rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Chapter 13 Equity Valuation / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Fundamental Stock Analysis: Models
of Equity Valuation Basic Types of Models Balance Sheet Models Dividend Discount Models Price/Earning Ratios Estimating Growth Rates and Opportunities / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Intrinsic Value and Market Price Intrinsic Value Self assigned Value Variety of models are used for estimation
Market Price Consensus value of all potential traders Trading Signal IV > MP Buy IV < MP Sell or Short Sell IV = MP Hold or Fairly Priced / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Dividend Discount Models: General Model Fourth Edition Dt Vo t
t 1 (1 k ) V0 = Value of Stock Dt = Dividend k = required return / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition No Growth Model D Vo k Stocks that have earnings and dividends that are expected to remain constant Preferred Stock
/ McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition No Growth Model: Example D Vo k E1 = D1 = $5.00 k = .15 V0 = $5.00 / .15 = $33.33 / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All
rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Constant Growth Model Do (1 g ) Vo k g g = constant perpetual growth rate / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus
Fourth Edition Constant Growth Model: Example Do (1 g ) Vo k g E1 = $5.00 b = 40% k = 15% (1-b) = 60% D1 = $3.00 g = 8% V0 = 3.00 / (.15 - .08) = $42.86 / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth
Edition Estimating Dividend Growth Rates g ROE b g = growth rate in dividends ROE = Return on Equity for the firm b = plowback or retention percentage rate (1- dividend payout percentage rate) / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 0 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Shifting Growth Rate Model T
t (1 g 1) DT (1 g 2 ) V o Do t T ( k g 2 )(1 k ) t 1 (1 k ) g1 = first growth rate g2 = second growth rate T = number of periods of growth at g1 / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 1 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus
Fourth Edition Shifting Growth Rate Model: Example D0 = $2.00 g1 = 20% g2 = 5% k = 15% D2 = 2.88 T=3 D1 = 2.40 D3 = 3.46 D4 = 3.63 V0 = D1/(1.15) + D2/(1.15)2 + D3/(1.15)3 + D4 / (.15 - .05) ( (1.15)3 V0 = 2.09 + 2.18 + 2.27 + 23.86 = $30.40 / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 2 rwin
Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Specified Holding Period Model D D V (1 k ) (1 k ) 1 0 2 1 P D ... (1 k ) N 2
N N PN = the expected sales price for the stock at time N N = the specified number of years the stock is expected to be held / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 3 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Partitioning Value: Growth and No Growth Components Fourth Edition E1
Vo PVGO k Do (1 g ) E 1 PVGO (k g) k PVGO = Present Value of Growth Opportunities E1 = Earnings Per Share for period 1 / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 4 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Partitioning Value: Example
ROE = 20% d = 60% b = 40% E1 = $5.00 D1 = $3.00 k = 15% g = .20 x .40 = .08 or 8% / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 5 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Partitioning Value: Example 3 Vo $42.86 (.15 .08) 5 NGVo $33.33 .15
PVGO $42.86 $33.33 $9.52 Vo = value with growth NGVo = no growth component value PVGO = Present Value of Growth Opportunities / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 6 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Price Earnings Ratios P/E Ratios are a function of two factors Required Rates of Return (k) Expected growth in Dividends Uses Relative valuation Extensive Use in industry
/ McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 7 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition P/E Ratio: No expected growth E1 P0 k P0 1 E1 k E1 - expected earnings for next year
E1 is equal to D1 under no growth k - required rate of return / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 8 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition P/E Ratio with Constant Growth D1 E 1(1 b) P0 k g k (b ROE ) P0 1 b
E 1 k (b ROE ) b = retention ration ROE = Return on Equity / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 9 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Numerical Example: No Growth E0 = $2.50 g=0 k = 12.5% P0 = D/k = $2.50/.125 = $20.00
PE = 1/k = 1/.125 = 8 / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 0 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Numerical Example with Growth b = 60% ROE = 15% (1-b) = 40% E1 = $2.50 (1 + (.6)(.15)) = $2.73 D1 = $2.73 (1-.6) = $1.09 k = 12.5% g = 9% P0 = 1.09/(.125-.09) = $31.14 PE = 31.14/2.73 = 11.4 PE = (1 - .60) / (.125 - .09) = 11.4 /
McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 1 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Chapter 10 Bond Prices and Yields / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 2 rwin
Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Bond Characteristics Face or par value Coupon rate Zero coupon bond Compounding and payments Accrued Interest Indenture / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 3 rwin Essentials of Investments
Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Provisions of Bonds / Secured or unsecured Call provision Convertible provision Put provision (putable bonds) Floating rate bonds Sinking funds McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 4
rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Default Risk and Ratings Rating companies Moodys Investor Service Standard & Poors Duff and Phelps Fitch Rating Categories Investment grade Speculative grade / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 5 rwin
Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Factors Used by Rating Companies / Coverage ratios Leverage ratios Liquidity ratios Profitability ratios Cash flow to debt McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 6 rwin
Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Bond Pricing T ParValue T C t PB T T (1r ) t 1 (1 r ) PB = Price of the bond Ct = interest or coupon payments
T = number of periods to maturity r = semi-annual discount rate or the semi-annual yield to maturity / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 7 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Solving for Price: 10-yr, 8% Coupon Bond, Face = $1,000 20 P B = 40 t =1 1
1 + 1000 t (1+.03) (1+.03) 20 PB = $1,148.77 Ct P T r / McGraw-Hill = 40 (SA) = 1000 = 20 periods = 3% (SA) 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 8 rwin Essentials of Investments
Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Bond Prices and Yields Prices and Yields (required rates of return) have an inverse relationship When yields get very high the value of the bond will be very low When yields approach zero, the value of the bond approaches the sum of the cash flows / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 9 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments
Fourth Edition Prices and Coupon Rates Price Yield / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 0 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Approximate Yield to Maturity YTM = (Avg. Income) / (Avg. Price) Avg. Income = Int. +(Par-Price) / Yrs to maturity Avg. Price = (Price + Par) / 2 Using the earlier example
Avg. Income = 80 + (1000-1149)/10 = 65.10 Avg. Price = (1000 + 1149)/2 = 1074.50 Approx. YTM = 65.10/1074.50 = .0606 or 6.06% Actual YTM = 6.00% / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 1 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Term Structure of Interest Rates Relationship between yields to maturity and maturity Yield curve - a graph of the yields on bonds relative to the number of years to maturity
Usually Treasury Bonds Have to be similar risk or other factors would be influencing yields / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 2 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Yield Curves Yields Upward Sloping Downward Sloping Maturity
/ McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 3 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Theories of Term Structure Expectations Liquidity Preference Upward bias over expectations Market Segmentation Preferred Habitat / McGraw-Hill
2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 4 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Chapter 11 Managing FixedIncome Investments / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 5 rwin Essentials of Investments
Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Managing Fixed Income Securities: Basic Strategies Active strategy Trade on interest rate predictions Trade on market inefficiencies Passive strategy Control risk Balance risk and return / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 6 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments
Fourth Edition Bond Pricing Relationships Inverse relationship between price and yield An increase in a bonds yield to maturity results in a smaller price decline than the gain associated with a decrease in yield Long-term bonds tend to be more price sensitive than short-term bonds / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 7 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition
Bond Pricing Relationships (cont.) As maturity increases, price sensitivity increases at a decreasing rate Price sensitivity is inversely related to a bonds coupon rate Price sensitivity is inversely related to the yield to maturity at which the bond is selling / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 8 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Duration A measure of the effective maturity of a bond The weighted average of the times until each payment is received,
with the weights proportional to the present value of the payment Duration is shorter than maturity for all bonds except zero coupon bonds Duration is equal to maturity for zero coupon bonds / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 9 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Duration: Calculation wt CF t (1 y ) t Price
T D t wt t 1 CFt Cash Flow for period t / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 0 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Duration Calculation 8% Time Bond years 1
80 72.727 .0765 .0765 2 80 66.116 .0690 .1392 3 1080 811.420 .8539 2.5617
950.263 1.0000 2.7774 Sum / Payment PV of CF Weight C1 X (10%) C4 McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 1 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition
Duration/Price Relationship Price change is proportional to duration and not to maturity P/P = -D x [(1+y) / (1+y) D* = modified duration D* = D / (1+y) P/P = - D* x y / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 2 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Uses of Duration Summary measure of length or effective maturity for a portfolio Immunization of interest rate risk
(passive management) Net worth immunization Target date immunization Measure of price sensitivity for changes in interest rate / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 3 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Chapter 16 Options Markets /
McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 4 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Option Terminology Buy - Long Sell - Short Call Put Key Elements Exercise or Strike Price Premium or Price
