wordsalive Wordsalive A Vocabulary Acquisition Program for Middle
wordsalive Wordsalive A Vocabulary Acquisition Program for Middle Schools A word is the skin of a living thing. Oliver Wendell Holmes wordsalive LETS BRAINSTORM What are the problems your students have when you introduce new material?
What are the ways in which you introduce new words to your students? How was vocabulary taught to you when you were a student? SIMULATION # 1 wordsalive Find a partner who teaches a different subject from the one you
teach. Using the methods you usually use with students, teach one word from your subject area to your partner. Trade roles so that your partner teaches you one word from his or her discipline. How do we really learn new words and make them our own? wordsalive Martha Rapp Haggard tells us that adults have a three step process. 1. Search for the words meaning and pronunciation. 2. Practice the word in a low risk situation. 3. Use the word properly without effort.
Vocabulary self-collection strategy: an active approach to word learning. (1982). Journal of Reading, 26.3, 203-207. What are the characteristics of good vocabulary instruction? Eileen Carr and Karen Wixson provide four guidelines for evaluating vocabulary instruction. wordsalive Students should: relate new vocabulary to background knowledge; develop elaborated word knowledge;
be actively involved in learning; and develop strategies for acquiring vocabulary independently. Guidelines for evaluating vocabulary instruction. (1986). Journal of Reading, 29.7, 558-595. wordsalive The purpose of the workshop is to provide the tools for all teachers to teach vocabulary meaningfully on a daily basis, via content area instruction, and in a way that extrapolates student learning. Is there a word in the purpose statement
which needs more instruction? Which one? ex tr a te po s la to provide the tools to teach vocabularyin a way that extrapolates student learning improves extends Wordsalive Map extend a curve or function beyond the range of known values using the values that
have already been determined confines Sketch as a personal clue, association, or visualization extra-beyond pol-polish ate- to make verb/Latin enhance, enrich or go beyond whats there polish extracurricula
r Eschers designs extrapolate a variety of shapes. Day and Night by M. C. Escher W R O D Parts of sentence(s) from the book which reveal the context Guessed definition
Synony m Wordsalive Map Dictionary Definition Antonym or nonexample Sketch as a personal clue, association, or visualization Paraphrased definition Etymolo gy and
P.O.S. Related Words Caption using the new word Wordsalive Map SIMULATION # 2 wordsalive Find a partner who teaches the
same subject as you do. Using the wordsalive map transparency, choose a familiar word from your subject area to map with your partner. Take a short break. Share and discuss. Why do we need to do all the parts of the Wordsalive Map? Baumann and Kameenui discuss three levels of word knowledge that can be used to consider depth of understanding and related instructional procedures. wordsalive 1. Association: with a single definition or context 2. Comprehension: broad understanding and ability to use, classify or identify the opposite 3. Generation: ability to produce a novel
response Research on vocabulary instruction: Ode to Voltaire. (1991). Handbook on Teaching the English Language Arts, 602-632. Baumann and Kameenuis three levels of word knowledge: an analogy wordsalive Association: shaking hands Comprehension: becoming friends Generation: calling on a friend when in need Copy the sentence Association
Why? wordsalive Facilitates decoding and provides direct interaction with the word. Focuses attention on the context clues and the content. How? Copy only as much of the context that supplies the essence of the meaning for the new word. Use selection and deselection of information.
