Personality Assessing Eysencks Personality Questionnaire Hans Eysenck believed that we can describe peoples personalities by classifying them along two scales: Introversionextraversion scale Stable-unstable scale The Big Five Many contemporary trait theorists believe personality can be
described using 5 traits: These traits are stable over time. Psychoanalysis Today Couch sitting Transference is likely to happen. The idea is to delve into your unconscious. Pull out Manifest Content. Then talk about the Latent Content.
Getting into the Unconscious Hypnosis Dream Interpretation Free Association (having them just randomly talk to themselvesand then interpreting the conversation). Projective Tests (and test that delves into the unconscious). Examples are TAT and Inkblot Tests. Objective Personality Tests:
Advantages Individual or groups (economical) Administration is simple/objective Scoring is simple/objective Interpretation of results requires less interpretative skill than projective tests Apparent increased objectivity and reliability Objective Personality Tests: Disadvantages Items limited to behavior Single overall score Transparent meaning of items Forced choice approach
Assessing Personality Most common way is selfreport inventories. MMPI- Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory Test must be Reliable- does it yield the same results over time. Valid- does it measure what it is supposed to measure. Be careful of the Barnum Effect!!! People have the tendency
to see themselves in vague, stock descriptions of personality. Horoscopes, astrologers and psychics all use this concept. Aries (March 21-April 19): Do some detective work so that you can better understand those you love. Figure out what the other person is going through. Only then will you find out how you can help. Taurus (April 20-May 20): In your midst, there's a person intent on the worst-case scenario. He or she is a valuable ally today. You'll find humor in the exaggeration, and your laughter is healing.
Gemini (May 21-June 21): Go out of your way to add elements of absurdity to your day. Your quality of life will be increased immeasurably. Cancer (June 22-July 22): A strength exaggerated becomes a weakness. But does a weakness exaggerated become a strength? Highlight a limitation and you'll find you're better off for having this flaw. Leo (July 23-Aug. 22): People pay attention when you walk into the room today. Make your exit with equal grace. Leave before they want you to and they'll want more. Virgo (Aug. 23-Sept. 22): Show up in person. You have more than your fair share of charisma today. Noting your winning presence, others will want to help you succeed. Libra (Sept. 23-Oct. 23): You have a talent for making relationships work. You're full of solutions, but it's important to know which problem is the most pressing. Pump the other person for information. Scorpio (Oct. 24-Nov. 21): There is a fine line between sharing and over-sharing. Give others the sense of who you are. But do it briefly.
Sagittarius (Nov. 22-Dec. 21): Relating to others has very little to do with what or who you know. Most people are thinking about themselves and what you can do for them. If you make them feel good about themselves, they'll like you. Capricorn (Dec. 22-Jan. 19): You're in danger of being too thrifty. Show some disregard for the rules of frugal finance. As you spend, you'll widen the channel for greater earning. Aquarius (Jan. 20-Feb. 18): It would benefit you to get involved in a group effort. There is much you could contribute, and you have much to gain. You'll ask excellent questions and learn all you need to know to fit in nicely. Pisces (Feb. 19-March 20): You will be certain of your course. But that alone will not be enough to make it go the way you want. Whatever happens, don't complain or explain. Approaches to Test Construction: Content Validation
Defining all aspects of the construct Consulting experts about the constructs Having expert judges assess each potential item Perform psychometric analyses of items Content Validation: An Example Goal: Construct a test designed to measure attitudes toward school Answer true or false I enjoy getting up in the morning for school I like my teacher(s) I enjoy seeing my friends at school
I enjoy the subjects I learn about at school Approaches to Test Construction: Empirical Keying Create test items to measure on or more traits Administer test items to a criterion and control group Select items that distinguish between these two groups Content of the item is not considered important Empirical Keying: Minnesota Multiphasic Inventory (MMPI)
Developed in 1930s Starke Hathaway Ph.D. & J. Charnley McKinley, MD. Needed test to identify diagnosis Developed an item pool Identified a group of patients and nonpatients Resulting scale of 550 items (true/false/cannot say) MMPI Clinical Scales Scale # Scale Name
Meaning of High Score 1 Hypochochodriasis Concern about health 2 Depression Depression 3
8 Schizophrenia Disturbed thought 9 Hypomania Manic mood 10
Social Introversion Shy, social inept MMPI: Validity Scales ? (Cannot say) Unanswered items L (Lie) Faking good F (Infrequency) Faking bad K (Defensiveness) Defensiveness in admitting to problems Approaches to Test Construction: Factor
Analysis (Internal Consistency) Correlational technique used to determine whether a group of items are correlated with one another Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) Based on five factor model of personality (Neuroticism, Extraversion, Openness, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness) Name derived from initials of the first three traits Assesses all five traits Emphasizes assessment of normal personality style rather than
psychopathology Parallel forms Approaches to Test Construction: Construct Validity Combines aspects of content validity, empirical criterion keying and factor analytic approaches in developing assessment devises (Clark and Watson, 1995)
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