Nottinghamshire COPD and Asthma Guidelines Dr Esther Gladman GP Prescribing Lead, Medicines Management Nottingham City CCG Feb 2012 Where to find & other resources Google: Nottinghamshire Area Prescribing Committee
Medicines Traffic Light Classification List Shared Care Protocols Clinical Guidelines Formularies
Policies and Prescribing Position Statements E-healthscope www.patient.co.uk www.prodigy.nhs.uk (was CKS) e.g. from prodigy : What simple measures can I advise to manage breathlessness for people with end-stage COPD? Advise the person on the following simple measures to manage
breathlessness. Sitting in front of a fan or open window (or using a hand-held fan). Positioning For example, advise the person to sit or stand leaning forward (for example onto a table or the back of a chair) and supporting their weight with their arms and upper body. Pursed-lip breathing
Advise the person to inhale through the nose and then exhale slowly, for 4 6 seconds, through pursed lips. Other simple measures, not specific to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) but recommended in the section on Simple measures to help dyspnoea in the PRODIGY topic on Palliative cancer care - dyspnoea, may be useful for people with COPD.
Nottinghamshire COPD Guideline Key points Most effective interventions
Be aware other conditions Effective/cost effective prescribing Steroid dose, pneumonia & adverse Be aware side effects and adverse effects of meds Where can you make a difference? Most Effective Interventions 1. Stopping smoking is the only treatment
that slows the progression of COPD and is the most cost effective treatment in COPD. NNT 5 to prevent death at age 70 Motivational questioning, cost cigs & inhalers, Allen Carr, anxiety, dopamine,worsening of symptoms, dementia Most Effective Interventions: 2. Pulmonary Rehabilitation MRC dyspnoea score 3, 4, 5
or recent admission more breathless than contemporaries when walking or gets breathless on exertion & needs to rest NNT 2 to improve exercise tolerance by a clinically useful amount NNT 4 to stop readmission over 6/12 if given early after an exacerbation Most Effective Interventions
3. Self Management Plans NNT 10 to reduce admission in low risk patients NNT 3 to reduce admission in high risk patients (1 previous admission or LTOT or previous use of Prednisolone) NNT 5 for patient held emergency supply pack (prednisolone +/- antibiotic) to reduce admission
Beware diagnosis >40 years old Smoker or ex-smoker, non-smoking spouse of smoker or dusty occupation Spirometry FEV1 < 80% predicted and post bronchodilator FEV1/FVC ratio < 70% and typical symptoms NB FEV1 an increase of >400ml after bronchodilator suggests asthma not COPD
Consider CXR/FBC, ECG for alternative diagnoses or red flag symptoms such as haemoptysis Be aware: are symptoms in accord with severity of COPD? FEV1 Rapid decline? e.g. >200ml in 3 years, exacerbations/Excess sputum Re-assess for co-morbidity, treatment adherence, inhaler technique Consider bronchiectasis
check sputum for unusual organisms/Acid & Alcohol Fast bacilli ? Ca CXR,FBC,ECG NB 25 % will have IHD/ cardiac failure Effective/cost effective prescribing Stop smoking Optimise inhaler technique (e.g. spacers
with MDIs) Consider stopping new treatment if patient feels no improvement (4 weeks) longer may be needed for a reduction in exacerbations Consider stepping down/swopping Effective/cost effective prescribing LABA vs LAMA there is no significant difference re: reduction in exacerbation
or hospitalisation rates. Effective/cost effective prescribing There is no combination MDI licensed for COPD However if patient preference: Fostair 100/6 (2 puffs BD 29.32) or Seretide 125 + spacer (2puffs BD, 35) can be considered, which gives similar ICS dose to Accuhaler 500.
NB Seretide 250 MDI is not recommended Adverse effects of steroid High dose ICS (ie fluticasone 1000 mcg = Seretide 250) increases the risk of pneumonia, NNH = 47 ie. Beware those with frequent exacerbations Other steroid effects - Diab/thrush/cataracts Osteoporosis prophylaxis for patients having 4 courses of oral steroid within 12 months
Be aware side effects and adverse effects of meds Use tiotropium Spiriva Handihaler (18 mcg/ day) not Spiriva Respimat (mist device) All patients must be advised not to exceed the maximum daily dose All anticholinergics have some cardiovascular effect Fometerol and beta agonists also have effect
NBs Mucolytic only if troublesome phlegm: carbocisteine 750mg TDS (24.60) can be trialled for 4 weeks.
