Pan-Indian Movement against Westward Expansion

Pan-Indian Movement against Westward Expansion

Build Up to the War of 1812 American History Pan-Indian Movement against Westward Expansion By 1805, two Shawnee leaders Tecumseh and his half-brother Tenskwatawa (aka The Prophet) built a pan-Indian alliance among Northwest and Southern Native-American groups. The pan-Indian movement rejected white culture, including the use of woven cloth,

individual ownership of land, and intermarriage with whites. The movement alarmed U.S. forces so much that by 1811, William Henry Harrison, governor of the Indiana territory, marched on the Cherokees and Creeks seeking Tecumseh. An Artists Illustration of Tecumseh The pan-Indian alliance supported the British during the War of 1812 but crumbled after the

death of Tecumseh in battle in October 1813. The way, the only way to stop this evil, is for the red men to unite in claiming a common and equal right in the land, as it was at first, and should be nowfor it was never divided, but belongs to us all. No tribe has the right to sell, even to each other, much less to strangers. Sell a country! Why not sell the air, the great sea, as well as the earth? Did not the Great Spirit make them all for the use of

his children? -Tecumseh Mounting U.S. Land Pressure on Native Americans, 1784-1812 Economic Warfare 1806. Britain declares goods going to Europe need British licenses.

France declares anyone abiding by Britains declaration will have their good confiscated. Great Britain begins taking American sailors for work in their navy through Impressment. Chesapeake Incident [1807] British vessel stops the Chesapeake (US) to look for British deserters. Chesapeake refuses, British open fire. 4 Americans impressed.

Jefferson passes the Embargo of 1807, halting commercial relations with Europe to avoid war. The War of 1812 American History The War of 1812 was largely a naval war fought on the Atlantic coast, in the Gulf of Mexico, and on the Great

Lakes The War of 1812: A Historical Overview Dates: 1812-1815 Catalysts: British impressments of U.S. sailors, the disruption of U.S. shipping and trade and the failure of U.S. neutrality during the Napoleonic Wars, British support of Native-American resistance to U.S. western expansion

Outcomes: Removal of British troops from Western Territories; Securing of the Canadian Boarders; Weakening of Democratic Republicans Hartford Convention (1814-15) A series of secret meetings of the New England states called by Mass. Federalists and held in Hartford, Connecticut from Dec. 1814 to Jan. 8 Opposed War on Economic Grounds and Southern (and Slaveholder) Domination of the Presidency Proposed 5 key amendments to the U.S.

Constitution Hartford Conventions Proposed Amendments 1) Prohibition of any trade embargo lasting over 60 days 2) Repeal of the 3/5th Compromise 3) Requirement of 2/3 Congressional majority for war declaration and the admission of a new state 4) Limitation of U.S. Presidency to one term

5) Requirement that each President be from a different state than his predecessor The Treaty of Ghent Signed on December 24, 1814 in Belgium Went into effect on February 18, 1815

Both sides agreed to release all prisoners of war and returned all captured lands to their opponent. Great Britain also agreed to return the several thousand freed slaves who had escaped to British lines during the war. However, GB ultimately refused and instead paid the U.S. the sum of their loss human property. The Battle of New Orleans Last major battle of the War of 1812 Took place on after the signing of the Treaty of Ghent

Southern forces under the command of Andrew Jackson successfully repelled an attack British forces with minimal losses to the U.S. and great losses to G.B. The victory brought Jackson into national prominence and soon into political scene. Andrew Jackson

Federalist actions in Hartford deemed treasonous.

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