Maturity or Expiration / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 5 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Market and Exercise Price Relationships In the Money - exercise of the option would be profitable Call: market price>exercise price Put: exercise price>market price Out of the Money - exercise of the option would not be profitable Call: market price>exercise price Put: exercise price>market price
At the Money - exercise price and asset price are equal / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 6 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition American vs European Options American - the option can be exercised at any time before expiration or maturity European - the option can only be exercised on the expiration or maturity date / McGraw-Hill
2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 7 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Different Types of Options / Stock Options Index Options Futures Options Foreign Currency Options Interest Rate Options
McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 8 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Payoffs and Profits on Options at Expiration - Calls Notation Stock Price = ST Exercise Price = X Payoff to Call Holder (ST - X) if ST >X 0 if ST < X Profit to Call Holder Payoff - Purchase Price / McGraw-Hill
2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 9 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Payoffs and Profits on Options at Expiration - Calls Payoff to Call Writer - (ST - X) if ST >X 0 if ST < X Profit to Call Writer Payoff + Premium / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All
0 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Profit Profiles for Calls Profit Call Holder 0 Call Writer Stock Price / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 1 rwin
Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Payoffs and Profits at Expiration Puts Payoffs to Put Holder 0 if ST > X (X - ST) if ST < X Profit to Put Holder Payoff - Premium / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 2 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus
Fourth Edition Payoffs and Profits at Expiration Puts Payoffs to Put Writer 0 if ST > X -(X - ST) if ST < X Profits to Put Writer Payoff + Premium / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 3 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition
Profit Profiles for Puts Profits Put Writer 0 Put Holder Stock Price / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 4 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Equity, Options & Leveraged Equity Text Example
/ Investment Strategy Equity only Buy stock @ 80 100 shares $8,000 Options only Buy calls @ 10 800 options $8,000 Leveraged equity Buy calls @ 10 100 options Buy T-bills @ 2% Yield
$1,000 $7,000 McGraw-Hill Investment 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 5 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Equity, Options & Leveraged Equity Payoffs Microsoft Stock Price $75 $80 $100
All Stock $7,500 $8,000 $10,000 All Options $0 $0 $16,000 Lev Equity $7,140 $7,140 $9,140 / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All
6 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Equity, Options & Leveraged Equity Rates of Return Microsoft Stock Price $75 $80 $100 All Stock -6.25% 0% 25% All Options
-100% -100% 100% Lev Equity -10.75% -10.75% 14.25% / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 7 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus
Fourth Edition Put-Call Parity Relationship ST < X ST > X 0 ST - X Payoff for Call Owned Payoff for Put Written-( X -ST) Total Payoff / McGraw-Hill ST - X 0 ST - X 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 8
rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Payoff of Long Call & Short Put Payof f Combined = Leveraged Equity Long Call Stock Price Short Put / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 9 rwin
Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Arbitrage & Put Call Parity Since the payoff on a combination of a long call and a short put are equivalent to leveraged equity, the prices must be equal. C - P = S0 - X / (1 + rf)T If the prices are not equal arbitrage will be possible / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 0 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus
Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Put Call Parity - Disequilibrium Example Stock Price = 110 Call Price = 17 Put Price = 5 Risk Free = 10.25% Maturity = .5 yr X = 105 C - P > S0 - X / (1 + rf)T 17- 5 > 110 - (105/1.05) 12 > 10 Since the leveraged equity is less expensive, acquire the low cost alternative and sell the high cost alternative / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 1 rwin Essentials of Investments
Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Put-Call Parity Arbitrage / Position Immediate Cashflow Buy Stock -110 ST ST Borrow X/(1+r)T = 100 +100 -105
-105 Sell Call +17 0 Buy Put -5 Total 2 McGraw-Hill Cashflow in Six Months ST<105 ST> 105 105-ST 0 -(ST-105) 0 0
2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 2 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Option Strategies Protective Put Long Stock Long Put Covered Call Long Stock Short Call Straddle (Same Exercise Price) Long Call Long Put / McGraw-Hill
2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 3 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Option Strategies Spreads - A combination of two or more call options or put options on the same asset with differing exercise prices or times to expiration Vertical or money spread Same maturity Different exercise price Horizontal or time spread Different maturity dates / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All
