ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The RYA thank the publishers of the

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The RYA thank the publishers of the

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT The RYA thank the publishers of the Macmillan Almanac and the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office for their kind permission to reprint some tables and diagrams contained in these slides. Slides compiled by Jan & Michael Collings of Longbow Sail Training and Alison Noice. COPYRIGHT The information contained in slides 29, 30, 31 and 79 of this product is reproduced with the permission of the Controller of Her Majestys Stationery Office and the United Kingdom Hydrographic Office. It may not be sold, either whole or in part, reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise without prior permission of the Crown. ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 1 RYA NATIONAL CRUISING SCHEME TEACHING SLIDES FOR THEORY COURSES ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998

Slide 2 RYA NATIONAL CRUISING SCHEME Competent Crew Day Skipper Coastal Skipper ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 3 RYA NATIONAL CRUISING SCHEME Competent Crew Day Skipper Theory Day Skipper

Coastal Skipper/Yachtmaster Offshore Theory Coastal Skipper Yachtmaster Ocean Theory ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 4 RYA NATIONAL CRUISING SCHEME Competent Crew Day Skipper Theory Day Skipper Coastal Skipper/Yachtmaster Offshore Theory

Coastal Skipper Coastal Skipper Exam Yachtmaster Offshore Exam Yachtmaster Ocean Theory Yachtmaster Ocean Exam ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 5 SAILS AND RIGGING Backstay Boom Forestay Inner Forestay Genoa Working Jib Mainsail

Storm Jib Head Cap Shroud Spreader Luff Leech Lower Shroud Tack ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Foot Clew Slide 6 SAILS AND RIGGING Wind Indicator

Topping Lift Reefing Cringle Batten Reefing Pennant Clew Outhaul Furling Drum Mainsheet Furling Line

ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Boom Kicking Strap Slide 7 POINTS OF SAIL STARBOARD TACK WIND In Stays (In Irons) PORT TACK Close Hauled (Beating) 45 Beam Reach

90 No Go Zone 45 Fine or Close Reach 90 Running by The Lee Broad Reach Dead Run ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 8 TYPES OF ROPE

Kevlar Polyester Polypropylene Nylon ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 9 SECURING TO A CLEAT ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 10 SECURING A COIL TO A CLEAT

ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 11 COILING A ROPE ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 12 KNOTS, BENDS & HITCHES Sheet Bend Double Sheet Bend Bowline ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998

Figure of Eight Slide 13 KNOTS, BENDS & HITCHES Clove Hitch Reef Knot Rolling Hitch Round Turn and 2 Half Hitches ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 14 MOTOR CRUISER

ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 15 CRUISING YACHT ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 16 ANCHOR TERMINOLOGY Eye for tripping line Fid (to secure stock) Shank Stock

Fluke Crown Shank ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 17 Fisherman & Can stow flat & Good on rock & Few moving parts & Poor power/weight ratio & Upstanding fluke can foul chain & Stock pin needs wire mousing Grapnel & Easily folded & Best in weed & Useful in small

& Poor power/weight ratio & Clumsy to handle & Can pinch fingers craft ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 18 CQR & Good power/weight ratio & Plough digs into most types of ground & Forged steel very strong & Difficult to stow & Can capsize (but usually resets) Danforth & Can stow flat & Good holding in soft ground

& Shingle can jam or trip & Not good on rock & Hard to break out of mud & Can catch fingers ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 19 Bruce & Excellent power/weight ratio & No moving parts to jam & Easy to break out & Difficult to stow except on bow roller & Not good on weedy or hard ground & Smaller sizes may not dig in easily Delta & Sets fast and digs deep & Excellent power/weight ratio & Does not capsize & Can self-launch/free-fall from bow roller & Difficult to stow except on bow roller

ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 20 ANCHORING Anchors in tandem Running Moor Strongest stream Heaviest anchor Scope Chain - 4 x depth Warp - 6 x depth ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 40

Slide 21 ANCHORING ! Be clear of Fairways Dangers Other anchored craft ! Depth Now LW HW ! Shelter Now Later ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 ! Tidal Stream Direction Speed Turn ! Wind

Direction Speed ! Can you get away? In a crisis At night ! Type of Holding Slide 22 MOORING ALONGSIDE Bow Ropes Back Spring Bow Shoreline Fore Spring Stern Rope Stern Shoreline

Fore spring stops the boat going forwards Back spring stops the boat going backwards ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 23 LATITUDE & LONGITUDE Northern Hemisphere Meridian x Latitude Latitude Equator Longitude Southern Hemisphere Longitude (from Greenwich)

ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 24 CHART PROJECTIONS Mercator Transverse Mercator Latitude N E W S Longitude Used for Large Scale charts where meridians appear parallel ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998

