Police Body-Worn Cameras (BWC): Practical, Policy, and Legal ...

Police Body-Worn Cameras (BWC): Practical, Policy, and Legal ...

Police Body-Worn Cameras (BWC): Practical, Policy, and Legal Implications Dr. Michael White Professor, Arizona State University Co-Director, Training and Technical Assistance, BJA BWC Policy and Implementation Program (PIP) Leadership Conference, National Association for Presiding Judges & Court Executive Officers

September 24-27, 2017, Scottsdale, AZ Presentation Overview The Backdrop: Why BWCs? Primary Claims by Advocates and Critics BWC Research: Four Key Findings The BJA National BWC Toolkit & Other Resources The Backdrop: Why BWCs?

The Federal Push for BWCs December 2014 President Obama speech -COP Plan -Presidents Task Force announced -$75 million pledged for 50,000 BWCs May 2015 US DOJ releases the National Body-Worn Camera Toolkit Presidents Task Force on 21st Century Policing Final Report

September 2015 73 agencies awarded funding through US DOJ BWC ($19.3 million) Program September 2016 106 agencies awarded funding through US DOJ BWC Program ($16.9 million) Primary Claims by Advocates and Critics

Potential Benefits Possible BWC Benefits are Enormous Increased Transparency Enhanced Legitimacy and Public Satisfaction Improved Police Officer Behavior Improved Citizen Behavior Reduced Citizen Complaints and Police Use of Force Expedited Resolution of Complaints and Lawsuits Improved Evidence for Arrest and Prosecution

Opportunities for Police Training (violence reduction) Concerns and Consequences Possible Costs/Consequences are Enormous Citizens Privacy Officers Privacy Officers Safety Impact on Citizen Attitudes (Satisfaction/ Legitimacy) Training and Policy Requirements Impact on Officer Productivity/Morale

State and Federal Law (Public Records, HIPAA) Logistical/Resource/Cost Requirements BWC Research: Four Key Findings Finding #1: High Levels of Police Officer Support General Perceptions: Body Cameras Are Well Received By Coworkers

Percent Agree 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30

20 10 0 Finding #2A: High Levels of Citizen Support (general population) Finding #2B: High Levels of Citizen Support (consumers of police services) Spokane

(249) Tempe (383) % Agree/ Strongly Agree % Agree/ Strongly Agree

Video cameras should be worn by all officers in Spokane/Tempe PD. 85.9% 92.2% Using video cameras will make officers act more professionally.

76.6% 79.3% Citizens will be more cooperative when they become aware that an officer is wearing a video camera. Police will be more respectful to citizens when wearing video cameras.

70.2% 76.2% 78.9% 79.6% The benefits of police using video cameras outweigh the costs.

77.0% 82.5% Finding #3: Consistent Reductions in Citizen Complaints and Use o Force (sometimes) Rialto (CA) Police Department Citizen complaints: 88% (24 to 3) Use of force: 60% (61 to 25)

Mesa (AZ) Police Department Citizen complaints: 60% Use of force: 75% Orlando (FL) Police Department Citizen complaints: 60% Use of force: 75% Phoenix (AZ) Police Department

Complaints -- BWC officers: declined by 23% Complaints -- Comparison officers: increased by 10.6% Finding #4: BWCs Have Evidentiary Value UK Studies Guilty pleas 70-80% Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department To date, 70% of BWC officers exonerated from complaints because of BWC evidence

Phoenix/Essex (UK) studies Enhanced Outcomes in Domestic Violence cases. BWC cases: Initiated by the prosecutors office Charges filed

Guilty plea Guilty verdict at trial BWC POLICY AND RESEARCH RESOURCES PERF/COPS and Assessing the Evidence Reports BJA National Body-Worn Camera Toolkit: https://www.bja.gov/bwc/

Toolkit Podcast Series Other Policy-Related Resources Model Policies: IACP, ACLU George Mason report (Lum et al. 2015)

National Institute of Justice (NIJ) Market Survey Thanks! Michael D. White, Ph.D. Professor, Arizona State University Co-Director, Training and Technical Assistance, BJA BWC PIP [email protected]

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