8 The ABCs of Proprioception proprioception: the bodys
8 The ABCs of Proprioception proprioception: the bodys ability to transmit afferent information regarding position sense, to interpret the information, and to respond
consciously or unconsciously to stimulation through appropriate execution of posture and movement Basic Concepts of Proprioception Targeted after flexibility, strength, and endurance have improved
Involves agility, balance, and coordination Components of Proprioception proprioceptors: afferent nerves that receive and send impulses from stimuli within skin, muscle, joints, and
tendons to the central nervous system An individuals balance, agility, and coordination are determined by the reception, interpretation, and response that are initiated by proprioceptors. Proprioceptive Receptors
Cutaneous receptors Fast-adapting- responsible for vibration senses Slow-adapting I and II-sensory perception such as skin stretching Muscle and tendon receptors Muscle spindles GTOs
(continued) Proprioceptive Receptors Joint receptors Ligament receptors Collaboration of afferent receptors Central Nervous System
Proprioceptor Sites Spinal cord Brain stem Cerebral cortex balance: the bodys ability to maintain an equilibrium by controlling the bodys center of gravity over its base
of support Balance Necessary for static and dynamic activities Influenced by strength and by sensory input from CNS Sensory input
Vestibular system Oculomotor system Proprioceptor system Balance tests: Romberg, stork stand Feedback System for Coordination
coordination: the complex process by which a smooth pattern of activity is produced through a combination of muscles acting together with appropriate intensity and timing Coordination Accomplished through a complex
neural network Some muscles stimulated and others inhibited Timing and intensity of muscle response are key Strength and proper neural system function are necessary for coordination
Components of Coordination Activity perception Feedback Repetition Inhibition
Progression of Coordination Development Start with static, simple exercises. Progress to dynamic, more complex exercises. Accuracy of performance is vital in exercise execution.
Stop when fatigue, lack of coordination begin to appear. agility: the ability to control the direction of a body or its parts during rapid movement Agility
Requires flexibility, strength, power, speed, balance, and coordination Involves rapid change of direction and sudden stopping and starting Progression of therapeutic exercise for agility Activities should resemble the patients sport activities
Therapeutic Exercise for Proprioception Balance first, then coordination, then agility Simple to complex Initial exercises performed slowly, in controlled situations
Advancement made only after the activity is mastered Progression: to more complex, sportlike activities Goal: to perform accurately Lower-Extremity Progression Stork stands: with eyes open, closed;
on unstable surfaces; with distracting upper-extremity activity Dynamic activities: lateral, then change of direction; combined balance, coordination, agility; distracting upper-extremity activities Plyometrics Sport-specific activities
Upper-Extremity Progression Passive and active joint repositioning PNF rhythmic stabilization Closed kinetic chain stabilization Straight-plane and multiplane upperextremity movements Rubber tubing activities
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