Slide 25 CHART PROJECTIONS Gnomonic Gnomonic Latitude Longitude ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 26 RHUMB LINE SAILING Gnomonic Projection Great Circle Rhumb Line

Great Circle Rhumb Line Mercator Projection ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 27 CHART DESCRIPTION ENGLAND - SOUTH COAST MANACLE POINT TO BOLT HEAD DEPTHS IN METRES SCALE 1:150,000 at Lat 50 00 Depths are in metres and are reduced to Chart Datum, which is approximately the level of Lowest Astronomical Tide. Heights are in metres. Underlined figures are drying heights above Chart Datum; all other heights are above Mean High Water Springs. Positions are referred to European Datum (1950). Navigational marks: IALA Maritime Buoyage System - Region A (Red to port). Projection: Mercator.

Sources: The origin, scale, date and limits of the hydrographic information used to compile the chart are shown in the Source Data diagram. ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 28 COMPASS ROSE ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 29 TIDAL DIAMONDS & DATUMS Tidal streams referred to HW at PLYMOUTH C ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998

5016.90 N 4 34.80 W Slide 30 TIDAL STREAM ATLAS 03,07 Thickness and length of arrow indicate rate of tidal stream 15,31 ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 31 Mean Range DOVER COMPUTATION OF RATES

TIDAL STREAM RATE (in tenths of a knot) 10 7m 20 30 40 50 60 70 6m Springs Springs 5m 4m Neaps

Neaps 3m 2m Tenths of a Knot 10 20 ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 30 40 50 60 70 Slide 32 HOURS RELATED TO HIGH WATER

HW - 2 hrs 0930 HW - 1 hrs 1030 HW - hr 1130 HW + hr 1230 HW + 1 hrs 1330 HW + 2 hrs 1430 HW - 2 HW - 1 1200

HW HW + 1 HW + 2 ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 33 DEAD RECKONING (DR) DR Deduced from Log and Compass Fix 0800 25.1M Distance T) + ( Run 6.2M

0 7 0 k rac T r e t a W ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 DR 0900 31.3M Slide 34 DEAD RECKONING (DR) DR Deduced from Log and Compass Fix 0800

25.1M Distance T) + ( Run 6.2M 0 07 k c ra T r e t a W DR 0900 31.3M Tidal Stream . Estimated Position (No leeway)

0900 31.3M ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 35 DEAD RECKONING (DR) DR Deduced from Log and Compass Fix 0800 25.1M Distance T) + Run 6.2M ( 0 7 0 k ac

r T er t a W Ground Track 090 (T) Distance Made Good 7.2M ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 DR 0900 31.3M Tidal Stream . Estimated Position (No leeway) 0900 31.3M Slide 36

LEEWAY Wind se r u Co (T 0 07 P t o )N d e t t lo Water Track 075(T) Course Plotted Leeway 5

Water Track = Heading + or - LEEWAY ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 37 ESTIMATED POSITION WITH LEEWAY Wind T) ( 070 5 ( T 5 7 0 ) Tidal Stream

090(T) ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 38 COURSE TO STEER (CTS) Tidal Stream 150(T) EP 0800 25.1M . ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Wind Ground Track Slide

39 COURSE TO STEER (CTS) Tidal Stream 150(T) EP 0800 25.1M . Wind Ground Track Tidal Stream ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 40 COURSE TO STEER (CTS) Tidal Stream

150(T) EP 0800 25.1M . Tidal Stream ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Wind Ground Track Wat k c a r er T Slide 41

COURSE TO STEER (CTS) Tidal Stream 150(T) EP 0800 25.1M . Tidal Stream ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Wind Ground Track Wat k c a r er T Slide

42 ESTIMATED TIME OF ARRIVAL (ETA) Tidal Stream 150 (T) 0800 25.1M Ground Track . Distance to Destination 4.4M Distance Capability in 1 Hour 5.1M Duration of Passage = 4.4 x 60min = 52min 5.1 ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 ETA = 0800 + 0052 = 0852 Slide 43

PLOTTING SYMBOLS 1600 DR (Dead reckoning) 1945 EP (Estimated position) Fix (Observed position) OR 2006 Position line OR 2117 2253 Transferred position line Range / Distance off Depth contour line Water track Ground track Tidal stream

ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 20 Slide 44 VARIATION Magnetic North True North T Easterly Variations M T M T Westerly

Variations Magnetic South ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 45 MAGNETIC BEARINGS BEARING Magnetic Bearing 071 Variation 8W True Bearing 063 ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Magnetic North

True North 8 5 5 63 71 Slide 46 MAGNETIC BEARINGS True North BEARING Magnetic Magnetic Bearing 071 North Variation 8 8W True Bearing