4 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Chapter 17 Option Valuation / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 5 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments
Fourth Edition Option Values Intrinsic value - profit that could be made if the option was immediately exercised Call: stock price - exercise price Put: exercise price - stock price Time value - the difference between the option price and the intrinsic value / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 6 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth
Edition Time Value of Options: Call Option value Value of Call Intrinsic Value Time value X / McGraw-Hill Stock Price 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 7 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Factors Influencing Option Values:
Calls Factor Effect on value Stock price increases Exercise price decreases Volatility of stock price increases Time to expiration increases Interest rate increases Dividend Rate decreases / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 8 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth
Edition Black-Scholes Option Valuation Co = Soe-TN(d1) - Xe-rTN(d2) d1 = [ln(So/X) + (r + 2/2)T] / (T1/2) d2 = d1 - (T1/2) where Co = Current call option value. So = Current stock price N(d) = probability that a random draw from a normal dist. will be less than d. / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 9 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Black-Scholes Option Valuation
X = Exercise price. = Annual dividend yield of underlying stock e = 2.71828, the base of the nat. log. r = Risk-free interest rate (annualizes continuously compounded with the same maturity as the option. T = time to maturity of the option in years. ln = Natural log function Standard deviation of annualized cont. compounded rate of return on the stock / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 0 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Call Option Example So = 100
X = 95 r = .10 T = .25 (quarter) = .50 = 0 d1 = [ln(100/95)+(.10-0+(5 2/2))]/(5.251/2) = .43 d2 = .43 - ((5.251/2) = .18 / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 1 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Probabilities from Normal Dist.
N (.43) = .6664 Table 17.2 d N(d) .42 .6628 .43 .6664 Interpolation .44 .6700 / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 2 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Probabilities from Normal Dist.
N (.18) = .5714 Table 17.2 d N(d) .16 .5636 .18 .5714 .20 .5793 / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 3 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Call Option Value
Co = Soe-TN(d1) - Xe-rTN(d2) Co = 100 X .6664 - 95 e- .10 X .25 X .5714 Co = 13.70 Implied Volatility Using Black-Scholes and the actual price of the option, solve for volatility. Is the implied volatility consistent with the stock? / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 4 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Put Option Value: Black-Scholes P=Xe-rT [1-N(d2)] - S0e-T [1-N(d1)] Using the sample data P = $95e(-.10X.25)(1-.5714) - $100 (1-.6664)
P = $6.35 / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 5 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Put Option Valuation: Using Put-Call Parity P = C + PV (X) - So = C + Xe-rT - So Using the example data C = 13.70 X = 95 S = 100 r = .10 T = .25 P = 13.70 + 95 e -.10 X .25 - 100
P = 6.35 / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 6 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Using the Black-Scholes Formula Hedging: Hedge ratio or delta The number of stocks required to hedge against the price risk of holding one option Call = N (d1) Put = N (d1) - 1 Option Elasticity Percentage change in the options value given a 1% change in the value of the underlying stock
/ McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 7 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Portfolio Insurance - Protecting Against Declines in Stock Value Buying Puts - results in downside protection with unlimited upside potential Limitations Tracking errors if indexes are used for the puts Maturity of puts may be too short Hedge ratios or deltas change as stock values change /
McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 8 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Chapter 18 Futures Markets / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 9 rwin
Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Futures and Forwards Forward - an agreement calling for a future delivery of an asset at an agreed-upon price Futures - similar to forward but feature formalized and standardized characteristics Key difference in futures / Secondary trading - liquidity Marked to market Standardized contract units Clearinghouse warrants performance McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All
0 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Key Terms for Futures Contracts Futures price - agreed-upon price at maturity Long position - agree to purchase Short position - agree to sell Profits on positions at maturity Long = spot minus original futures price Short = original futures price minus spot / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 1
rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Types of Contracts Agricultural commodities Metals and minerals (including energy contracts) Foreign currencies Financial futures Interest rate futures Stock index futures / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 2 rwin Essentials of Investments
Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Trading Mechanics Clearinghouse - acts as a party to all buyers and sellers. Obligated to deliver or supply delivery Closing out positions Reversing the trade Take or make delivery Most trades are reversed and do not involve actual delivery / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 3 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments
Fourth Edition Margin and Trading Arrangements Initial Margin - funds deposited to provide capital to absorb losses Marking to Market - each day the profits or losses from the new futures price and reflected in the account. Maintenance or variance margin - an established value below which a traders margin may not fall. / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 4 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition
Margin and Trading Arrangements Margin call - when the maintenance margin is reached, broker will ask for additional margin funds Convergence of Price - as maturity approaches the spot and futures price converge Delivery - Actual commodity of a certain grade with a delivery location or for some contracts cash settlement / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 5 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Trading Strategies
Speculation short - believe price will fall long - believe price will rise Hedging long hedge - protecting against a rise in price short hedge - protecting against a fall in price / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 6 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Basis and Basis Risk Basis - the difference between the futures price and the spot price over time the basis will likely change and
will eventually converge Basis Risk - the variability in the basis that will affect profits and/or hedging performance / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 7 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Futures Pricing Spot-futures parity theorem - two ways to acquire an asset for some date in the future Purchase it now and store it Take a long position in futures
These two strategies must have the same market determined costs / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 8 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Parity Example Stock that pays no cash dividend no storage costs no seasonal patterns in prices Strategy 1: Buy the stock now and hold it until time T Strategy 2: Put funds aside today to perform on a futures contract for
delivery at time T that is acquired today / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 9 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Parity Example Outcomes Strategy A: Action Buy stock Strategy B: Action Long futures Initial flows Flows at T -So
ST Initial flows Flows at T 0 ST - F O Invest in Bill FO(1+rf)T - FO(1+rf)T / McGraw-Hill FO T McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 2001 The 0 rwin Essentials of Investments
Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Price of Futures with Parity Since the strategies have the same flows at time T FO / (1 + rf)T = SO FO = SO (1 + rf)T The futures price has to equal the carrying cost of the stock / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 1 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition
Chapter 9 The Efficient Market Hypothesis / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 2 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) Do security prices reflect information ? Why look at market efficiency Implications for business and corporate finance Implications for investment
/ McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 3 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Random Walk and the EMH Random Walk - stock prices are random Actually submartingale Expected price is positive over time Positive trend and random about the trend / McGraw-Hill
2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 4 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Security Prices Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Random Walk with Positive Trend Time / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 5 rwin
Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Random Price Changes Why are price changes random? Prices react to information Flow of information is random Therefore, price changes are random / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 6 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition
EMH and Competition Stock prices fully and accurately reflect publicly available information Once information becomes available, market participants analyze it Competition assures prices reflect information / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 7 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Forms of the EMH Weak Semi-strong
Strong / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 8 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Types of Stock Analysis Technical Analysis - using prices and volume information to predict future prices Weak form efficiency & technical analysis Fundamental Analysis - using economic and accounting information to predict stock prices Semi strong form efficiency & fundamental analysis
/ McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 9 rwin Essentials of Investments Bodie Kane Marcus Fourth Edition Implications of Efficiency for Active or Passive Management Active Management Security analysis Timing Passive Management Buy and Hold Index Funds /
McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All 00 rwin Bodie Kane Marcus Essentials of Investments Fourth Edition Market Efficiency and Portfolio Management Even if the market is efficient a role exists for portfolio management Appropriate risk level Tax considerations Other considerations / McGraw-Hill 2001 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All
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