Mapping for Political Strategy Stephen Page, Associate Professor

Mapping for Political Strategy Stephen Page, Associate Professor

Mapping for Political Strategy Stephen Page, Associate Professor University of Washington Evans School of Public Policy & Governance [email protected] To accomplish great things, we must not only act but also dream; not only plan but also believe. - Anatole France You have to maintain a diagnostic mindset on a changing reality To see what is happening to you and your initiative as it is happening. takes discipline and flexibility. Heifetz and Linsky, Leadership on the Line - Learning Objectives 1. Analyze the politics of a situation 2. Identify strategic purpose 3. Map and utilize channels of political influence and communication 4. Build support and reduce opposition to pursue your agenda Maps of Your Environment A first step toward seeing the forest, not just trees. Ways to identify relationships, channels of communication and influence. Show: Important actors and pressures

Working relationships or conflicts Flows of information Patterns of power and influence; opportunities to wield them Opportunities to shape others perceptions, positions, behaviors, and understandings Directly Indirectly through others Assessing the Situation Key features: Issues in play: Directly related Indirectly related Time horizon: short, medium, long? Participants: Political elites, citizens / grassroots groups, or both? Institutional rules E.g., ballot initiative requirements, voting procedures, etc. Strategic aims or purpose? Relationships among the features? Implications for strategy? Constructing Maps: Who or What Matters Depends on Situation & Purpose Who matters? Can they help or hurt your work? Are they helped or hurt by specific actions? Can they deploy influence? Sources of Influence: reputation, allies, resources, etc.

Informal networks Ease of access and deployment Is influence sustainable? Media access and influence Constraints Upon Them Interests / bottom line Pressures/Influences Upon Them Position on Issue(s)For/Against/Neutral Depth of commitment to issue(s) Long Term Relationships Circle of Influence Leadership Style(s) Style of Learning Their Allies and Enemies @ J. Patrick Dobel 4/24/14 Mapping Managerial Environments 6 Environmental Environmental Forces Forces Map Map This This frame frame filters filters out out many many institutions institutions and and actors. actors. ItIt focuses focuses upon upon the the pressures pressures experienced experienced

as as forces forces pushing pushing actors actors to to engage engage them them or or change change because because of of them. them. They They often often identify identify what what isis beyond beyond the the control control of of actors actors or or points points to to over over the the horizon horizon pressures pressures such such as as new new technologies or economic and demographic changes or even electoral

changes. technologies or economic and demographic changes or even electoral changes. They They can can be be refined refined into into how how they they impact impact institutions institutions and and how how they they refract refract down down on on direct direct pressures pressures on on individuals individuals such such as as budget budget changes changes or or new new authorizers authorizers given given elections elections or or changes changes in in nonprofit nonprofit boards. boards. The The vector vector approach approach can can easily

easily be be customized customized by by including including dimensions dimensions such such as as relative relative strength by increasing the thickness or size. In a similar way the relative intensity could be strength by increasing the thickness or size. In a similar way the relative intensity could be portrayed portrayed by by how how far far away away the the force force force force is. is. AUTHORIZERS AGENDA MEDIA

Economy Competitors ORGANIZATION Technology O SS Social Forces Refracted Pressures Outcome Demands Budget Limits Individual Position @ J. Patrick Dobel 4/24/14 Mapping Managerial Environments 7 STAR STAR MAPS MAPS These These maps maps work work well well as as first first steps steps or or rough rough drafts. drafts. They

They can can focus focus brain brain storming storming to to get get every every possible possible actor actor and and force force into into ones ones range range of of action. action. These These maps maps can can embody embody aa kitchen kitchen sink sink approach approach that that permit permit individuals individuals to to get get all all the the actors, actors, groups, forces and unpredictable aspects into a quick

and comprehensive groups, forces and unpredictable aspects into a quick and comprehensive picture picture of of who who and and what what needs needs to to be be accounted accounted for. for. They They can can become become the the basis basis for for more more specific specific mappings mappings of of different different dimensions dimensions or or relations relations later. later. The The vectors vectors can can be be modified modified by by thickness thickness or or distance distance to to provide provide aa preliminary

preliminary sense sense of of each each forces forces or or actors actors range range of of power power or or relative relative power power and and importance importance to to ones ones purpose. purpose. Authorizer 1 Media Authorizer 2 Economy Organization Commitment Position Aims Social Forces SELF Impacted Stakeholders Priority Issues @ J. Patrick Dobel

4/24/14 Mapping Managerial Environments Unorganized & Affected Actors 8 Power & Position Grid POWER HIGH FOR + AGAINST - POWER LOW @ J. Patrick Dobel 4/24/14 Mapping Managerial Environments 9 Organizational Authorizing Environment Senior Authorizers Elected/Appointed BUDGET OFFICE MEDIA Legislature CABINET OFFICES Courts Relevant Committees

Boards Subcommittees AGENCY Legal Mandates Budgets Partners Interest Groups Director Equivalent Dobel SWOT Analysis Strength: an internal resource or capacity to achieve objectives Weakness: an internal limitation, fault or defect that prevents achieving objectives Opportunity: an external favorable condition, trend, change, need that increases demand for organization Threat: an external unfavorable situation, barrier, constraint that thwarts effectiveness INTERNAL ANALYSIS WEAKNESSES STRENGTHS SWOT ANALYSIS This classic managerial analysis emphasizes assessing internal and

external dimensions that impact decisions and purpose. It grows from a normative and active cast highlighting the links between internal and external domains for strategic purpose. It also pushes individuals to assess realities as strengths/weaknesses and threats but also opportunities. Each reality presents an opportunity to address issues and anticipate issues and initiate action in light of the purpose or mission. EXTERNAL ANALYSIS THREATS OPPORTUNITIES Dobel Team Exercise 1. Mapping assessments: Sketch your map(s) Add lines of communication or influence Fill in the cells of the SWOT analysis. 2. Deliverables: Recommend a measure to put before voters, and when to go to the ballot [TPL Program Recs & Ballot Language] Provide a rationale for your decision Outline a campaign plan that identifies

key constituencies and key goals that a successful campaign should meet [TPL Campaign & Key Ingredients]. Three Streams in the Policy Process Problems Accepted narratives of problems & causes Policy Ideas Electio n uses, heroes/vill Propose solutions, ca Politics s, budg ets, te stimon y , m ed i a co v e ra g e Dobel Three Streams and Strategic Windows of Opportunity ic eg at o w tr d S in W s ose p

Pro as e Id y ic l o P Problem Accept s ed nar ra olu e El tives o f proble ms se au c , ns tio s roe e s, h Focal Ev ents Clarit y

& causes ct ns io ,b s me ic ny, lit timo Po, tes ts ge ud a di co ge ra ve Dobel Effective Mapping Know your map and how it may change: Who influences it? Who is affected by the issue(s)? Who is in their map(s)? Who can help or hurt? Why and How? Who else should have a say? (Whos left out?) Recognize limits & opportunities on the map: You rarely have full control Some forces you cant even influence Look for linkages, conflicts, coalition opportunities Link operational capacity to political support

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