063 5 5 63 71 RELATIVE BEARING Boat's heading 305 (T) 55 W of N True Bearing 063 (T) Relative Bearing 118 to Starboard ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 47 DEVIATION ! Similar in application to variation ! Varies with boat's heading ! Need a current Deviation Chart for each fixed

compass on board ! Not used with handbearing compass (but need to check for gross errors) ! Need to swing compass annually and check deviation occasionally ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 48 EFFECT OF COMPASS DEVIATION N W E S N W N E

W S E S N W E S ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 49 COMPASS DEVIATION TABLE 000 6 West

4 2 0 East 2 4 045 090 135 180 225 270 315 360 ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 6 Ship's Head Compass (C) Deviation 000

022.5 045 067.5 090 112.5 135 157.5 180 202.5 225 247.5 270 292.5 315 337.5 360 4W 2W 0 2E 4E 5E 6E 5E 4E 2E 0

2W 4W 5W 6W 5W 4W Ship's Head Magnetic (M) 356 020.5 045 069.5 094 117.5 141 162.5 184 204.5 225 245.5 266 287.5 309 332.5 356 Slide

50 APPLYING CORRECTIONS True Direction apply Variation Magnetic Direction apply Deviation Compass Direction ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 51 MNEMONICS Error West - Compass Best Error East - Compass Least Cadbury's Dairy Milk Very Tasty + Exciting (- W) NB Order and sign of corrections are important ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide

52 DEVIATION CONVERSIONS Finding Course to Plot Finding Course to Steer 06 0 06 7 06 9 0 4 2 8 23 30 2 Compass Course Steered 240(C) Deviation (from table) 2 W Magnetic Course 238(M) Variation (from chart) 8 W

True Course (to plot on chart) 230(T) ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 True Course (from chart) Variation (from chart) Magnetic Course Deviation (from table) Compass Course to Steer 060(T) 9W 069(M) 2E 067(C) Slide 53 DEVIATION CHECK True Magnetic North North Transit bears: True Variation

Magnetic Compass DEVIATION 8 305 8W 313 308 5E N W E 305(T) S ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 54

POSITION AND POSITION LINES Position: 114(T) from L/H 5M OR 5255'N 0540'W Give Position FROM object 114(T) Take Fix TO object 294(T) Position Line 5255'N 540'W ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 55 POSITION FIXING

THE THREE POINT FIX Perfect fix ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Cocked hat Slide 56 POTENTIAL FIX INACCURACIES - 1 ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 57 POTENTIAL FIX INACCURACIES - 2

ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 58 TRANSITS Nearing transit ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 On transit Past transit Slide 59 FIX BY BEARING AND SOUNDING 20

Fix 20 1115 Log 1433 1115 Lighthouse bears 346(T) Depth 20 Metres ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 60 FIX BY TRANSFERRED POSITION LINE 1st Position Line +DR ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide

61 FIX BY TRANSFERRED POSITION LINE 1st Position Line Tidal Stream ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Wa ck a r T te r +DR Slide 62 FIX BY TRANSFERRED POSITION LINE

1st Position Line 2nd Position Line ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Tidal Stream Wa ck a r T te r +DR Slide 63 FIX BY TRANSFERRED POSITION LINE

1st Position Line Fix 2nd Position Line Tidal Stream Wa ck a r T te r +DR Transferred Position Line ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 64 FIX BY TRANSFERRED POSITION LINE

1st Position Line Tidal . Stream ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Wa ck a r T te r + DR Slide 65 FIX BY TRANSFERRED POSITION LINE 1st Position Line Tidal Stream

Wa ck a r T te r + DR 2nd Position Line ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 66 FIX BY TRANSFERRED POSITION LINE 1st Position Line RUNNING FIX Transferred Position Line

Tidal Fix. Stream ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Wa ck a r T te r + DR 2nd Position Line Slide 67 FIX BY DIPPING OR RISING LIGHT Eye Level 2 metres Geographical Range

Height of light 20m Loom of light well below horizon ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 68 FIX BY DIPPING OR RISING LIGHT Eye Level 2 metres Geographical Range Loom of light well below horizon ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998

Height of light 20m Light just below horizon Slide 69 FIX BY DIPPING OR RISING LIGHT Eye Level 2 metres Geographical Range Loom of light well below horizon ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Light just below horizon Height of

light 20m Light breaks horizon (Rising Distance) Slide 70 DIPPING DISTANCE TABLE Height of light metres 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Height of Eye metres 1

2 3 4 5 3 7 10 13 16 46 53 59 8.7 9.3 9.9 10.4 10.9

9.5 10.1 10.7 11.2 11.7 10.2 10.8 11.4 11.9 12.4 10.8 11.4 12.0 12.5 13.0 11.3 11.9 12.5 13.0 13.5 66 72