Include the sentence before or after the new word, if necessary. Copy the sentence Association Copy only the essential context from the following sentences: wordsalive If Immanuel Kant had stumbled across this luncheon after his noon Beverly Hills shrink appointment, he would have quickly discerned that Lisa is all phenomena and no noumena, and that Mirabelle is all noumena and no phenomena. (p 32) Mirabelle is not sparkling tonight, because she works only in gears, and tonight she is in the wrong gear. Third gear is her scholarly, perspicacious, witty self; second gear is her happy, giddy, childish self; and first gear is her complaining, helpless, unmotivated self. Tonight she is
somewhere midshift... (p 63) But right now, he is using the hours with her as a portal to his own need for propinquity. (p 77) Martin, S. (2000). Shopgirl, Hyperion. Association wordsalive Record only the essential context into the speech bubble. All contexts are not created equal! Copy the sentence 1. Misdirective contexts which mislead the reader. wordsalive
2. Nondirective contexts which provide no assistance to the reader. 3. General contexts which provide only enough information for the reader to categorize the unknown word. 4. Directive contexts which lead the reader to the specific, correct meaning for a new word. Beck, McKeown, and McCaslin, Vocabulary Development: All contexts are not created equal. (1983). Elementary School Journal 177-181. All contexts are not created equal! wordsalive Misdirective Context Mr. Barry, ...this is just a courtesy call to do you the courtesy of interrupting your dinner so I can ask you a question. I hang up. But of course this does not stop them. they
call again. Thats how courteous they are. Dave Barry, Richmond Times-Dispatch November 12, 2000 All contexts are not created equal! wordsalive Nondirective Context There is a doggedness about [Charles] Wrights treatment of these things that becomes, as the poems pile up, somehow both humble and heroic. Ron Smith, Richmond Times-Dispatch November 12, 2000 All contexts are not created equal!
General Context Meat is contraband, the customs agent said as he confiscated the ham. wordsalive Jonathan Yardley, Richmond Times-Dispatch November 12, 2000 In him [Arthur Miller] the American theater found, perhaps for the first time, an eloquence and an amplitude of feeling Jere Real, Richmond Times-Dispatch November 12, 2000 All contexts are not created equal! wordsalive Directive Context On the other hand, the windblown deposits of mineral-rich dust and silt
called loess have benefited farmers in China, the American Midwest and other parts of the world. World Geography : Prentice Hall, page 51. Association Guess, copy and paraphrase the definition Why guess? To activate backgrou nd knowledg e. Why use the dictionary?
To link the word to the appropriate definition based on the context. Why paraphra se? To lead to the comprehe n-sion level. We learn more when we are self-involved. he ge m on y
se s te n it o ll a n o i t c u d b u s Guess and paraphrase the definition
a covering of a plane without overlaps or gaps using combinations of congruent figures preponderant influence or authority especially of one nation over others the process of the edge of one crustal plate descending below the edge of another The paraphrase begins the comprehension process. Comprehension Comprehension Synonym, antonym, etymology, and related words Related Words
Multiple opportunities for interaction with the new word will allow each student to find understanding in his unique way. Comprehension Find a synonym Why? Synonyms can provide a new label for a known concept. How? wordsalive
Synonyms should be consistent in part of speech; however, teachers should recognize students developmental stages as they move toward that consistency. Pull synonyms from the definition, context, prior knowledge, or etymology. Do not just copy one from a thesaurus. The Not Box Find an Polarity is located at the deepest and most abstract antonym Why? Comprehension level of the semantic network. (Powell, 1986)
Definition by contrast wordsalive How? Provide an opportunity to reinforce prefixes. (Hennings, 2000) negative Many words do not have antonyms, but a nonexample works well to establish polarity. (Frayer, 1969) Finding The Not Box antonyms Three types of antonyms
buy/sell wrap/unwrap Powell, Teaching vocabulary through opposition. Journal of Reading 29.7 617-621. Comprehension wordsalive cleave benign frolic arrange suitable
Create a synonym and antonym destination nourishment sufficient often prohibit Comprehension Etymology and Morphology Related Words
What is etymology? Etymology is the study of the history and structure of words. When we study etymology we learn the origins of words. Why? Comprehension Teach etymology Nearly 70% of multisyllabic words in English come from Greek and Latin roots. wordsalive
Roots and affixes link new words to background knowledge. Suffixes reveal the part of speech. How? Provide an opportunity to discover prefixes, suffixes and roots. Tell the stories of words. Etymology wordsalive The Structure and History of Words
