Adapting the Biggs 3P model (1993) for Learning in Pharmacy Practice
Boys,R; Kendrew,P; Miller, E.
To investigate, critically analyse and evaluate Biggs (1993) 3P model of learning
in the continuous professional development of pharmacists in the UK.
Biggs 3P (presage, process and product) model describes a learning system
where various factors determine the process and outcome of teaching and
learning in higher education. Biggs theory has been applied across a variety of
disciplines, however a literature search brought up no reports of application
The Adapted Model:
An adapted model has been proposed to support learning and development of
pharmacists. A criticism of the original model is that learning was not viewed as
a continuous, reflective process. As the Royal Pharmaceutical Society sees
reflection as an integral part of the pharmacists learning and development we
have adapted the 3P model to take this into account. An important template for
the development of this model is the CPD cycle3.
An adapted model is proposed for pharmacy addressing the preparation and
process of learning to produce an advanced pharmacy practitioner as detailed
in the Advanced and Consultant Level Framework2.
Application of Biggs 3P model to Pharmacy Practice
Biggs 3P model of teaching and learning (1993)
The adapted model supports pharmacist professional development through:
Learning Focussed Activity
Inappropriate - SURFACE
A framework for continuous improvement, role specialisation
Competence at an advanced level / revalidation
Using familiar concepts and language
Validity of work based learning
A reflective process
Learning is brought into the work
environment and is not solely based on
activities at the higher educational level.
Incorporation of a reflective process allows
the pharmacist to connect with previous
experiences, emotions and feelings which have been
shown to influence learning but which are absent from Biggs model. Activities
and teaching styles can be chosen as demonstrated within the model according
to the learner, context and expected outcomes enabling the continuous
professional development of pharmacists towards competent, advanced
Advanced and Consultant
Advanced and Consultant Level Framework
360 degree Feedback
Key Performance Indicators
Prior knowledge and learning experiences
Motivation (Intrinsic / Extrinsic)
Competing deadlines, Size of group, Effective learning
Environment, Time , Financial factors
Support for teacher and student
Access to specialist pharmacy networks and resources
An adapted Biggs 3P model incorporating the Royal Pharmaceutical Society CPD cycle 3 and Advanced and Consultant Level Framework 2 provides a supportive
structure for lifelong learning in pharmacy practice.
1.Biggs, J.B. (1999) Teaching for Quality Learning at University, Buckingham: SRHE and Open University Press; 2.Advanced and Consultant Level Framework. Competency Development and Evaluation Group (http://www.codeg.org accessed 18.2.12); 3. Continuing Professional Development Cycle. Royal
Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain.
(http://www.uptodate.org.uk accessed 18.2.12)
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