11.4 11.9 12.2 12.7 12.9 13.4 13.5 14.0 14.0 14.5 feet feet 33 39 ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 71

TIDES Earth ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Sun Slide 72 TIDES Springs Earth Full Moon ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 New Moon

Sun Springs Slide 73 TIDES Last Quarter Neaps Earth Sun Neaps First Quarter ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 74 TIDE TABLE

ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 75 TIDAL HEIGHTS - DEFINITIONS Sea Level Rise Low Water Chart Datum Height of tide ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Charted Depth Depth Drying Height

Slide 76 TIDAL HEIGHTS - DEFINITIONS MHWN Neap Range Rise Chart Datum ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Depth Height of tide Charted Depth MLWN Drying Height Slide

77 TIDAL HEIGHTS - DEFINITIONS Charted Height of light MHWS Rise MLWS Chart Datum Height of tide Depth Spring Range Drying Height ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 78

TIDAL CURVE 2 0 4 6 8 MHWS MHWN MEAN RANGES 0.9 Springs 5.8m Neaps 3.6m 0.8 0.7 Springs occur 2 days after New and Full Moon

0.6 0.4 Factor 0.5 0.3 0.2 MLWN MLWS 0 2 0.1 4 6 ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 LW -4h -3h -2h -1h HW +1h +2h +3h +4h +5h +6h +7hLW

Slide 79 RULE OF TWELFTHS 1st hour 1/12 2nd hour 2/12 3rd hour 3/12 4th hour 3/12 5th hour 2/12 6th hour 1/12 HW +1h +2h ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 +3h +4h +5h

LW Slide 80 SECONDARY PORTS National Standard Port DOVER Standard Port examples Portsmouth Plymouth (Devonport) Secondary port examples Fowey Torquay DOVER Portsmouth Fowey Torquay Plymouth d o o l F Tide

ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Differences on Plymouth HW Fowey = Plymouth minus 15mins Torquay = Plymouth plus 45mins Slide 81 SECONDARY PORTS - TIMES & HEIGHTS Standard Port PLYMOUTH Times High Water Low Water 0000 0600 0000 0600 1200 1800 1200 1800 Differences FOWEY - 0010 - 0015 - 0010 - 0005 Heights in Metres MHWS MHWN MLWN MLWS 5.5 4.4

2.2 0.8 - 0.1 Standard Port PLYMOUTH Times High Water Low Water 0100 0600 0100 0600 1300 1800 1300 1800 Differences TORQUAY + 0025 + 0045 + 0010 0000 ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 - 0.1 - 0.2 - 0.2 Heights in Metres

MHWS 5.5 MHWN 4.4 MLWN 2.2 MLWS 0.8 - 0.6 - 0.7 - 0.2 - 0.1 Slide 82 INTERPRETING THE 'DIFFERENCES BLOCK' Standard Port PLYMOUTH Times High Water

Low Water 0100 0600 0100 0600 1300 1800 1300 1800 Differences TORQUAY + 0025 + 0045 + 0010 0000 Heights in Metres MHWS 5.5 MHWN 4.4 MLWN 2.2 MLWS 0.8 - 0.6 - 0.7 - 0.2

- 0.1 Time 0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 Diff ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 83 INTERPRETING THE 'DIFFERENCES BLOCK' Standard Port PLYMOUTH Times High Water Low Water 0100 0600 0100 0600 1300 1800 1300 1800 Differences TORQUAY + 0025 + 0045 + 0010 0000 Heights in Metres MHWS

5.5 MHWN 4.4 MLWN 2.2 MLWS 0.8 - 0.6 - 0.7 - 0.2 - 0.1 Time 0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 Diff +25 +45 +25 ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998

Slide 84 INTERPRETING THE 'DIFFERENCES BLOCK' Standard Port PLYMOUTH Times High Water Low Water 0100 0600 0100 0600 1300 1800 1300 1800 Differences TORQUAY + 0025 + 0045 + 0010 0000 Heights in Metres MHWS 5.5 MHWN 4.4 MLWN 2.2 MLWS

0.8 - 0.6 - 0.7 - 0.2 - 0.1 Time 0100 0200 0300 0400 0500 0600 0700 0800 0900 1000 1100 1200 1300 Diff +25 +29 +33 +37 +41 +45 +42 +39 +36 +34 +31 +28 +25 ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 85 INTERPOLATION Torquay 30th May When is HW in the morning? Standard Port Plymouth (Devonport) Difference approx +35 mins

0500 0400 0300 HW 0320 UT HW Torquay 0355 0600 0200 0100 +0025 +0030 +0035 +0040 +0045 Time Differences (min) Torquay ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998