An inflection: internal or external change in a word form which signifies some addition to or change in a word to denote a modification in meaning. A derivation: a tracing of the meaning and formation of a word to its origin. Etymology The Structure and History of Words wordsalive Inflections: secede, secession, succeed, success, intercede, intercession, precede, preceding, recede, receding, receded, exceed, proceed, procedure, precession, process, concede, concession... All of the cede words originated from the same Latin root meaning to go or to yield. wordsalive
Etymology The Vocabulary Etymology - etymos: true, actual, real logos: word, speech Inflections -flectare: to bend, turn Derivation - riva: stream Language - lingua: tongue, language Etymology Composition and Derivation of English Words Four Divisions: wordsalive 1.Primitive/Primary Words: words that cannot be resolved into simpler elements (man, horse, run) 2.Derivative Words: words which consist of significant parts which exist either separately or
in other combinations (man-ly, man-hood) 3.Compound Words: words consisting of two or more parts, each a significant word in itself (apple-tree, tea-spoon) 4.Hybrid Words: words with elements from different languages (gentleman, footsteps) Etymology The Vocabulary: wordsalive Affixes: Prefixes: intensify or negate enlarge, commingle, redo, misquote Suffixes - show part of speech or number dog/dogs internal/internally/intern/internist/ internalize/ internalization The Stories of Words
Etymology wordsalive Do you know where the word italics comes from? We use italics frequently, but do we know its origin? The name for the slanted form of type comes from Aldus Manutius, an Italian printer who published the first book with this kind of type in 1501. The book, a work by Virgil, was dedicated To Italy and subsequently, other printers, publishers, and writers began referring to the unique type as Italian and eventually in English, italics. The Word Origin Calendar, (2000, October 5) Accord Publishing. Etymology wordsalive Recent Journal Article
Learning clusters of words that share a common origin helps students understand content area material. Dorothy Grant Hennings Contextually relevant word study: Adolescent vocabulary development across the curriculum Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 44:3 November 2000 pages 268-279 Etymology wordsalive Date: Fri Jan 21 00:04:25 EST 2000 Subject: A.Word.A.Day--enormity Address: [email protected] Enormity (I-NOR-mi-tee) noun 1.The quality of passing all moral bounds; excessive wickedness or outrageousness. 2.A monstrous offense or evil; an outrage.
3.(Usage Problem) Great size; immensity. What is Morphology? Morphology is the study of the building blocks of words. A morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning into which a word can be broken. Comprehension Related words/ Word Families wordsalive
Why? For every word a child learns there are an average of one to three additional words(Baumann and Kameenui, 1991) Links new words to students background knowledge. Facilitates decoding through chunking. How? Find the root or the affix and use it in another word from the students repertoires. Comprehension Etymology and Morphology polygon
poly - many gon - angle Greek noun polytheism polyphony Related words antonym Word families synonym eponym anonymou s homonym synonymo us
anonymity contronym onym Related words Word families Build your own family of words. Related Words - Word Families wordsalive Build your own family of words. aud chron
graph phone photo port therm bi dict ject bio duce plex scribe vis,vid poly sect voc 99 syllables
wordsalive From Brain Food: games that make kids think by Paul Fleisher 1. Display a list of 99 syllables which have been generated ahead of time from a group of interesting words. 2. Allow participants 15 minutes to reassemble the words into the original list. 3. Read aloud in alphabetical order the original words with the number of syllables, and assign one point for each syllable reassembled correctly.
4. For an easier variation of the game, use a smaller number of syllables. 45 morphemes wordsalive a morphology game adapted from 99 syllables in Brain Food: games that make kids think by Paul Fleisher alpha cogn gener ize pol ant
com hens lab pol ar con ic logy pre ate de
ing morph re ation di intro multi rect ary duce ion non
s bet eme ity onym syl bul etymo ive para text
cod extra ize phrase voca 45 morphemes A morphology game adapted from 99 syllables in Brain Food: games that make kids think by Paul Fleisher wordsalive Answers alphabetize introduce antonym
generation vocabulary Decoding: Unlocking the pronunciation wordsalive Insurmountability Steps by chunking: 1. Start with the suffix(es). 2. Proceed to the prefix(es). 3. Tackle the root. 4. Slide it all together. In sur mount abil ity Will the Wordsalive Map move students to the deepest level of word knowledge ?
