Poetry Analysis Mrs. Belof Poetry Analysis Using the TPCASTT Method What is TP CASTT? An acronym of steps used to analyze poetry. The results of TPCASTT can be used to write an essay.
The TPCASTT process is comprised of 7 steps which should be completed in the order given. How does TPCASTT work? The TPCASTT method is used to analyze poetry for some reason specified by the analyst. The analyst will: Observe Interpret Infer Analyze
Evaluate Step 1: Title Goal- Attempt to predict what the poem will be about Ponder the title before reading the poem. Questions to ask yourself: What predictions can I make about the poem
What feelings can I connect to the poems title? Write your response in a complete sentence Step 2: Paraphrase Goal- Translate the poem, line by line, into your own words. Paraphrase the literary meaning/plot of the poem. A true
understanding of the poem must evolve from comprehension or whats going on in the poem. Step 3: Connotation Goal- Contemplate the poem for meaning beyond the literal meaning. In poetry, connotation indicates that analyst should examine any and all poetic devices, focusing on how such devices contribute to the meaning, the effect, or both of a poem. Consider imagery, figurative language, symbolism, diction, point
of view, and sound devices You will link these considerations to the overall meaning. Step 4: Attitude Goal- Observe both the speakers and the poets attitude Having examined the poems devices and clues closely, now explore the multiple attitudes that may be present in the poem.
Here you will describe the tone of the author and/or speaker. Recall how this is done Step 5: Shifts Goal-Note shifts in the speakers attitudes or emotions. Rarely does a poet begin and end the poetic experience in the same place. Discovery of a poets understanding of an experience
is critical to the understanding of the poem. Trace the feelings of the speaker from the beginning to the end, paying particular attention to the conclusion Look for the following to find shifts: 1. Key words (but, yet, however, although) 2. Punctuation (dashes, periods, colons, ellipsis) 3. Stanza division 4. Changes in line or stanza length or both 5. Irony (sometimes irony hides shifts) 6. Effect of structure on meaning
7. Changes in sound (rhyme) may indicate changes in meaning 8. Changes in diction (slang to formal language) Step 6: Title Goal-Examine the title again, this time on an interpretive level Questions to ask yourself:
Why is the title _____? What does this mean? Step 7: Theme Goal- Determine what the author is saying and wants me to learn and feel after reading the poem. Identify the theme by recognizing the human experience, motivation, or
condition suggested by the poem This step, within itself, has a system: 1) Summarize the plot 2) List the subject (s) of the poem (moving from literal subjects to abstract concepts such as war, death, discovery) 3) Determine what the poet is saying about each subject. Write a complete sentence, making a statement and point about the subject (s). Your turn!!!!
One of my favourite poems of all time is one by the famous poet Robert Frost entitled, The Road Not Taken The Road Not Taken By Robert Frost 18741963 Robert Frost Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood
And looked down one as far as I could To where it bent in the undergrowth; Then took the other, as just as fair, And having perhaps the better claim, Because it was grassy and wanted wear; Though as for that the passing there Had worn them really about the same, And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black. Oh, I kept the first for another day!
Yet knowing how way leads on to way, I doubted if I should ever come back. I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference. TP - CASTT
On a separate sheet of paper follow the TP CASTT outline using the poem The Road Not Taken lets see how you do! Choices Nikki Giovanni (1943if i cant do What i want to do then my job is to not do what i dont want to do its not the same thing but its the best i can
do ) if i cant have what i want then since i cant go
my job is to want where I need what ive got to go and be satisfied that at least there is something more
to want then i must go where the signs point though always understanding parallel movement isnt lateral
when i cant express what i really feel i practice feeling what i can express and none of it is equal i know but that is why mankind alone among the mammals learns to cry Choices
With what feeling does this poem leave you? The speaker in this poem wants to do and have many things. What has the speaker learned about the things she wants? Based on what the speaker has learned about choices, what kind of goals or expectations has she set? Does the speaker feel that making a compromise is a defeat? Explain. (think about: the speakers reaction to not getting what was wanted and the speakers evaluation of what was obtained.) Re read The Road Not Taken and Choices. Which of the speakers is happier about his or her choices in life?
