement the following strategy: __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________
35 CULTURALCOMPETENC E DIVERSIT Y Exercise 6: Transforming Instruction Phase IV: Transforming Instructional Practices Proposition: It is essential that schools shift the instructional strategies to meet the increasing numbers and diverse learning needs of students by instituting CRT (Culturally Responsive Teaching). CRT in no way avoids having high expectations for all students (Gay, 2000, Ladson-Billings, 1996, McKinley, 2005, Shade, Kelly and Oberg, 1997, Howard, 2006,
Coggins, 2005) 36 CULTURALCOMPETENC Exercise 6: Transforming E Instruction DIVERSIT Y Transforming Instructional Practices Your strategy: As an Educator, I would transform my instructional practices, in the following ways: __________________________________________ __________________________________________ 37
CULTURALCOMPETENC E Exercise 6: The Entire Phase V: Engaging the entire School Community Proposition: Changing demographics have profound implications for all levels and functions of College life. To create a welcoming and equitable environment for diverse students and their families, school leaders must engage the entire college/school community Your strategy: (Howard, 2006, Banks, 2003, As an educator, Coggins, 2002).how would you engage the Entire
DIVERSIT Y College/School College/School Community? _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ 38 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Cultural Responsive Teaching! What is it? Children whose language and culture align closely to that of the school are advantaged in the learning process. Those that feel
devalued or unrecognized become alienated and disengaged from the learning process.(Gay 2000) Culturally Responsive Teaching does not focus on stereotypes of the culture, such as food and art. It is based on ways of communicating and learning that are familiar to the student, along with themes that are empowering to them. (Banks, 2007) Culturally Responsive Teaching requires that teachers interpret their students' behaviors within the DIVERSIT Y 39 CULTURALCOMPETENC E What is Culturally Responsive
Teaching? DIVERSIT Y Gay (2000) defines culturally responsive teaching as using the cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and performance styles of diverse students to make learning more appropriate and effective for them; it teaches to and through the strengths of the students. 40 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Culturally Responsive Teaching (CRT) DIVERSIT Y Seeks to maximize learning opportunities, teachers gain
knowledge of the cultures represented in their classrooms and translate this knowledge into instructional practices. 41 CULTURALCOMPETENC Six E (6) Culturally Responsive Teaching are DIVERSIT Y 42 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Six Essential Characteristics DIVERSIT Y Culturally Responsive Teaching is: Validating
2. Comprehensive 3. Multidimensional 4. Empowering 5. Transformative 6. Emancipatory 1. 43 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Culturally Responsive Teaching DIVERSIT Y A pedagogy that provides equal access to education for all students of diverse cultures which recognizes, responds to and celebrates these cultures. Students cultures are recognized as
important and referenced in all facets of learning experiences. 44 CULTURALCOMPETENC E What is Culturally Responsive Teaching? DIVERSIT Y 45 CULTURALCOMPETENC ECulturally Responsive Teaching is Validating DIVERSIT
Y Gay (2000) defines culturally responsive teaching as using the cultural knowledge, prior experiences, and performance styles of diverse students to make learning more appropriate and effective for them; it teaches to and through the strengths of these students. . When we teach with the intention of Florida Law, Statute 1003.42, we validate all of our students by teaching them about a wide variety of cultures. Validation comes by embracing what students have to share about their cultures. Information from the In-Time website
at www.intime.uni.edu 46 CULTURALCOMPETENC ECulturally Responsive Teaching is Validating DIVERSIT Y It acknowledges the legitimacy of the cultural heritages of different ethnic groups, both as legacies that affect students' dispositions, attitudes, and approaches to learning and as worthy content to be taught in the formal curriculum. It teaches students to know and praise their own and each others' cultural heritages. It incorporates multicultural information, resources, and materials in all the
47 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Culturally responsive teaching is Comprehensive DIVERSIT Y Ladson-Billings (1992) explains that culturally responsive teachers develop intellectual, social, emotional, and political learning by "using cultural referents to impart knowledge, skills, and attitudes" (p. 382). Hollins (2006) - education designed for racially diverse students incorporates "culturally mediated cognition, culturally appropriate social situations for learning, and culturally valued knowledge in 48
curriculum content" (p. 13). I CULTURALCOMPETENC E Culturally Responsive Teaching is Multidimensional DIVERSIT Y Multidimensional culturally responsive teaching involves many things: curriculum content, learning context, classroom climate, student-teacher relationships, instructional techniques, and performance assessments.
