A kind reminder on distractions such as phone use, noise (see syllabus). Please allow fellow students to focus. E.G. please always turn off your cell phone or put it on vibrate mode for class GIS for environmental management Dr. William James Smith, Jr. Assistant Professor of Environmental Studies, UNLV Adjunct Assistant Professor in Geography, The University of Iowa
GIS FOR RENEWABLE ENERGY: A SIMPLE APPLICATION FROM WESTERN CHINA Renewables have varying, but important potential all over the world -- see geothermal potential below Advantages Disadvantages
Fairly high net energy Need access to sun Work on cloudy days
Sun access can be blocked Quick installation Low efficiency Easily expanded or moved
Need electricity storage system or backup No CO2 emissions Low environmental impact Last 2040 years Low land use
(if on roof) High land use (solar cell power plants) could disrupt desert areas High costs (but should be competitive in 515 years) DC current must
be converted to AC Like wind CASE STUDY: RENEWABLE OPTIONS FOR WESTERN CHINA THIS IS COMPLICATED SO ASK ME TO REPEAT IF THAT HELPS YOU!
Problem In some parts of Western China people live a mostly sustainable
agriculture existence. Out of the 60 million rural Chinese without electricity, one-fifth live in sparsely populated Western China. Many would benefit from merely a few hours of power a day so that their children can read, to reduce mortality of certain animals, etc. But, they live too far from major Chinese cities to attach to their power grids -- to do so would be a waste of energy, and they do not need that much power anyway, so why waste energy and make them pay for it in the name of progress?! Question
Are there renewable off-grid options for counties in W. China that can take into account: 1. What natural resources are available; 2. Income of people; 3. Desire for varying amounts of electricity; and 4. Uneven ability and willingness to pay? National Renwable Energy Laboratories Methods (THE BRIEF VERSION!!)
1. Develop a spreadsheet-based computer simulation model (Rural Renewable Energy Analysis and Design Tool, or RREAD) to evaluate energy and economic performance of PV, wind, and PV/wind hybrid systems VS. conventional or diesel generators in place (not including pollution generated); 2. To conduct the socio-economic assessment of renewable energy utilization in Inner Mongolia, Qinghai, and Xinjiang China vis--vis a questionnaire (531 rural households in 22 counties) and statistical techniques to apply the data to the wider region (regression models determine the potential market);
3. Mapped renewable energy potentialities; and 4. Based on the aforementioned considerations, and through our partnerships in China and in the U.S., offered policy suggestions 5. Implementation to follow. Levelized cost is different from annualized cost in a sense that levelized cost does not need to be annualized. For instance, the levelized cost of energy is total life-cycle cost (or total costs) divided by energy output or saved in year n (total energy output or saved). The life-cycle cost is more likely to be summation of the present values
of the all the costs (initial investment cost, O&M cost and fuel cost) incurred during the life time of an option (a simplified life-cycle cost). You could annualize both the life-cycle cost and energy output and then calculate the levelized cost. SYSTEMS COMPETE IN TERMS OF ENERGY PRODUCTION AND COSTS!! Economics, not just environment or energy needs, is a factor in local choices
Those graphs do NOT include unaccounted-for costs saved such as impacts on public health and reduction of some types of pollution One of 3 renewable options opped re The utilization of a common criterion to compare different technologies
Energy output Levelized cost = Lifecycle costs (e.g. initial investment costs, O & M, Fuel necessary during lifetime, etc.) (*This can be annualized by having the numbers above be per year.) Now, compare this energy output and cost to LOCAL peoples 1. Energy needs 2. Willingness to pay 3. Ability to pay (Discover this by going to the grassroots to survey directly.)
This, as opposed to simply selecting whatever produces the MOST energy, which means some communities may have to pay for energy that they do not need, or simply selecting the cheapest option and ignoring the desires of locals with the result being not enough power. Results A socially sensitive and environmentally responsible energy choice Levelized cost and system selection Outline indicates choice
Green = wind Blue = hybrid Red = solar Where the project is today: For more visit Center for Energy and Environmental Policy web site http://www.udel.edu/ceep/reportlist.htm#Off-Grid
National Renewable Energy Laboratory web site http://search.nrel.gov/query.html?qp=site%3Awww.nrel.gov+site%3Awww.sst.nrel.gov+site%3Arredc. nrel.gov+site%3Awww.afdc.doe.gov+site%3Awww.ctts.nrel.gov&qs=&qc=eren&ws=0&qm=0&st=1& nh=10&lk=1&rf=0&oq=&col=eren&qt=CEEP
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