(think about: the choices each speaker makes and the ends of each poem) Look at the differences in appearance how do they differ? What do you think is the significance of the layout of Choices? In poetry, sounds are most often repeated at the ends of lines in a distinct pattern called a RHYME SCHEME. Which lines rhyme in The Road Not Taken? Introduction to Poetry Characteristics of poems Concise- they are usually shorter than prose, so words must be carefully chosen and used. Express strong thoughts and emotions Are not bound by regular conventions of writing- punctuation, capitalization, indentation,
sentence structure, etc. Some types of poems have rules of structure- sonnet, limerick, ballad etc A paragraph in a poem is called a stanza Often rely on figurative language to communicate thoughts and emotions- figurative language is the contrast of literal language Often makes use of rhythm and rhyme Understanding Poetry READ SLOWLY Drift with the flow of the poets pace READ ALOUD Let the poet speak to you with the inflection
and tone of your own voice. Listen to yourself. READ KINDLY Try to get the words to rhyme, the meter to beat and the emotions to emerge. Read it in the way you would like that poet to read your work Understanding Poetry READ WITH AN OPEN MIND If you feel inclined to disagree with the poet, remember you have to understand exactly what you disagree with in order to refute it. Dont paddle upstream trying to get the poet to say what you would say or the way you would say it. Remember this poem has already
been written. You cant change it. If you disagree with it write your own poem! Remember you can appreciate the expression even when you disagree with the thought. REREAD. SEVERAL TIMES Be patient. Poetry and Music Poetry and music are normally not mentioned in the same sentence, with the exception of hip hop. The similarities between poetry and music are far greater than
observed by the general public and media. Some of the similarities are: 1. Rhyme/Rhythm 2. Expression 3. Emotion Poetry is about flow, rhythm, meaning and expression. Music expresses, flows, and shows just as much emotion as poetry does. Tupac Shakor
Listen to the song Changes by Tupac What is the meaning of this poem (song)? Why is his message in this song such a contrast to his life? Watch the Last 24 (youtube) Analysis of Poetry - Elements By asking yourself specific questions about a poem can help you understand it better. By asking these questions you are basically completing the initial steps in a literary analysis of a poem. WHO IS THE SPEAKER? the speaker can be a voice mediating a theme or it can be a specific person. When analyzing
poetry, it is also important to consider the speakers POINT OF VIEW WHAT IS THE SUBJECT? The subject is what the poem is about; there should be a clear difference from the theme. Ideally the subject is one word and can help establish the authors tone WHAT IS THE MOOD? The mood is the readers emotional response to the poem. It answers: What are my feeling/ emotions after reading? WHAT IS THE TONE? The tone is the attitude the author takes towards the subject or character (serious, humorous, ironic, satirical etc)
WHAT IS IMAGERY? Imagery is language that evokes the five senses; sight, sound, taste, touch and smell WHAT IS THE FORM OF THE POEM? The form pertains to the RHYTHM and RHYME i. RHYME: the pattern of words that contain similar sounds ii. RHYTHM: the movement of the poem or the pulse. The rhythm includes beats and accents and the most recognizable rhythm is IAMBIC PENTAMETER
WHAT IS THE THEME? The theme is the general insight or idea about life that the writer wishes to express. As well, it can often be stated in a simple sentence. Example: After reading this poem, I think the writer wants me to understand WHAT IS FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE? All literature contains figurative language (connotative language); it is the deeper meaning. Figurative language can be broken down into many sub-categories such as, speech, sound and repetition Types of Rhyme There are 5 basic types of rhyme:
1. Masculine Rhyme: the rhyming of a single accented syllable (park/dark) 2. Feminine Rhyme (double rhyme): rhyme in which the accented syllables in two words are followed by identical unaccented syllables (turtle/fertile or drifting/lifting) 3. Slant Rhyme (half rhyme, imperfect rhyme, near rhyme): the final sound is the same, but the preceding sound is different (mouth/truth, trees/rows, replied/said) 4. Internal Rhyme: the rhyming of two or more words within a single line of poetry (Edgar Allan Poes Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary 5. End Rhyme: rhyming occurring at the ends of lines A speak that would have been beneath my sight On any but a sheet so white
- Robert Frost Rhyme Scheme is a poets deliberate pattern of lines that rhyme with other lines in a poem or stanza. The rhyme scheme, or pattern, can be identified by giving end words that rhyme with each other the same lame. Twinkle, twinkle, little star, A How I wonder what you are.A Up above the world so high,B Like a diamond in the sky.