Teachers from various disciplines (language arts, science, social studies, music) may collaborate in teaching a single cultural concept, such as protest. 49 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Learning Within the Context of Culture Yet Multidimensional DIVERSIT Y 50 CULTURALCOMPETENC ECulturally Responsive Teaching is Empowering DIVERSIT Y
Culturally Responsive Teaching empowers students to be better human beings and more culturally proficient Students must believe they can succeed in the diverse classroom and have motivation to persevere. 51 CULTURALCOMPETENC Culturally Responsive Teaching is E Empowering DIVERSIT Y Empowerment can be described as
academic competence and self-efficacy Teachers must demonstrate appropriate expectations and exhibit support for the students culture. This can be done through providing resources and personal assistance, modeling positive self-efficacy beliefs, and celebrating individual and collective Cultures (Gay, 2000). Information from the In-Time website at www.intime.uni.edu 52 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Culturally Responsive Teaching is Transformative DIVERSIT Y Banks (1991,2007) asserts that if education is to empower marginalized groups, it must be transformative. This
involves helping "students to become culturally responsive and be able to make reflective decisions and implement their decisions in effective personal, social, political, and economic action" (p. 131). Culturally responsive teaching does not only incorporate traditional educational Information from the In-Time website at www.intime.uni.edu 53 practices with respect to diverse CULTURALCOMPETENC Culturally Emancipatory E Instruction DIVERSIT Y
54 CULTURALCOMPETENC ECulturally Responsive Teaching: in Summary DIVERSIT Y Instruction is culturally responsive when it incorporates and integrates diverse cultural ways of knowing, understanding and representing information. (Mayan ,2012) An environment that encourages multicultural viewpoints and allows for inclusion of knowledge that is relevant. Learning happens in culturally dynamic
situations. 55 CULTURALCOMPETENC E CRT Reflection DIVERSIT Y Excluding the consideration of students cultures is liken to teaching reading with no prior knowledge. As teachers we are always looking for the meaningful activities that connect the known with the unknown. Incorporating individual aspects of cultures naturally produce the connections, but, taking it a step further nurtures the respect and appreciation for all cultures.
56 CULTURALCOMPETENC Building an Authentic Value System To Support E your Cultural Competence DIVERSIT Y Thinkin g Feeling Acting Policies, Procedures and Programs To culturally competent is to be authentic
Understanding the Five Values Driving a Culturally Competent Institution Understanding the Personal Responsibility Principle. Thank You! Feedback! 57 CULTURALCOMPETENC E THESE VALUES/PERCEPTIONS ARE: DIVERSIT Y
Justice Fairness Equality Treating everyone similarly Caring Deep sensitivity to person and group Closeness Familiarity rather than isolation Dialogue Give and receive-sharing the healing field The challenge is to integrate these behaviors into our practices and delivery of teaching and educational services. 58 CULTURALCOMPETENC Cultural Responsive Teaching: E A Final Perspective DIVERSIT Y THE ATMOSPHERE YOU CREATE DETERMINES
THE POSITIVE CROSS-CULTURAL RESULTS YOU PRODUCE. Imagination is more important than knowledge. (Albert Einstein) The future never first happened, it was created. SSC must create a culturally sensitive, linguistic, and culturally competent classroom/ school environment. (Coggins) So it is all about students, faculty and administrators celebrating cultures in an 59 CULTURALCOMPETENC Managing Culturally Responsive E Teaching: DIVERSIT Y
A Final Perspective Let us create a partnership between you and your student/. (Coggins) To promote cooperation and teamwork, Remember: People tend to resist that which is forced on them. People tend to support that which they help to create. (Vince Pfaff) Therefore, let us create a College environment where people can see that there is a willingness to imagine new culturally competent ways. 60 CULTURALCOMPETENC E UN Human Rights Epilogue
DIVERSIT Y The time is now for all men and women to work shoulder to shoulder for peace, freedom, racial, religious and reduction of racial hatred. The prize is a world of peace and sanity where the pursuit of happiness is possible. 61 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Personal Responsibility Principle DIVERSIT Y
The price of greatness is taking responsibility for what you say and do. (Winston Churchill,1930) I cannot be responsible for someone I cannot change and that is you. I must be responsible for myself and the things I say or do in the conduct of myself. Only you have the power to change the things you do and yourself. If you will accept personal responsibility for your own behavior, and I accept personal responsibility for my behavior, then, together we will influence others around us to accept the same responsibility for the things they say or do and their behavior. (Coggins, 2004) 62 62 CULTURALCOMPETENC E Thank you! DIVERSIT
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