Stop if no effect. Drop to maintenance dose: 750mg BD if effective. Consider using in winter months only. Mucolytics do not prevent exacerbations Consider theophylline 3rd line: Uniphyllin 200mg BD (2.94) care with elderly & concomitant medications see BNF. Theophylline levels? NNT=33
NBs 25% will have co-morbidity e.g. IHD/cardiac failure. Beta blockers can be used in COPD Dose of emergency supply pack? Actions
Flu & pneumococcal vaccination Inhaler use/Medication /step Stop smoking advice /refer New Leaf Patient info/empowerment MRC dyspnoea score 3, 4 or 5/functional disability refer for pulmonary rehabilitation Self management plan and anticipatory
prescription pack Weight/diet/exercise. Little & often leaflets Oxygen Sat 92% - refer to chest clinic /oxygen assessment service Palliative Care Planning If end-stage COPD/cor pulmonale Nottinghamshire Adult Asthma Treatment Summary
Step up and down Use LABA and ICS in a combination inhaler Be aware of inhaler equivalent steroid doses Step 3a is addition of LABA not increase ICS too Twitchiness of asthma Same steroid risks as for COPD Pros & cons of SMART
Theophylline levels/interactions Step Consider stepping up if: 1. Using SABA 3 times a week or more 2. Symptoms 3 or > times x week 3. An exacerbation in the last 2 years
4. Waking due to symptoms one night a week Ensure adherence and inhaler technique Consider stepping down if : Asthma control has been good for 3 months on current therapy
N.B. Steroid dose reductions should be slow as patients deteriorate at different rates. Reduce by 25-50% & monitor Appropriate spacer/ Other devices? Peak flow meter? Step 3a
nb add LABA only Step 3b & c Step 3 alternative SMART Pros: opener & reliever, inc dose steroid when need it Cons: device, symptoms, side effects
Step 4 asthma nb this is where use of Seretide 250 MDI is appropriate nb Oral steroid - sometimes higher dose & shorter course than COPD Same steroid risks as for COPD Written Self-Management Plan/lifestyle/ house dust mite/patient beliefs/info Co-morbidity
Key points summary Step up and down Always give LABA and ICS in combination inhaler (unlike COPD) Step 3a is addition of LABA not increase ICS too Be aware potency of ICS Inhaler and equivalent steroid doses
1. 4b Relations, Implicitly Defined Functions, and Parametric Equations * * * Consider this problem: Does this equation describe a function??? No way, Jose!!! But, it does describe a mathematical relation… Definition: Relation In Math-Land, a relation is the general...
The audit team developed specific audit checklists (see attached) and will use standard auditing techniques such as <insert techniques, e.g., interviewing ANSP management personnel, observing operations, etc.> to conduct the audit. ... Pre Audit Activities ... Pre-Audit Briefing.pptx
Ground bounce . Increase in ground voltage. Incorrect operation of transistors. ... Test frequency chosen based on peak test power consumption. ... Speed-up scan clock when activity in scan chain is low or slow-down scan clock when activity in scan...
Sky Sky offer McAfee Internet Security suit, available free or for a small monthly charge dependent on your Broadband package. Parental Controls are included in this package, however all Sky Broadband customers can get McAfee Parental Controls on their own...
Working software is the primary measure of progress. Agile processes promote sustainable development. The sponsors, developers, and users should be able to maintain a constant pace indefinitely. 12 Principles behind the Agile Manifesto (3) Continuous attention to technical excellence and...
From the Dean's Office:- Provides an opportunity to apply classroom knowledge to a real problem.-Provides an opportunity to get significant hands-on experience.- Provides an opportunity to earn credits through dynamic involvement rather than traditional coursework.
American Heart Association Heart-Check Food Certification program criteria are based on sound science regarding healthy dietary recommendations, food categories, specific product ingredients and nutrient values, and are consistent with relevant government regulatory standards for making coronary heart disease claims.The Heart-Check...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!