B Twinkle, twinkle, little star, A How I wonder what you are! A Each time you get to the end of the line, label the rhyme with a letter. By the time you finish the stanza or the poem, you will be able to identify the rhyme scheme. Poetry with no Rhyme Schemes
Free Verse Poetry Not all poetry contains a rhyme scheme. If a poem doesnt have a particular rhyme scheme pattern, it is probably written in free verse. Free verse poetry is free from having to conform to any particular pattern, rule, or convention. Blank Verse has a rhythm but no rhyme scheme Rhyme Schemes Alternating Couplets ABAB Rhyming Couplets - AABB
Figures of Speech Simile is a figure of speech that makes a connection between two unlike things by using like or as. Ex. My heart is like a rose. Ex. Don ate his salad like a vacuum cleaner. Ex. His arms were weak and felt like noodles. Standard Metaphor
is a figure of speech that makes a connection between two unlike things. Ex. My heart is a rose. Ex. The sun is a furnace. Ex. The smoke was cotton balls billowing from the chimney. Extended Metaphor is a metaphor extended over several lines, verses, or chapters. Ex. Writing this research paper is a grind. My brain is not operating. I am running out of steam. --- > Each sentence extends the metaphor that the mind is a machine. Ex. "All the world's a stage, and all the men and women merely players; They have
their exits and their entrances; And one man in his time plays many parts, His acts being seven ages. (Act II, Scene vii). As You Like It - William Shakespeare
Personification is a literary technique that attributes human qualities and characteristics to nonhuman objects. Ex. The stars danced playfully in the moonlit sky. Ex. She did not realize that opportunity was knocking at her door.
Ex. The bees played hide and seek with the flowers as they buzzed from one to another. Ex. The wind sang through the meadow. Ex. I could hear Hawaii calling my name.
Hyperbole is a comparison (like similes and metaphors) but is an extravagant and even ridiculous. The exaggeration is used for emphasis and to prove a point. Hyperboles are not meant to be taken literally. Ex. I am so hungry I could eat a horse. Ex. It was so cold I saw polar bears wearing jackets.
Ex. I had a ton of homework. Ex. I nearly died laughing. Ex. I tried a thousand times.
Apostrophe A particular kind of personification in which we address something non-human as if it were human or alive; it is usually capitalized The City was sick with disease. Oxymoron Is composed of a pair of neighbouring contradictory words
Biggie small Tiny giant Allusion is a reference to a famous person, place, or event. Ex. The gold medal winner was a Cinderella story. Ex. When she lost her job, she acted like a Scrooge, and refused to buy anything that wasnt necessary
Symbolism A person, place, object, event or action that represents a deeper meaning Figures of Sound Alliteration is the repetition of the same sounds of the same kind of sounds throughout the phrase. Ex. He helped her hurt head heal.
Ex. Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers. Ex. And the silken sad uncertain rustling of each purple curtain Ex. I have stood still and stopped the sound of feet.
Ex. As the wind will bend Idiom is a phrase or word that means something different than its literal definition. The word or phrase is meant to be understood figuratively rather than literally. An idiom is not slang because it is known by everyone not just by a certain group. However, idioms generally only make sense to the languages native speakers.