Slide 86 CARDINAL MARKS Continuous Flashing Shows direction of safe water 9 Flashes 2 Flashes 3 Flashes 6 Short + 1 Long ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 87

LATERAL AND OTHER BUOYAGE KEEP TO PORT OR STARBOARD Starboard Hand Any G except (2 + 1) Port Hand Any R except (2 + 1) Safe Water Iso, Occ, L Fl 10s or Mo(A) Direction of Buoyage Special Marks Yellow, any rhythm except used for white lights MARKS CAN BE BUOYS OR ON POSTS COLOUR DEFINES PURPOSE ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998

Slide 88 LATERAL AND OTHER BUOYAGE KEEP TO PORT OR STARBOARD Port Hand Any R except (2 + 1) Starboard Hand Any G except (2 + 1) MARKS CAN BE BUOYS OR ON POSTS COLOUR DEFINES PURPOSE Safe Water Iso, Occ, L Fl 10s or Mo(A) Special Marks Yellow, rhythm not used for white lights Direction of Buoyage Preferred Channel to Stbd Fl (2 + 1)R

ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Preferred Channel to Port Fl (2 + 1)G Slide 89 COURSE SHAPING - WIND STRATEGY Wind Cherbourg to Salcombe Port or Starboard Tack? Tack on Tide Change This maximises relative wind Known as Lee-bowing ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Tide Slide 90

COURSE SHAPING PORT ENTRY - CROSS TIDE Course to be made good Tide Get on any natural transit and steer into tide to stay on it ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 91 COURSE SHAPING PORT ENTRY - CROSS TIDE Course to be made good Tide When close enough to see, transfer to more appropriate transit until out of tide

ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 92 STRATEGY ON APPROACH TO HARBOUR Wind Tack when approx. 15 either side of track to destination If wind shifts, you are never far off course ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 93 Keep lights in line on 192(T) for transit

ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 192 (T) LEADING LINES Slide 94 215 ( As seen Leading Lights in line 215(T) Spi re and con e

Ldg L ts As charted T) in li ne 2 10 (T ) LEADING LINES AND LIGHTS Spire and Cone in line 210(T) + ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 95 Keep buoy on 228(T) until leading lights

are in transit ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 192 (T) BEARINGS (T 8 2 2 ) Slide 96 CLEARING BEARINGS No greater than 190(T) No less than 162(T)

+ + + + + + Beacon Tower ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 97 PASSAGE PLANNING ! Define objective ! Constraints on operation Crew, time available etc ! Assemble navigation equipment

Charts, Pilots, Tide Tables and Tidal Stream Atlases ! Plan provisions (including emergency stock) ! Personal kit ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 98 PASSAGE PLANNING ! Constraints on departure - locks, sills? If so - departure time is set within these limits Plan FORWARD ! Constraints on arrival - locks, sills? If so - arrival time is set between these limits Plan BACKWARDS ! Passage constraints - races, strong tides? If so - transit time is set by the phenomenon ! If more than one constraint

Plan waiting period when appropriate ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 99 PASSAGE PLANNING ! Calculate distance and expected passage time Calculate times between waypoints for high speed navigation ! Plan for departure/arrival by day/night ! Plan for optimum use of tide ! Plan waypoints ! Is fuel capacity adequate for passage? If not, plan refuelling stops ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 100

PASSAGE PLANNING ! Determine possible visual aids on the route By day - buoys, headlands etc. By night - lights, glow from towns etc. ! Prepare pilotage notes for departure, entry and ports of refuge ! Listen to forecasts over several days to determine possible wind directions and sea states ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 101 PASSAGE PLAN SALCOMBE TO DARTMOUTH ! Departure constraints? Bar especially at Spring Ebb & strong onshore winds ! Arrival constraints?

None - but difficult in strong SE to SW winds ! Transit constraints? None, but avoid overfalls off Start Point and drying area on Skerries Bank ! Distance 19 miles, approx.. 4 hours @ 5 kn. / 2 hours @ 10 kn. ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 102 PASSAGE PLAN SALCOMBE TO DARTMOUTH ! Departure Local HW 4 hrs - Take advantage of tidal streams ! Plan waypoints Salcombe Bar South of Prawle Point Overfalls off Start Point 2 Miles W of Skerries Point LH Dartmouth Entrance ! Visual aids Start Point LH, Skerries Point LH Port Hand Mark NW of Skerries Bank

Churches and Masts on Shore ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 103 PASSAGE PLAN SALCOMBE TO DARTMOUTH ! Ports of refuge Anchorage N of Start Point for SW Winds (Avoid overfalls and Skerries Bank) Anchorage in Holcombe Bay for NW to NE winds ! Crew considerations Clothing Experience Food/drinks en route MOB Drill ! Weather information Before start and under way ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998

