Periodic Trends PowerPoint - Atomic Size & Ionization Energy

Periodic Trends PowerPoint - Atomic Size & Ionization Energy

The Periodic Table!!!! 3.1 The Periodic Table History Organization Electron arrangement & valence energy level Dmitri Mendeleev 1834-1907; sequenced known elements in order of increasing atomic mass Elements with similar properties in same column.

Called Periodic Table because it highlighted the repeated (periodic) patterns of properties. Periodic Law Chemical & physical properties of the elements repeat in a regular, periodic pattern when arranged by atomic number This is the basis for the modern periodic table arranged by atomic number. The Modern Periodic Table Using the information in your data booklet,

complete the periodic table worksheet. Be sure to include a legend on your worksheet. Metalloids Alkali metals (not H) Alkaline earth metals Transition metals Halogens Noble gases Inner transition

IA G VIIA IIA G GG GG GG L G G G

G IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA L For more lessons, visit www.chalkbored.com Group Names: Two systems: Old & New Old: Roman numerals with either A or B New: Integers 1-18 from left to right

Group VA = Group 15 Alkali Metals: Group 1 Soft, light, reactive metals Alkaline Earth Metals: Group 2 Harder, denser, and stronger than alkali metals Transition Metals: Group 3-12 Form positive ions, reactive, make coloured

compounds Metalloids: On staircase between metals and non-metals Exhibits properties of both Halogens: Group 17; Reactive non-metals Electron deficient and readily share electrons with other elements Noble Gases: Group 18

Do not react chemically with other materials and cannot be absorbed Valence shell full The Periodic Table & Electrons Periodic trends are linked to the way electrons fill energy levels. Remember that for each proton there is one electron in an atom, therefore as the atomic number increases, so does the number of electrons. To understand trends, we use the BohrRutherford Model of the atom.

The Bohr-Rutherford Model Electrons in energy levels 2 in first level 8 in other levels What element is this? Sodium, Na Group Related Pattern: All the elements in a group have the same number of valence electrons. The old number system The roman numeral is the same as the number of valence electrons. The new system The last digit of the number is

the number of valence electrons. Period-Related Pattern Period Number = Number of Energy Levels 3.2 Physical Properties Ionization energy Electronegativity

Atomic Radii Ionic Radii Across period 3 & down group 1 & 17 More Trends Worksheet Ionization Energy: The energy required to remove one valence electron from an atom. Electronegativity: How strongly an atom attracts the electrons in a covalent bond Atomic Radius:The distance from the nucleus to the valence electron shell of an atom Ionic Radius: The distance from the nucleus

to the valence electron shell of an ion Ionization energy vs. atomic number He 2500 Ionization energy (kJ/mol) Ne 2000 Ar

F 1500 N H Cl C

Be 1000 O P S B 500 Mg Si Al

Li Ca Na K 0 0 2

4 6 8 10 12 Element 14

16 18 20 Ionization Energy Trend Electronegativity Trend Atomic radius vs. atomic number 250

Atomic Radius (pm) K 200 Na Li 150 Mg

Al Si Be 100 B C N O F 50 H 0

0 Ca P S Cl Ar Ne He 2

4 6 8 10 12 Element 14

16 18 20 Atomic Radius & Ionic Radius http://www.mhhe.com/physsci/chemistry/essentialch emistry/flash/atomic4.swf Ionic Radius Trend

3.3 Chemical Properties Group Properties: Alkali metals with water Alkali metals with halogens Halogens with water Halogens with halide ions

Oxides of period 3 properties Ionic vs. covalent bonding nature Basic vs. acidic nature Industrial processes Alkali metals with H2O M + H2O MOH + H2 Trend:Very reactive; increasing down group Observations: Highly exothermic heat & light Fizzing of hydrogen gas formed Video

Alkali Metals with Halogens M + X2 MX React in 1:1 ratio Halogens with H2O Reactivity decreases down group because electronegativity and oxidizing power decreases down group; electrons farther from nucleus and are shielded Halogens General Video Halogen and halide ions Higher Halogen displaces lower halogen from salt;

never other way around! Cl2 + I- Cl- + I2 Cl2 + Br- Cl- + Br2 Br2 + I- Br- + I2 Br2 + Cl- No rxn I2 + Cl- No rxn I2 + Br- No rxn Halogen and metal Make salts with halide ion Salts are usually white in colour and soluble in water creating colourless solutions Common insoluble halides: silver and lead

Things to Know: Ionic compound attraction of ions creates bond Covalent compound shared electrons create bond Polar Covalent a covalent bond where electrons are not shared equally creating positive and negative ends on the bond Acidic having a pH of less than 7; H+ Basic having a pH of more than 7; OH Oxides: Compounds containing at least one oxygen

atom Bonded with metal: ionic compound & basic Bonded with non-metal: polar covalent compound; polarity decreasing across period & acidic (increasing across period) **aluminum oxide is amphoteric reacts with acid and base** Oxide + H2O Reactions Na2O(s) + H2O(l) 2Na+(aq)+ 2OH-(aq) MgO + H2O Mg(OH)2 P4O10(s) + 6H2O(l) 4H+(aq) + 4H2PO4-(aq) SO3(s) + H2O H+(aq) + HSO4-(aq)

Another MgO rxn: MgO(s) + 2HCl(aq) Mg2+(aq) + 2Cl-(aq)

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