OWNERSHIP OF INTELLECTUAL AND CREATIVE WORKS Presenter/Author: Primary Author: Francis Degnin Helen C. Harton Philosophy & Medical Ethics Professor of Psychology [email protected][email protected] What is Ethics? Why Should I Care? Ethos: (literally) Dwelling
Ethics is about HOW we dwell With one another With our world Even with ourselves Its about the entire range of human activities which define us. Aristotle: Ethics has a goal Human happiness/human flourishing
Physical Psychological Social Intellectual Spiritual Flourishing is complex And while both the content and the values of what makes on happy or allows one to flourish vary greatly, there are common and communal components.
Professional Ethics? By the very nature of being part of a profession, you are engaging in social interactions and a social contract with others. It is part of how we express and develop our intellectual faculties. For most, its part of how we make our living, so it has to do with the physical side of flourishing.
It even feeds our psychological well being, for example, our sense of self worth. For those who believe in a spiritual dimension, it usually serves some function there as well. Why Should I care about Intellectual Property? The rules of our professions have a direct impact on our lives and on the lives of others. If someone steals your intellectual property, that can effect your
reputation, professional advancement, livelihood, etc. If you steal someone else's intellectual property, in addition to the above, is discovered, it can ruin your reputation and livelihood. Lying about study methods or results can also result in false results, which can impact science, policy decisions, even the physical or psychological well being of others. Why do we care about proper attribution of ideas?
Its stealing Its lazy It doesnt make an original contribution It doesnt show understanding or processing It may be misleading to the readermaking the literature seem stronger or weaker than it is It may even be illegal (copyright infringement)
What is plagiarism? plagiarism is defined as the process of stealing or passing off as ones own the ideas or words of another, or presenting as ones own an idea or product which is derived from an existing source UNI Policies, Chapter 3, www.uni.edu/policies What are its consequences?
At a minimum, failing the paper Potentially being asked to leave your program and/or the university Legal consequences What products does it apply to?
Manuscripts submitted for publication Theses, dissertations, and research papers Conference presentations Papers or presentations for class Thesis, dissertation, and research proposals Take home tests Any other assignment or product Plagiarism of text Always use quotation marks and page
numbers for direct quotes Sometimes even using one word without quotation marks can be plagiarism! Dont just thesaurus a few new words or move things around Paraphrasing? Requires BOTH: Substantial modification of the sentence structure and language, with references and quotation marks where appropriate. Includes added material to fit [a]. new context and purpose. http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/QPA_paraphrase.html
Plagiarism of ideas Always give credit to others ideas If the idea for a project came from somewhere else (discussion section of another article, personal communication), cite that as well If youre collaborating, make ownership/ authorship clear early in the process (but leave room for changes)
How can I avoid plagiarism? Intention may not matter (guilt vs remedy) Dont just have strings of quotes Read, then pause before writing Make sure you understand what youve read Make notes on the article
Outline your article and then fill in Self-plagiarism Republishing a paper or just adding data Cutting a paper up and publishing small parts Re-using your old text Double-dipping (turning in parts of the same paper for more than one class/project)
Understand the Goals? Why is self plagiarism a problem? An editor may think that she/he is receiving an original work, when its just a reprint, minor edit, or a minor addition of data. You could be padding your resume in an inauthentic way. Using the same assignment for two classes means that youve not really done as much work or learning. Avoiding Self Plagiarism
Reusing data in a new way, or with substantial additions, may be acceptable. Reusing older material as part of a larger or different project is generally acceptable. Reprinting an article or case can also be acceptable. Even cutting up an article into smaller pieces CAN be acceptable. THE KEY IS TRANSPARENCY: Acknowledge the original source in which it was published. Get permission, if needed, from the previous publication or teacher. Make sure the new editor/teacher knows of the former
publication/paper. Other unethical writing practices Citing something you havent read or have only read the abstract of Citing secondary sources in such a way as to suggest youve also read the original or where you should have read the original.
Selective reporting of literature Selective reporting of method or results Submitting things without co-author approval Who owns the data/product? Professor? Student? Agency/Sponsor? Who should be an
author? Duke University Policies: An author should meet ALL of the following criteria: made a significant contribution to the conception and design of the project, or the analysis and interpretation of the data, or other substantial scholarly effort. participated in drafting, reviewing and/or revising the work. approved the final version for publication. Activities like data collection are not sufficient to warrant authorship. The order of authors should be consistent with the practices of ones discipline.
http://www.provost.duke.edu/pdfs/Authorship_guidelines.pdf When you have doubts or questions ASK! Look at guidelines in your discipline Resources will be posted with these Powerpoints Error on the side of attribution and transparency.
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