Slide 104 PASSAGE PLAN PLYMOUTH TO GUERNSEY ! Departure constraints None - but beware of Naval activities and ferries Care in strong South and West winds Take departure from Eddystone Rock LH ! Arrival constraints? Sill (Entry/exit up to 2 hours local HW) ! Transit constraints? Shipping Lanes (Not Separation Scheme) Through Race of Alderney, Swinge or via Casquets? Through Little or Big Russel Channels or West of Guernsey? ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 105 PASSAGE PLAN PLYMOUTH TO GUERNSEY

! Distance 58 Miles Approx 12 hours @ 5 knots 3 hours @ 20 knots ! Departure Time departure to arrive at Race of Alderney at appropriate time ! Visual aids Mast on Rame Head EC 'A' Buoy, Eddystone Rocks LH Quenard Pt LH, Cap de la Hague LH ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Platte Fougre LH, Bec du Nez LH Slide 106 PASSAGE PLAN PLYMOUTH TO GUERNSEY ! Plan waypoints Plymouth West Breakwater East of Eddystone Rocks LH Start and end of shipping lanes

Top of Race of Alderney West of Banc de la Schle Lower Heads South Cardinal ! Ports of refuge Cherbourg, Braye ! Weather information Before start and under way ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 107 PILOTAGE (Navigating Safely in Confined Waters) USE ALL SIGNPOSTS AVAILABLE Buoys & lights Charted landmarks Transits, clearing bearings Soundings etc. PRE-PLAN Use large scale charts Pilot books

Local knowledge As detailed as necessary for the task ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 108 PILOTAGE DETAIL NEEDED Start of pilotage Distance and Course to Steer to next mark Use 6 minute marks for high speed navigation Repeat until destination reached Use transits and clearing bearings to avoid hazards ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 109 LOG EXTRACT

ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 110 FUNDAMENTAL CAUSE OF 'WEATHER' Hot Air Rising Cold Air Falling Cold Air Falling Cold Air ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Cold Air Slide

111 SEA BREEZE - EARLY Returned air falls to cool sea Warm air rising off land creates LOW PRESSURE Cool Sea HIGH PRESSURE ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 112 SEA BREEZE - ESTABLISHED Returned air falls to cool sea

Clouds form as damp air off sea rises and condenses Warm air rising off land ir a p m a D Cool Sea ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 113 LAND BREEZE Cool air descends as land cools quickly

Air off warm sea surface rises Breeze blows from land to sea Land Cools ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 114 WORLD WIDE EFFECTS Cool area so Pressure is HIGH North Pole Warm area so Pressure is LOW Cool area so Pressure is

HIGH South Pole ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 115 WORLD WIDE EFFECTS High Low High Low High Low High ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide

116 ISOBARS 984 992 1000 1008 1016 Low Pressure ISOBARS CLOSE TOGETHER Steep pressure gradient Strong winds ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 1024 1032 High Pressure ISOBARS FAR APART

Gentle pressure gradient Light winds Slide 117 WIND ORIGINS NORTH POLE Polar Easterlies High Pressure Disturbed Westerlies North East Trades Equator South East Trades Horse Latitudes Doldrums Low Pressure

Horse Latitudes Disturbed High Pressure Westerlies Polar Easterlies SOUTH POLE ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 118 BUYS BALLOT'S LAW 992 1000 1008 1016 1024 1032 High Pressure

Low Pressure Buys Ballot's Law In the Northern Hemisphere, if you stand with your back to the wind, the LOW PRESSURE area is to your left ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 High Low Slide 119 EFFECT OF SURFACE FRICTION Gradient or 'Weather Map' Wind

30 Initial direction Backed wind (Anticlockwise) 15 Veered wind (Clockwise) Friction backs gradient wind by about 30 degrees over land and 15 degrees over sea ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 120 PRACTICAL EFFECT OF FRICTION Boat on starboard headed

Wind Aloft Boat on port frees 15 30 ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 121 COMBINED WIND EFFECTS Wind Aloft Land and Sea Winds Diverge Light Wind ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998

Strong Wind Sea and Land Winds Converge Slide 122 WIND EFFECTS ON WEATHER Polar Maritime Arctic Maritime Polar Continental Polar Maritime Tropical Maritime

ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Tropical Continental Slide 123 WIND EFFECTS ON WEATHER Cold & Damp Polar Maritime Arctic Maritime Polar Continental Cold & Wet Polar Maritime Dry Cold in Winter Hot in Summer Tropical

Maritime Warm and Wet ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Tropical Continental Slide 124 DEPRESSION - BIRTH STAGE ar l o P Leading edge of this cold air is called ns o

i Reg m o s r f c r i i A p d o l r T Co m o r f Ai r rm a W

The Polar Front Cold Air Warm Air ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 125 DEPRESSION - WAVE General Direction of Depression L Warm Front Cold Front

ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 126 DEPRESSION - CLASSIC STAGE Direction of Depression L Warm Front Cold Front Cooler ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Warm Sector

Cool Slide 127 DEPRESSION - MATURE STAGE L Secondary Depression Occluded Front Ridge L Cool Warm ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Cooler

W Cool Slide 128 FRONTAL SYSTEM General Direction of Depression L Cold Front F E ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 D C

B A Warm Front Slide 129 FRONTAL SYSTEM Cirro Alto Stratus Stratus Cumulonimbus Cumulus COLD AIR F Strato

Cumulus Heavy Rain WARM AIR Showers E ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 D Cirrus Nimbo Stratus Stratus Cumulus Fog C Rain B COOL AIR

A Slide 130 EFFECT OF MULTIPLE SYSTEMS 1) 3) L H H H 4) 2) High L Low Col

(Calm) L Low ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 High Slide 131 FOG Radiation Fog Clear nights with little wind Damp warm air radiates off as the ground cools at night Condensation takes place Fog forms first over valleys, water and damp vegetation

Ground cools Thickest around dawn when air temperature is at its lowest Heat from sun usually disperses this type of fog Ground cools ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 132 FOG Advection Fog Tropical Maritime - warm moist wind blowing over cold sea Air cools and water vapour condenses to form fog

Cool Sea Cool Sea ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Force 5/6 winds will lift the fog to form low stratus cloud Sun tends to thicken the fog by warming the air further Slide 133 WEATHER FORECAST SOURCES ! National Radio ! Local Radio ! TV ! Marine Call ! Internet ! Teletext ! Met Office

ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 ! Navtex ! Weatherfax/Fax ! Coastguard ! Press ! Coast Radio Station ! Look Slide 134 SHIPPING FORECAST CONTENTS ! Gale Warnings ! General Synopsis ! Sea Area Forecasts Wind Weather Visibility ! Coastal Station Reports Wind Significant Weather Visibility in miles or metres Pressure Tendency

ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 135 GENERAL SYNOPSIS AND TIMING ! General Synopsis Overall pattern of major systems ! Speed, direction and destination Slowly Steadily Rather rapidly Rapidly Very Rapidly 0 - 15 knots 15 - 25 knots 25 - 35 knots 35 - 45 knots 45+ knots ! Timing Imminent Soon

Later ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Within 6 hours of issue 6 - 12 hours 12 - 24 hours Slide 136 VISIBILITY CRITERIA Sea Good Moderate Land More than 5 miles 5 to 2 miles Poor 2 miles to 1100 yds

Fog Less than 1100 yds Dense fog Less than 50 yds Mist or Haze 1100 to 2200 yds ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Less than 200 yds 200 to 1100 yds Slide 137 PRESSURE AND TENDENCY Tendency = Change in 3 Hours Steady

Less than 1 mb Slowly Less than 3 mb Quickly 3.5 to 6mb Very Rapidly Rising More than 6 mb Higher Falling Lower ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 138 USE OF WEATHER FORECASTS ! Determine weather for the day

! Determine where the best shelter is: Imminently Soon Later ! Decide when to sail ! Decide whether it is prudent to: Sail Stay at anchor Run for shelter ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 139 ELECTRONIC NAVIGATION AIDS ! Position Latitude & Longitude Bearing and distance ! Course and speed over ground ! Bearing and distance to next Waypoint

! Cross track error ! ETA ! Waypoint entry ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 ! Sailplan / Routes ! Tracks between waypoints ! Satellites/transmitters available ! Transmitter selection ! Datum & Altitude selection ! Variation correction ! Position correction ! Battery voltage Slide 140 WAYPOINTS AND SAILPLAN Port of Refuge 7

Destination 3 Start 6 1 5 4 2 ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 141 WAYPOINTS AND SAILPLAN Port of Refuge 7

Destination 3 Start 6 1 5 4 2 ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 142 WAYPOINTS AND SAILPLAN Port of Refuge 7

Destination 3 Start 6 1 5 4 2 ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 143 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM !US Military system !Based on 24 satellites (21 operational) !10,900 mile high orbits !Planned 24 hour coverage !Position on a position sphere from one

satellite !3 Satellites give 3 dimension fix !Receiver corrects for 3 dimensional cocked hat !Receiver 1 millisecond out = 163 mile error ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 144 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 145 POSITION SPHERE ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998

Slide 146 GPS - FIX ERROR Position Spheres ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 147 GPS - POTENTIAL LIMITATIONS ! Selective Availability Random error is built into civilian signal 95% of fixes within 100m Can be corrected with Differential GPS ! Similar errors to visual fix when intersection much less than 60 degrees ! Shape of earth - need to use correct datum or can be as much as 150 metres in error

ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 148 VHF MAYDAY DISTRESS CALL MAYDAY, MAYDAY, MAYDAY, This is Yacht FAIRWIND, FAIRWIND,FAIRWIND DISTRESS MESSAGE Identity Position miles MAYDAY Yacht FAIRWIND Position is 025(T) from Braye Harbour, 7

Situation Struck submerged object, holed and sinking Assistance Needed I require immediate assistance Crew Six persons on board all with lifejackets Other Information minutes Preparing liferaft and will abandon in 10 Invitation to reply

Over ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 149 DISTRESS FLARES COASTAL INSHORE 7 miles from land 5 miles from land 2 red hand flares 2 orange smokes Visibility : WIND 2 parachute flares 2 red hand flares 2 orange smokes

Red hand held Parachute Orange smoke WIND OFFSHORE Over 7 miles from land 4 red parachute flares 4 red hand flares 2 buoyant orange smokes 7 miles on a clear night 28 miles on a clear night 3 miles in daylight WIND Fire downwind 15 for no cloud Up to 45 for low cloud ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998

Slide 150 HELICOPTER RESCUE & Communicate on VHF & Pilot will give exact course under sail or power (Usually wind on port bow) & Brief crew early as too noisy later & Weighted Hi-Line lowered & Earth in sea or on boat before handling DO NOT MAKE FAST

& Pull as directed - stow loosely in bucket & Let diver touch boat before you touch him Winch wire Beware of down draught Diver Hi-line DO AS YOU ARE TOLD ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 151

HEAVY WEATHER ! Decide what is heavy weather for you ! Preplan navigation ! Get ready below decks - stow gear and prepare food ! Shorten sail early and secure loose deck gear ! Rig jackstays ! Prepare the crew - good briefing and kit for foul weather ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 152 ACTIONS IF CAUGHT IN FOG ! ! ! !

! ! Fix or best EP on chart before entering fog Set radar reflector Navigation lights on Lifejackets on Liferaft ready for launching Engine on to maintain speed Turn off occasionally to listen ! ! ! ! Post lookouts Safe speed Horn Head for shallow water ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 153 FOG NAVIGATION

5 5 10 10 20 ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Plann ed Track - Go o d Visi bility 20 Slide 154

FOG NAVIGATION 5 5 o Po 10 is rV 10 i ib ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 k ac Tr

y lit 20 20 Slide 155 OFFSHORE FOG NAVIGATION 10 Objective 20 DR ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Circle of Uncertainty

Slide 156 OFFSHORE FOG NAVIGATION 10 Objective 20 DR ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Circle of Uncertainty Slide 157 OFFSHORE FOG NAVIGATION 10

Objective 20 DR ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Circle of Uncertainty Slide 158 FIRE PRECAUTIONS Fire Extinguishers Gas locker Site away from heat sources Drain overboard Automatic Engine Minimum of 2

Site inside hatches Dry Powder or AFFF Extra extinguisher in cockpit locker Fire blanket Hole in engine casing Woven glass fibre Extinguisher Use hand held extinguisher Use in galley or on people Cover fire with blanket CO2 or BCF/Halon Low melting point release capsule Care not to burn hands ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 159 SAFETY HARNESSES & LIFEJACKETS WEAR SAFETY HARNESS If the boat is reefed or would be if hard

on the wind If sighting & recovery of YOUR BODY would be difficult - at night, in fog etc. If about to abandon the vessel Harness lanyard Harness lanyard clipped to strongpoint clipped to jackstay allows crew to go in cockpit forward while secured WEAR A LIFEJACKET ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 For dinghy journeys, especially at night

In fog (due to risk of collision) If about to abandon the vessel Slide 160 LIFERAFTS - THE LAST RESORT Do Not Use the Liferaft Unless the Boat is Sinking or is on Fire 1. Crew dress in warm clothes, oilskins & lifejackets 2. Gather stores: Flares, Radio and EPIRB Water, Food, Torches etc. 3. Secure rafts static line to strongpoint 4. Throw raft overboard and pull static line to inflate 5. Strongest person into raft first 6. Rest of crew board quickly - do not rely on static line as it is designed to tear off raft under heavy load ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 161 LIFERAFTS - THE LAST RESORT ONCE IN THE RAFT

7. Cut static line with safety knife from raft 8. Stream the drogue to improve stability and reduce drift 9. Bale out excess water 10. Unplug light to save battery if daylight 11. Close canopy and post a lookout 12. All crew take anti- seasickness pills 13. Inflate double floor and tie in the pump 14. Keep up morale BELIEVE THAT YOU WILL SURVIVE ROYAL YACHTING ASSOCIATION 1998 Slide 162

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