wordsalive 1. Baumann and Kameenuis three levels of word knowledge Association: with a single definition or context 2. Comprehension: broad understanding and ability to use, classify or identify the opposite 3. Generation: ability to produce a novel response According to Janis Harmon, moving from comprehension to generation takes time, effort, discussion, classification and usage. Help students pause and reflect before generating
novel responses. Postpone the last steps of the map until comprehension can develop. Generation Draw Why?a picture? A picture is worth a thousand words. A personal clue helps the student internalize a new word. How? Anything goes. We learn more when we are selfinvolved. Generation
Create the caption Why? Writing an original sentence helps the student internalize a new word. How? Use the word in any of its forms. We learn more when we are self- How do we select the vocabulary to teach to students? Michael Graves asks four important questions:
wordsalive 1.Is understanding the word important to understanding the selection in which it appears? 2.Are students able to use the context or structural analysis to discover the words meaning? 3.Can working with this word be useful in furthering students context, structural analysis, or dictionary skills? 4.How useful is this word outside of the reading selection being taught? A Vocabulary Program to Complement and Bolster a Middle-Grade Comprehension Program. (2000). Reading for Meaning 116-135. Does Wordsalive include all the characteristics of good vocabulary instruction? Eileen Carr and Karen Wixson provide four guidelines
for evaluating vocabulary instruction. wordsalive Students should: relate new vocabulary to background knowledge. develop elaborated word knowledge. be actively involved in learning. develop strategies for acquiring vocabulary independently.
Guidelines for evaluating vocabulary instruction (1986) Journal of Reading, 29.7, 558-595. Alternate Wordsalive Map WORD Parts of sentences(s) from the book which reveal the context Definitions Dictionary Guessed Synony m Antony m Sketch
Paraphrased Etymolo gy P.O.S. Related words Caption Alternate Wordsalive Map Alternate Wordsalive Map ac C s u
o n o h op pain into the deafening, paralyzing, horrifying divesuddenly right back in the middle of the buffeting layer of cacophonous flak... harsh, noise discordant sounds discordan t harmoniou s
caco harsh phonesound ous cacophon y phonics - lots of Greek, adj. The band room was full of cacophonous sounds as the members warmed up before the director arrived. Linear Wordsalive Map Word ______________________________ Sentence__________________________________________________________________ Guessed definition ________________________________________________________ Dictionary definition ______________________________________________________ Paraphrased definition ____________________________________________________
Synonym _______________ Antonym or non-example_________________________ Etymology and P.O.S. ____________________________ Related words _________________________________ Caption _____ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ Lets Revisit the Brainstorm wordsalive
Will the wordsalive map help your students learn new material? Will the wordsalive map complement your existing vocabulary methods? Is the wordsalive map an improvement over vocabulary instruction when you were a student? How will we measure success? wordsalive Pre and post vocabulary tests Teachers anecdotal records
Samples of student maps Wordsalive wordsalive A Vocabulary Acquisition Program for Middle Schools Vocabulary development is every teachers responsibility www.pen.k12.va.us wordsalive Implementation Plan SIMULATION #3 Find a new partner.
wordsalive Using a wordsalive map, choose a word from the list to map with your partner. Take a short break. Share, discuss, and ask questions. wordsalive Word list for mapping civilization convert beneficial
reproduce static vernacular satisfy villainous Created by Rebecca Count-Kahilla Montgomery County Public Schools Joyce Johnston Tazewell County Public Schools Catherine Rosenbaum Virginia Department of Education Dennis Wimer Henrico Distant Learning Network wordsalive Scholarly review by Janis Harmon University of Texas at San Antonio
Piloted by the faculty at Spratley Middle School in Hampton, Virginia
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