Ex. I can do that blind folded. Ex. Go out there and break a leg. Ex. Helen spilled the beans. Ex. It is raining cats and dogs outside. Ex. You better not chicken out. Onomatopoeia is the formation or use of words to imitate the sounds associated
with the objects or actions they refer to. Ex. Buzz, Murmur, Tick Tock, Zip, Beep, Boom, Yikes, Poof, Eek, choo-choo, hiss, sizzle, vroom, animal noises (moo, purr, quack), etc. Assonance Focuses on the repetition of vowel sounds I play in the bright light of the night I can draw a kite in this bright light Even though its the middle of the night
Consonance The repetition of consonant sounds that is not limited to the beginning of the words Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers Bring back the black backpack Figures of Repetition Repetition is when words other than and or an are repeated for effect. There are many types of repetition, but the following are the basics: ANAPHORA
The repetition of a word at the beginning of a clause, line or sentence EPIZEUXIS The emphatic repetition of a word with no other words in between Figurative Language Quiz Next class you will have a very brief quiz ( 33 marks) on figurative language. There will be 26 matching questions using definitions or examples of figurative language and one short answer question Home Street
Equator of my youth from which I explored every latitude both north and south I still gauge distance from your boulevards especially when I fear the man I have become has stayed too far from the boy who trembled there - Gary Hyland Every person, in every time, is rooted to some degree to past experiences and to a
particular place- a place considered home. This home has an impact on our lives. Home Street A metaphor is a comparison between two unlike objects, not using like or as Home Street is a metaphorical poem; thus the poet is making a comparison. What metaphor is he using throughout the poem? Recollections of Childhood
Starting Out Going back to the things we did as children can bring back some great memories. On a piece of paper, map some key recollections of your childhood using a word web. Consider the important places, experiences, and people of your childhood. My Hometown Bruce Springsteen In the following song/poem make not of the following: 1. Who is the speaker? (stanza 1) 2. What is the subject? (stanza 1) 3. What is the speakers tone? (stanza 1)
4. What is the overall mood? (stanza 2) 5. What images stand out in your mind? (stanza 3) 6. Identify figurative language and literary devices 7. What is the form? 8. What is the theme? MY HOMETOWN I was eight years old and running with a dime in my hand Into the bus stop to pick up a paper for my old man
I'd sit on his lap in that big old Buick and steer as we drove through town He'd tousle my hair and say son take a good look around this is your hometown This is your hometown This is your hometown This is your hometown In '65 tension was running high at my high school There was a lot of fights between the black and
white There was nothing you could do Two cars at a light on a Saturday night, in the back seat there was a gun Words were passed in a shotgun blast Troubled times had come, to my hometown My hometown My hometown My hometown Now Main Street's whitewashed windows and vacant stores
Seems like there ain't nobody wants to come down here no more They're closing down the textile mill across the railroad tracks Foreman says these jobs are going boys and they ain't coming back to your hometown Your hometown Your hometown Your hometown Last night me and Kate we laid in bed talking about getting out Packing up our bags maybe heading south
I'm thirty-five, we got a boy of our own now Last night I sat him up behind the wheel and said son take a good look around, this is your hometown (I Remember) Back Home Clifton Joseph Name five things that Joseph remembered from back home. As you listen to the poem, also write down the sources of happiness and oppression in
Josephs childhood. (I Remember) Back Home Clifton Joseph In the following song/poem make not of the following: 1.Who is the speaker? (stanza 1) 2.What is the subject? (stanza 1) 3.What is the speakers tone? (stanza 1) 4.What is the overall mood? (stanza 2) 5.What images stand out in your mind? (stanza 3)
6.Identify figurative language and literary devices 7.What is the form? 8.What is the theme? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MfU1cDi1hfQ Deeper Thinking 1. What do you think it would have been like to grow up where he did? 2. How do you think his childhood experiences affected him later in life?
3. What parts of home to you think he wants to get better? 4. What parts of your home or neighbourhood would you like to see get better? My Hometown by Bruce Springsteen & (I Remember) Back Home by Clifton Joseph Write down this definition for THEME: A broad idea or lesson that is conveyed by a work. The message may be about life, society, or human nature. Themes often explore timeless and universal ideas and may be implied rather than stated implicitly.
What is the theme of the two poems you read/heard? My Papas Waltz Theodore Roethke Theodore Roethke was an American poet. His childhood was plagued by the suicide of his uncle and the death of his father when Theodore was 15. Roethkes trials compelled him to explore his pain though poetry- it was through his tragedies that he discovered his creative life.
My Papas Waltz In your own words, paraphrase the poem To paraphrase is to restate more simply and clearly the thoughts or meaning of a passage My Papas Waltz By Theodore Roethke 19081963 The whiskey on your breath Could make a small boy dizzy; But I hung on like death:
Such waltzing was not easy. We romped until the pans Slid from the kitchen shelf; My mothers countenance Could not unfrown itself. The hand that held my wrist Was battered on one knuckle; At every step you missed My right ear scraped a buckle. You beat time on my head With a palm caked hard by dirt,
Then waltzed me off to bed Still clinging to your shirt. Warren Pryor - Alden Nowlan Alden Nowlan was born into rural poverty in Stanley, Nova Scotia His father, Gordon Freeman Nowlan, worked sporadically as a manual labourer. His mother, Grace Reese, was only 15 years of age when Nowlan was born, and she soon left the family, leaving Alden and her younger daughter Harriet, to the care of their paternal grandmother. The family discouraged education as a waste of time, and Nowlan left school after only four
grades. At the age of 14, he went to work in the village sawmill. At the age of 16, Nowlan discovered the regional library. Each weekend he would walk or hitchhike eighteen miles to the library to get books, and secretly began to educate himself. "I wrote (as I read) in secret." Nowlan remembered. "My father would as soon have seen me wear lipstick." His poetry focused on hardships of the every day person Warren Pryor - Alden Nowlan In the following song/poem make not of the following:
1. Who is the speaker? 2. What is the subject? 3. What is the speakers tone? 4. What is the overall mood? 5. What images stand out in your mind? 6. Identify figurative language and literary devices 7. What is the form? 8. What is the theme? Warren Pryor by Alden Nowlan
When every pencil meant a sacrifice his parents boarded him at school in town, slaving to free him from the stony fields, the meagre acreage that bore them down. They blushed with pride when, at his graduation, they watched him picking up the slender scroll, his passport from the years of brutal toil and lonely patience in a barren hole. When he went in the Bank their cups ran over. They marvelled how he wore a milk-white shirt work days and jeans on Sundays. He was saved
from their thistle-strewn farm and its red dirt. And he said nothing. Hard and serious like a young bear inside his teller's cage, his axe-hewn hands upon the paper bills aching with empty strength and throttled rage. We have read a little on the great Canadian poet Alden Nowlan. You will be completing an analysis on your own for Nowlans poem Warren Pryor. Read the poem from start to finish slowly in your head. Analyze, interpret and really think about what the author is trying to share with you! Underneath each line of the poem write what you believe
Nowlan is trying to communicate to you, the reader. This can be done in point form. However, please remember that you do not always use end punctuation when writing in short form. Follow all proper English grammar and spelling. NOTE: You can use the notes and examples you took in class. However, you cannot connect to the Internet during this time. Poetry Analysis - Warren Pryor Please complete the following assignment and hand it in next class.
Poetry unit exam On your exam you will have 1) Poetic terminology 2) Figurative language terminology 3) Poetry analysis you will be given a poem for which you need to analyze 4) Questions on poetic elements 5) A literary comparison between Papas Waltz and Warren Pryor using the 11sentence paragraph format
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